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missiles  and  rockets 

MAGAZINE    OF    WORLD  ASTRONAUTICS 


ECIAL  SECTION 


M/R  ASTROLOG  —  an  easy-reference  status  report 
on  all  space  vehicles  and  missiles   25 


AN  AMbKICAIN  AVlAiiwrN  rusuwinw 


this  remarkable  new  television  system 
gi  ves  you  the  power  of  sight  where  human 
eyes  cannot  go.  It  can  be  directed  out- 
ward for  observation,  or  inward  to 
"watch"  internal  operation  from  a  range 
of  1,000  miles  line-of-?ight. 

Capable  of  operation  under  extreme 
environmental  conditions,  and  packaged 


this  rugged  Video  Telemetering  System 


for  use  under  conditions  requiring  limited 
space,  weight,  and  power,  the  Model  701 
includes  such  features  as:  transistorized 
circuitry,  525  line,  30-frame  fully  inter- 
laced picture,  crystal  controlled  EIA 
synch,  and  high  sensitivity. 

Weight  of  the  complete  unit  is  under 
nine  pounds.  Total  volume  is  less  than 


119  cubic  inches.  Its  critical-desijj 
requirements  are  typical  of  all  LEA 
products.  Each  can  be  modified  to  me 
many  different  requirements.  Tell  us  wh 
yours  are.  Contact  our  Marketir 
Branch,  Lockheed  Electronics  &  Avioni 
Division,  6201  E.  Randolph  St.,  L 
Angeles  22 . . .  OVerbrook  5-7070. 


Requirements  exist  for  staff  and  supervisory  engine: 


I       ED  ELECTRONICS  &  A) 


D 


Look  to  Lockheed  Jot  LEADership  in  Electron 


Circle   No.    1    on   Subscriber   Service  Card. 


Another  "First"  from  Goodyear  Aviation  Research 


THE  PROBLEM:  how  to  control  aviation  fuel  during  high-impact  conditions  so  that  instan- 
taneous vaporized  combustion  can  be  prevented. 

THE  GOODYEAR  ANSWER:  Safety  Cell,  a  high-strength,  low-weight  fuel  tank  made  of 
super-tough  rubberized  fabric.  Under  exhaustive  testing,  in  cooperation  with  the  Federal  Avia- 
tion Agency,  these  tanks  have  successfully  withstood  impacts  exceeding  30  G's— maximum  level 
of  human  tolerance.  This  means  that  the  danger  of  vaporized  combustion  at  impact  is  sub- 
stantially reduced.  Thus,  the  opportunity  for  survival  is  materially  increased.  A  number  of  these 
tanks  are  already  in  use. 

THE  SIGNIFICANCE:  personnel  and  property  protection  against  full  vapor  combustion 
far  beyond  any  type  previously  obtainable. 


More  information  on  Safety  Cell,  the  revolutionary  new  fuel  cell,  is  yours  for 
the  asking.  Simply  write  Goodyear,  Aviation  Products  Division,  Akron  16,  Ohio. 


AVIATION  PRODUCTS  BY  .gBB^Bm* 

GOOD#YEAR 


M 


Safety  Cell— T.  M.  Tne  Goodyear  Tire  it  Rubber  Company,"  Akron,  Ohio 


ORE  AIRCRAFT  LAND  ON  GOODYEAR  TIRES7 WHEELS  AND   BRAKES  THAN   ON  ANY  OTHER 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1 959 


Executive  Editor   Clarke  Newloi 

Managing  Editor  ....Donald  E.  Perr 


NEMS'CLARKE  is  recognized  as  the  world's 
foremost  designer  and  manufacturer  of  special 
purpose  receivers.  These  equipments,  used  for 
tracking  and  communication  for  missiles  and 
satellites,  have  been  installed  in  practically  every 
missile  test  facility  including  ship  and  airborne 
operations.  In  addition,  these  products  have 
wide  application  in  surveillance,  countermeasures, 
direction  finding  and  similar  specialized  military 
functions. 


1432  PHASE-LOCK  RECEIVER 

Tuning   Range    215  to  260mc 

Noise  Figure    less  than  8db 

Input  Impedance    50  ohms  nominal 

IF   Rejection    Greater  than  60db 

Image  Rejection    Greater  than  48db 

IF    30mc  First  IF.    5mc  Second  IF 

IF  Bandwidth — Wide  Band:  500kc  bandwidth  at  3db 
points.  Attenuation  ±500kc  from  center 
frequency   greater  than  60db. 

IF  Bandwidth — Narrow  Band:  lOOkc  bandwidth  of  3db 
points.  Attenuation  ±250kc  from  center 
frequency   greater  than  60db. 

Power  Input  ........    11 7v  AC,  60cps,  approx.   1 50w. 

Size    8Y4"  x  19"  x  1.4%"* 


ARKE  CO. 

919  JESUP-BLAIR  DRIVE 
SILVER  SPRING,  MARYLAND 

MUNICIPAL  AIRPORT 

M  A  RTI  NSBURG .  WEST  VIRGINIA 


R    O    N    I    C  S 


on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


1    9  O  9 


NEWS  STAFF 

News  Editor   Reed  Bund 

Defense  and  Legislative   James  Baa 

Betty  Oswal 

West  Coast   Richard  van  Ostej 

Copy  Editor   Erica  Kah 

Editorial  Assistant   David  Newmai 

ASTRONICS 

Guidance  and  Control 
Support  Equipment  . . . 


.Charles  D.  LaFon. 
 Hal  Getting; 


ASTRONAUTICS  ENGINEERING 

Chemistry  &  Propulsion   Jay  Holme 

John  F.  Judgi 

Astrodynamics   Paul  Meani 

MISSILE  SUPPORT 

Installations  and  Equipment 


East  Coast 
West  Coast 


...William  E.  Howari 
.Frank  McGuna 


BUREAUS 

Los  Angeles   William  J.  Coughlim 

Paris   Jean-Marie  Richi 

Geneva   Anthony  Vandyb 

CONTRIBUTORS 

British  Astronautics   G.  V.  E.  Thompson 

Propulsion   Michael  Lorenzc 

Industry   James  J.  Haggehty.  Jr, 

Soviet  Affairs   Dr.  Albert  Parry 

Space  Medicine   Dr.  Hubertus  Strugholb 

Astrophysics   Dr.  I.  M.  Levitt 

Research   Heyward   Canney,  Jh. 

ADVISORY  BOARD 

Dr.  Wernher  von  Braun  Robert  P.  Havillai  _ 
Dr.  Peter  Castrtjccio  Dr.  Arthur  Kantrowitz 
Conrad  H.  Hoeppner  Dr.  Eugen  Saenges1 

R.  F.  Gompertz  Alexander  SatiN 


ANB 


PRODUCTION    AND  ART 

Art  Director   William  Martin 

Assistant  Art  Director   Bach.  Guiley 

Production  Manager   J.  F.  Walem 

Ass't  Production  Manager   Elsie  Gray 

BUSINESS  STAFF 

Publisher   E.  D.  Muhlfeld 

Advertising  Sales  Manager   W.  E.  Brown 

Eastern  Advtg.  Manager   P.  B.  Kinnej 

Circulation  Director   L.  L.  Brettneb 

Promotion  Manager   J.  E.  Mulroy 

Advtg.  Service  Manager  . .  Mrs.  Gladys  BussEuj 

ADVERTISING  OFFICES 

New  York  . .  (20  East  46th  St.)  P.  N.  Anderson] 
A.  B.  Scheffler 

Detroit  ...  (201  Stephenson  Bldg.)  K.  J.  Wells 

Chicago    (139  N.  Clark  St.)  G.  E.  YonaM 

Los  Angeles  . .  (8929  Wllshlre  Blvd.)  J.  W.  ClaaJ 
O.  R.  Martz.  Jr. 

Miami    (208  Almerla  Avenue)  R.  D.  Hager< 

Toronto  (12  Richmond  St.  E.)  Allin  Associates 

London   (28  Bruton  St.)  Norall  &  Hart] 

Paris   11  Rue  Condorcefl 

Geneva   10  Rue  Grenua] 

Missiles  and  Rockets  Volume  5  Number  37 

Published  each  Monday  by  American  Aviation 
Publications,  Inc.,  1001  Vermont  Ave.,  N.W. 
Washington  5,  D.C.  Wayne  W.  Parrlsh,  Presi- 
dent; Leonard  A.  Elserer,  Executive  Vice  Presi- 
dent  &  General  Manager;  Fred  Hunter.  Vice 
President  &  Editorial  Director;  A.  H.  Stackpole 
Eric  Bramley,  Robert  R.  Parrlsh,  Vice  Presidents 

Printed  at  the  Telegraph  Press,  Harrlsburg,  Pa. 
Second  class  postage  paid  at  Washington,  D.C. 
and  at  additional  mailing  offices.  Copyright, 
1959,  American  Aviation  Publications,  Inc. 


Subscription  rates:  U.S..  Canada  and  Postal 
Union  Nations — 1  year,  $5.00;  2  years,  $8.00; 
3  years,  $10.00.  Foreign — 1  year,  $10.00;  2 
years,  $18.00;  3  years,  $26.00.  Single  copy 
rate — $.50.  Subscriptions  are  solicited  only 
from  persons  with  identifiable  commercial 
or  professional  interests  In  missiles  and 
rockets.  Subscription  orders  and  changes  of 
address  should  be  referred  to  Circulation 
Fulfillment  Mgr.,  M/R,  1001  Vermont  Ave., 
Washington  5.  D.C.  Please  allow  4  weeks 
for  change  to  become  effective  and  enclose 
recent  address  label  if  possible. 


w:  QaQ  *lr 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


SUo  Hdssiles i  and I  rockets . 

Wm    mfinm  ^  September  7  headlines 

HflHI^^HIl^KB  British  Scientists  Clamor  for  A  Major  Space  Role 

COVER:  Adapter  rings,  or  aft  But  there's  mixed  reaction  to  a  proposal  that  Blue  Streak  and 

closures,  like  these  for  Nike,  Black  Knight  be  combined  as  vehicle  to  replace  officially  ap- 

along  with  nozzles  are  a  critical  proved  Scout    11 

weight  problem  in  solid  rockets.  Q  Co       ;  Nowhere  To  Go  But  y  , 

But  new  techniques  are  provid-  »»■'.,    _,  . 

ino  answers  See  p   1 3  Missile  farms  have  turned  the  former  farming  community  into 

the  nation's  fastest-growing  metropolitan  area,  and  the  biggest 
development  is  yet  to  come.  First  of  a  four-part  series  on  the 
Los  Angeles  area   18 

Czech  Magazine  Pinpoints  Soviet  Launch  Base 
■fcl^fc-                            Article  in  aviation  journal  locates  the  new  satellite  and  mis- 
sile base  northeast  of  the  Aral  Sea  and  provides  some  new 
pratyL,  details  on  Mechta    21 

Wm  y  ASTRONAUTICS  ENGINEERING 

BRITISH  Blue  Streak  IRBM  is  Nozzles  Pose  Top  Weight  Problem  in  Rocket  Motors 

being  touted  by  some  U.K.  sci-  Today  they  account  for  some  30%  of  a  solid  motor's  dead 

entists  as  the  basic  vehicle  for  a  weight;  varied  research  effort  is  aimed  at  reduction   13 

major  space  effort  by  that  coun-                     _     ,  ,            _  ,.  ,    _  . 
try.  This  development  is  reported                    Double-base  Solids  Remain  Standard 
from  London,  p.  11.                                   Despite  inroads  by  polyurethanes,  a  major  part  of  the  solid- 
fuel  program  relies  on  double-base  composition.  A  report 
from  the  Naval  Propellant  Plant  at  Indian  Head,  Md   16 

EBjlMjBgEji^BBr  Exploring  Beryllium's  Exciting  Potential 

^^^^P^^^^  greatly  expanded  before  it  can  become  a  truly  useful  material  22 

Hp  TBliPr^^"*  First  edition  of  M/R  ASTROLOG — for  the  reader's  conveni- 

ence, an  easy-reference  status  report  on  all  space  vehicles  and 

OVERLOOKING  the  Pacific  in  missiles.  This  feature  will  be  periodically  repeated   25 

Orange  County,  Calif.,  is  site 
for  a  proposed  center  to  be  built 
by  Aeronutronic  Div.  of  Ford.  k 

A  survey  of  the  county's  growth  W  NEW  MISSILE  PRODUCTS 

begins  on  p.  1  8.  * 

Space  Temperatures  Simulated  in  Chamber    35 

jflHB  ^  THE  MISSILE  WEEK 

Washington    Countdown    7 

More  About  the  Missile  Week   44 

BERYLLIUM  sheet  formed  by  jk  DEPARTMENTS 

extrusion  and  cross  rolling  shows  r 

highly  developed  crack  pattern  Propulsion  Engineering  .  .    42         When  and  Where   46 

after  bend  ductility  test.  A  re-  ...  ,  „  ,■     T  ,    .  Da„„i^  aq 

■     ,      „.  West  Coast  Industry  ...  .    45         People....,   4s 

port  on  progress  in  beryllium  -  3 

R&D  starts  on  p.  22.  Contracts   46         Editorial    50 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959  5 


FOR  REINFORCED  PLASTICS,  PICK  THE  PROVEN  LEADER 


Deadly  darting  missiles  and 
super-sonic  fighters  now  prove  in 
flight  the  advantages  of  Bruns- 
wick leadership  in  critical  space- 
age  components.  Brunswick 
designs,  tests  and  manufactures 
reinforced  plastic  and  filament- 
wound  super-sonic  radomes  to 
meet  most  environmental  needs. 


Critical  Brunswick  components 
are  now  specified  and/or  used  in 
missiles  such  as  the  McDonnell 
Quail,  Lockheed  Kingfisher  and 
Polaris,  and  Boeing  Bomarc;  in 
aircraft  such  as  the  Convair 
F-106A  and  B-58,  North  Amer- 
ican F-108,  McDonnell  F3H,  F4H 
and  F-101,  and  Republic  F-105. 


From  filament-wound  radomes 
by  the  unique  Strickland "B"  Proc- 
ess to  honeycomb-core,  foam-in- 
place  or  anti-icing  type  radomes, 
Brunswick  supplies  the  reliability 
of  proven  leadership.  Write  to 
Brunswick-Balke-Collender  Co., 
Defense  Products  Division,  1700 
Messier  St.,  Muskegon,  Michigan. 


BRUNSWICK 


Circle  No.  3  on  Subscriber  Service  Cord. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


the 
missile 
week 


Washington  Countdown 


IN  THE  PENTAGON 

A  seaborne  anti-missile  missile  .  .  . 

system  is  seen  by  Navy  officials  as  a  natural 
for  installation  on  battleships  or  cruisers.  Ten- 
tative studies  are  underway.  A  prime  advantage 
of  seaborne  AICBM's  would  be  the  intercep- 
tion of  oncoming  ICBM's  over  empty  oceans 
rather  than  population  centers. 

•  •  • 

The  land-based  AICBM  .  .  . 

Western  Electric's  Nike-Zeus,  will  undergo 
future  tests  over  an  expanded  area  at  White 
Sands  Missile  Range.  The  range  is  being 
spread  over  an  extra  1500  square  miles  of 
New  Mexican  desert  to  make  sure  that  debris 
from  the  tests  will  fall  in  uninhabited  areas. 
Zeus  will  be  fired  only  at  simulated  ICBM's 
at  White  Sands. 

•  •  • 

Polaris-boosted  satellites  .  .  . 

are  a  good  possibility  within  the  next  few 
years.  The  Navy  sees  Lockheed's  Polaris  as  an 
efficient  booster  for  putting  50-pound  military 
payloads  into  orbit. 

•  •  • 

Minuteman  repair  shop  . .  . 

sites  are  expected  to  be  picked  by  the  Air 
Force  within  the  next  two  months.  The  repair 
shops — located  at  convenient  spots  around  the 
country — will  be  used  for  both  assembly  of  the 
Boeing  Minutemen  and  periodic  check-up  of 
the  birds  after  they  are  installed  in  their 
hardened  bases. 

•  •  • 

An  October  Retirement  .  .  . 

for  Defense  Department  Comptroller  William 
J.  McNeil  is  reported  to  be  in  the  works. 
Two  high-level  officials  considered  top  pros- 
pects to  succeed  the  head  Pentagon  money 
man:  DOD  Assistant  Secretary  for  Logistics 
Perkins  McGuire,  and  Air  Force  Assistant 
Secretary  for  Financial  Management  Lyle  S. 
Garlock. 

•  •  • 

Vital  ICBM  Statistics  Dept  

Minuteman  will  weigh  about  75,000  to  80,000 
pounds — 180,000  pounds  less  than  Atlas,  140-, 
000  pounds  less  than  Titan. 

ON  CAPITOL  HILL 

Greater  unification  . . . 

of  the  military  services  to  end  missile-space 
wrangles  may  well  become  a  political  campaign 
battlecry  in  Congress  by  next  year.  Sen.  Clair 
Engle  (D-Calif.)  turned  up  the  heat  under  the 
issue  late  last  month  with  his  call  for  one  mili- 
tary service.  The  new,  cutting  report  from  the 


House  Military  Operations  Subcommittee  call- 
ing for  merger  of  the  Army  and  Air  Force 
brought  the  issue  to  a  rolling  boil. 

•  •  • 

Politically-trained  ears  . . . 

opened  wide  for  both  Engle's  speech  and  the 
subcommittee  report.  Meantime,  forthcoming 
decisions  from  the  Pentagon  on  Army  and 
other  space  programs  (M/R  Aug.  31)  could 
easily  make  the  issue  hotter  than  ever.  You 
can  definitely  jot  this  matter  down  under:  To 
Be  Continued. 

AT  NASA 

Air-space  sickness  . .  . 

is  one  of  the  big  problems  that  NASA  engi- 
neers have  still  to  lick  before  the  first  U.S. 
astronaut  goes  into  orbit.  Some  way  must  be 
found  to  stabilize  the  Project  Mercury  capsule 
during  re-entry.  Otherwise,  America's  first 
spaceman  isn't  going  to  be  interested  in  much 
besides  a  paper  bag. 

•  •  • 

New  Nul-G  capsules  .  . . 

may  be  purchased  by  NASA  for  testing  human 
reaction  to  living  in  a  weightless  environment 
for  long  periods.  The  capsules — proposed  in  a 
design  study  by  Lockheed — also  might  be  used 
for  training  future  astronauts. 

•  •  • 

Polar  orbit  tracking  .  . . 

stations  are  planned  soon  by  NASA.  One  will 
be  on  the  University  of  Alaska  campus.  Two 
more  will  be  in  North  Dakota  and  Newfound- 
land. Rather  than  build  a  fourth  station  in 
Europe,  NASA  will  share  a  secret  AF  station 
already  in  existence. 

AROUND  TOWN 

"Smart  money"  .  .  . 

is  being  put  on  the  rumor  that  the  Pentagon 
will  lift  its  ban  soon  on  Gen.  Thomas  Pow- 
er's book — "Design  for  Survival."  The  SAC 
commander's  book  is  understood  to  be  a  stark 
warning  that  the  power  of  America's  missile- 
bomber  deterrent  forces  is  deteriorating. 

•  •  • 

Some  of  the  reports  . . . 

that  are  being  passed  as  "the  latest"  in  the 
nation's  capital: 

.  .  .  Russia  can  be  expected  to  step  up 
building  of  nuclear-powered  submarines  capa- 
ble of  launching  missiles. 

.  .  .  The  United  States  is  somewhat  closer 
to  development  of  a  truly  maneuverable  space 
craft  than  previously  believed. 

.  .  .  Military  men  are  urging  that  Laos  be 
given  modern  equipment  including  missiles  to 
meet  the  current  Red  invasion. 


7 


*QMV  is  a  Trade  Mark  of  THE  BRUSH  BERYLLIUM  COMPANY 


UM 


4301  PERKINS  AVENUE   •   CLEVELAND  3.  OHIO 

beryllium  .  beryllium  oxide  •  beryllium  alloys 

Circle  No.  4  on  Subscriber  Service  Card.  missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


Industry  Countdown 


MANUFACTURING 
One  thousand  Polaris  . . . 

missiles — or  more — may  be  Lockheed's  initial 
production  run.  It  would  take  640  just  to 
arm  the  presently  proposed  40  fleet  ballistic 
missile  submarines  (16  per  sub).  More  will 
be  needed  for  spares,  training  and  evaluation 
flights,  etc.  Any  program  for  launching  Po- 
laris from  surface  ships,  land  or  airplanes 
would  jack  up  the  production  figure  accord- 
ingly. Cost-per-bird  is  estimated  at  $500,000 
- — making  it  potentially  a  $500  million  run. 

•  •  • 

Beryllium  use  in  missiles  . . . 

is  increasing.  More  than  80%  of  DOD  beryl- 
lium is  going  into  the  missile  program.  Ex- 
pected consumption  in  FY  1960  is  35,000 
pounds.  In  FY  1959  DOD  contractors  used 
12,000  pounds  of  the  lightweight  hard-to-work 
$60-a-pound  (refined)  metal — 5000  pounds  in 
the  April- June  quarter.  (See  p.  22  for  analysis 
of  structural  beryllium.) 

•  •  • 

Half  the  nation's  molybdenum  . . . 

output  is  being  bought  by  missile  builders. 
Jetavators,  liners  and  nozzles  are  the  principal 
moly  components.  It  also  is  in  these  areas  that 
probably  the  hottest  competition  exists  between 
metals  and  non-metals. 

•  •  • 

Anti-friction  bearings  . . . 

are  being  researched  by  Corning  Glass.  The 

company  is  working  with  its  crystalline  ceramic 
"Pyroceram"  to  develop  bearings  capable  of 
operating  at  temperatures  between  1000°F  and 
1600°F. 

•  •  • 

Boost  of  $20  million  . . . 

for  materials  research  in  FY  1960  has  been 
ordered  by  Dr.  Herbert  York,  DOD  R&E 
chief.  Extra  funding,  in  addition  to  $50  mil- 
lion already  scheduled  this  year,  may  be  con- 
tinued in  FY  1961  if  all  goes  well.  Thermal 
protection  and  composite  materials  are  get- 
ting $2  million  of  the  new  funds. 

PROPULSION 
Radically  new  and  secret . . . 

approach  to  solid-rocket  motor  cases  is  being 
explored  by  Bendix  Aviation.  The  aim  is  to 

achieve  strength-to-weight  ratio  of  over  2- 
million  inches  under  a  Navy  contract.  If  the 
approach  proves  out,  motor  case  technology 
(  which  has  yet  to  reach  a  1 -million-inch  ratio) 
would  leapfrog  ahead. 


First  hot  firing  of  X-75  . . . 

LOX/ liquid  ammonia  engine  Aug.  28  proved 
"exceptionally  gratifying"  to  the  Air  Force. 
The  Reaction  Motors  XLR-99-RM-1  50,000- 
thrust  rocket  was  operated  at  three-quarters 
throttle  for  46  seconds  during  static  test  at 
Edwards  AFB.  A  total  of  1 1  XLR-99's  will  be 
delivered  to  support  the  X-15  rocket  plane. 

•  •  • 

Controlled  nuclear  pulse  . . . 

engine  for  space  vehicle  has  received  a  $1- 
million  extension  from  DOD.  The  Orion 
project  initiated  a  year  ago  by  ARPA  is  under 
feasibility  study  by  the  General  Dynamics' 
John  Jay  Hopkins  Laboratory  for  Pure  and 
Applied  Science,  San  Diego. 

ASTRIONICS 
Phone  calls  via  satellites  . . . 

is  a  new  NASA  project  called  Echo.  Bell 
Telephone  Laboratories  is  constructing  a  sta- 
tion that  will  attempt  to  bounce  signals  off 
of  satellite  reflectors  in  the  first  step  of  a 
feasibility  study  for  relaying  telephone  calls. 

•  •  • 

Navy  is  stacking  its  space  "chips"  . . . 

heavily  on  the  Transit  navigational  satellite 
program.  Nearly  all  of  the  Navy's  space  R&D 
is  now  focused  on  this  project.  Applied  Re- 
search Laboratory  of  Johns  Hopkins  University 
is  the  contractor. 

•  •  • 

WE  HEAR  THAT— 
BMD  and  STL  may  part . . . 

company — at  least  physically.  The  BMD  would 
build  its  own  headquarters  rather  than  remain 
a  Space  Technology  Laboratory  tenant  at  Los 
Angeles.  The  Air  Force  is  officially  denying 
the  report,  at  present  ...  A  fabric  with  better 
heat  resistance  properties  than  stainless  steel 
has  been  developed  by  Raybestos-Manhattan, 
Passaic,  N.J.  It  is  asbestos  based,  coated  with 
du  Ponfs  new  "Viton"  synthetic  rubber  and 
reinforced  with  "Inconel"  wire  .  .  .  NASA  is 
still  convinced  it  will  be  able  to  net  returning 
Mercury  astronauts  in  the  air.  Planes  have 
about  30  minutes  to  get  to  the  capsule  after 
the  parachute  opens  .  .  .  Fewer  electron  tubes 
were  sold  last  year.  The  total  of  $569  million 
for  power,  special  purpose  and  receiving  tubes 
was  $16  million  less  than  the  previous  year — 
the  first  significant  decline  in  their  history, 
according  to  the  U.S.  Department  of  Com- 
merce. .  .  .  Lockheed  Aircraft  Corp.  will  open 
a  new  "top-level  corporate  office"  in  Paris 
in  addition  to  maintaining  its  Geneva  office. 


More  About  the  Missile  Week  on  page  44 


...NOW 


VICKERS  HOT  GAS 
AUXILIARY  POWER  SYSTEMS 

for  missiles  and  spacecraft 


CONCEPT 

Vickers  piston  motors  —  as  used  in  virtually  all 
existing  commercial  and  military  aircraft  —  are  now 
modified  to  operate  efficiently  on  propellant-generated 
hot  gas,  or  bleed  gas  from  the  main  propulsion  sys- 
tem. Minimum  weight  is  achieved  by  mounting  the 
hot  gas  motor  "shaft-to-shaft"  with  a  Vickers  piston  hy-' 
draulic  pump  in  a  common  housing.  The  motorpump, 
a  simple  gas  generator,  hydraulic  reservoir,  filter, 
and  relief  valve  are  integrally  mounted  to  form  a  com- 
plete Auxiliary  Power  System  in  a  compact  package. 


EXHAUST^       2  BEARINGS  HYDRAULIC 


I  ,  SYSTEM 
SERVO  RELIEF 
SYSTEM  VALVE 


DEVELOPMENT 

Production  line  Vickers  hydraulic  motors  have  been 
operating  on  hot  gas  for  over  2  years.  Units  have  run 
on  gases  as  hot  as  2300°F  without  modification. 

The  present  flight  hardware  was  built  and  tested 
after  an  intensive  prototype  development  effort.  Test 
program  motorpumps  have  accumulated  over  100 
runs  each  for  1  minute  of  operation  cycle.  Since  the 
current  development  program  is  aimed  at  meeting 
known  APS  requirements,  no  limits  have  been  estab- 
lished on  the  operating  cycle  duration  for  this  type 
of  equipment. 

CONCLUSIONS 

Performance  and  reliability  goals  for  this  concept 
have  been  met  successfully.  A  complete  hot  gas  APS 
package  in  the  2  -  8  horsepower  range,  shown  above, 
is  available  within  90  days.  Customer  specifications 
for  these  and  larger  systems  are  invited.  Write  for 
Bulletin  A-5223B. 


APPLICATIONS 

Because  of  the  increasing  scope  of  APS  applica- 
tions, Vickers  conducted  a  series  of  studies  to  estab- 
lish criteria  for  APS  selection.  Recent  study  results 
(published  in  March,  1959)  indicate  that  for  short 
duration  operation,  hot  gas  motors  offer  the  best 
weight  advantage  in  the  1  to  30  hp  range.  See  curve 
below. 

Attractive  reliability  and  early  delivery  resulting 
from  extensive  use  of  proven  hardware  may  extend 
the  application  of  these  systems  to  an  even  greater 
range  of  second  and  third  generation  missiles  and 
spacecraft.  Additional  advantages  include:  low  speed 
equipment  (up  to  10,000  rpm),  convenient  ground 
checkout,  growth  potential,  and  no  alert  time  required. 


OPTIMUM  WEIGHT  NON  PROPULSIVE  POWER  SYSTEMS 


DURATION— HOURS 


VICKERS 


AERO  HYDRAULICS  DIVISION 

INCORPORATED 

DETROIT  32,  MICHIGAN 


division  of: 

SPERRY  RAND  CORPORATION 


At  Commonwealth  Symposium 


British  Clamor  for  Major  Space  Role 

But  there's  mixed  reaction  to  a  proposal  that 

Blue  Streak  and  Black  Knight  be  combined  in  a  vehicle 

to  replace  the  officially-approved  NASA  Scout 


by  Donald  E.  Perry,  Managing  Editor 

London — For  the  first  time — nearly 
two  years  after  the  orbiting  of  Sputnik 
— the  British  scientific  community,  as 
represented  by  the  powerful  British  In- 
terplanetary Society,  is  clamoring  for  a 
major  space  program  of  its  own.  The 
result  may  be  a  vigorous  competition 
to  eliminate  the  present  "Made  in  Rus- 
!sia  and/ or  U.S.A."  exclusive  labels 
associated  with  world  space  experimen- 
tation. 

Hanging  in  the  balance  is  the  fate 
of  one  very  important  American  effort: 
NASA's  Scout  program  abroad.  British 
science  now  wants  to  overcome  the 
government's  "passive"  participation 
whereby  instruments  are  merely  carried 
into  space  by  means  developed  outside 
the  Commonwealth. 

To  implement  this  desire,  the  U.K.'s 
Blue  Streak  and  Black  Knight  are  the 
touted  vehicles.  This  is  contrary  to  the 
government's  announced  policy  in  May 
when  it  signified  its  desire  to  use  Scout 
as  a  research  vehicle. 

Scout,  with  its  prospects  of  sending 
a  150-pound  pay  load  into  orbit,  is — 
many  British  scientists  feel — not  good 
enough.  Using  Blue  Streak  as  the  first 
stage  and  Black  Knight  as  the  second, 
these  Britishers  envision  a  2000-pound 
useful  payload. 

The  embryo  for  future  British  as- 
tronautics efforts  was  formed  at  the 
first  Commonwealth  Space  Flight  Sym- 
posium held  recently  at  Church  House, 
Westminster,  here.  The  Symposium 
preceded  the  annual  Congress  of  the 
International  Astronautical  Federation. 

•  No  race  suggested — The  tone  of 


the  symposium  was  that  the  U.K.  wants 
a  major  space  program  of  its  own — 
but  not  a  "race"  with  the  U.S.  or 
U.S.S.R.  What  is  desired  is  that  space 
exploration  be  considered  as  having 
"no  finishing  line  and  an  infinite  dis- 
tance to  be  covered." 

The  words  are  those  of  G.K.C. 
Pardoe,  chief  Coordinator  of  the  Bal- 
listic Missiles  section  of  de  Havilland 
Propellers,  Ltd.,  who  advocated  a  space 
flight  program  based  on  Blue  Streak. 

Hitting  mildly  at  U.S./ U.S.S.R.  pol- 
icies, Pardoe  commented:  "The  best 
returns  do  not  always  come  from  the 
most  exciting  investments,  and  by 
equipping  ourselves  with  a  means  of 
moving  in  terrestrial,  cislunar  and  trans- 
lunar  space,  we  should  be  covering 
the  zones  of  interest  ...  of  direct 
value  to  the  earth's  inhabitants  for 
many  years  to  come." 

The  important  thing,  he  said,  is  to 
get  into  space  and  gain  experience  in 
the  basic  problems  involved.  The  real 
zone  of  direct  interest  for  decades  to 
come  is  between  here  and  the  moon, 
he  added. 

•  Doubts  expressed — Some  observ- 
ers, including  some  Britishers,  felt, 
however,  that  Blue  Streak's  possibilities 
left  something  to  be  desired.  Said  John 
E.  Allen,  head  of  Aerodynamics,  Pro- 
jects and  Assessment  Department,  A. 
V.  Roe  and  Co.,  Ltd.: 

"(Blue  Streak's)  performance  would 
be  becoming  obsolescent  by  the  end  of 
the  1960's  and  a  vehicle  to  succeed  it 
will  have  to  be  sought  .  .  .  now." 

Many  U.S.  observers  pointed  out 
that  the  guidance  flight  test  of  Blue 
Streak  is  not  due  for  another  year  at 


BRITISH  SPACE  VEHICLE  developed  from  a  modified  Blue  Streak  IRBM  with  the  option  of  using  a  modified  Black  Knight 
as  the  second  stage.  (See  story  on  page  12.)  Specific  details  include:  (1)  payload;  (2)  nose  cone;  (3)  ground  connections  and  release 
mechanism;  (4)  kerosene  tank;  (5)  H.T.P.  tank;  (6)  tube  through  inner  tank  for  electrical  and  other  services;  (7)  external  frame 
with  release  mechanism  and  fairing;  (8)  electrical  ground  connectors;  (9)  second-stage  probe  separation;  (10)  ground  connectors 
for  propellants:  (11)  working  platform;  (12)  second-stage  payload  position;  (13)  final  separation;  (14)  separation  line. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


least  and  that  reliability  still  is  an  un- 
proven  factor.  Under  present  plans, 
U.S.  sources  say,  there  is  a  schedule  of 
less  than  a  half-dozen  flights  per  year 
and  the  U.K.  can  not  hope  to  achieve 
maximum  reliability  under  such  a  min- 
imal firing  program. 

Be  this  as  it  may,  existence  of  Blue 
Streak  as  a  potential  main  stage  ve- 
hicle for  European  countries  is  a  fac- 
tor not  to  be  discounted.  Pardoe  com- 
mented that  nations  which  do  not  pos- 
sess a  main  stage  booster  facility  could 
well  consider  planning  space  programs 
using  Blue  Streak  because  "the  design 
team  of  the  vehicle  would  be  on  their 
doorstep." 

But  regardless  of  such  "sales 
pitches,"  there  are  many  in  the  British 
aircraft  industry — and  in  government 
— who  remain  to  be  "sold." 


London — A  substantially  unaltered 
Blue  Streak  missile  would  give  the 
United  Kingdom  the  capability  within 
two  to  three  years  of  placing  a  payload 
of  some  1000  pounds  in  a  300-mile 
circular  orbit  around  the  earth. 

Design  considerations  for  the  ve- 
hicle were  set  forth  in  a  paper  by  G. 
K.  C.  Pardoe,  Chief  Coordinator  (Bal- 
listic Missiles),  de  Havilland  Propellers, 
Ltd.,  in  a  paper  presented  here  at  the 
Commonwealth  Spaceflight  Symposium. 

Pardoe  recommended  use  of  the 
Royal  Aircraft  Establishment's  test  ve- 
hicle— Black  Knight — as  a  possible  sec- 
ond stage  for  Blue  Streak  to  assure 
early  availability. 

Black  Knight  has  a  quadruple 
chamber  rocket  motor  system  using 
H.T.P.  and  kerosene  as  propellants. 
Each  of  the  four  chambers  produce 
4000  pounds  of  thrust  at  take-off  for 
a  combined  thrust  of  16,000  pounds. 
The  vehicle's  length  is  some  35  feet 
and  its  maximum  diameter  is  3  feet. 

However,  use  of  the  long,  thin 
structure  on  top  of  Blue  Streak  would 
dictate  careful  investigations  into  the 
design  of  the  adaptor  between  the  two 
stages.  New  dynamic  bending  loads 
would  be  brought  to  bear  on  the  for- 
ward tank  section  of  Blue  Streak. 
possibly  demanding  some  structural 
changes. 

Black  Knight  also  would  produce 
different  flexural  characteristics  during 
first-stage  burning  which  in  turn  would 
require  some  changes  in  the  autopilot 
system. 

Use  of  a  liquid-fuel  second  stage 
would,  of  course,  produce  the  problem 
of  in-flight  ignition,  but  Pardoe  be- 
lieves H.T.P.  and  kerosene  should  pro- 


Allen,  delivering  a  paper  on  "Brit- 
ain's Place  in  Interplanetary  Explora- 
tion," commented  that  "economic  con- 
siderations hardly  justify  an  expensive 
(say  £20  million  per  annum)  space 
programme  at  the  moment."  He  recom- 
mended a  "pilot"  experiment  of  two 
years  duration  to  provide,  among  other 
things: 

•  Creation  of  a  type  of  Space  Flight 
Research  Association. 

•  Relatively  inexpensive  hypersonic 
flight  experiments. 

•  A  Commonwealth  Spaceflight 
Year  1960  to  stimulate  understanding 
of  spaceflight  and  discuss  possible 
activities. 

•  Studies  for  a  hypersonic,  very- 
long-range  airplane  that  would  be  fast 
enough  to  be  used  as  a  satellite 
launcher. 


vide  comparatively  trouble-free  igni- 
tion. 

With  a  payload  of  1000  pounds  the 
geometry  would  have  to  have  a  low 
density.  The  H.T.P.  tank  has  a  con- 
siderable amount  of  wetted  area  which 
will  be  directly  exposed  to  kinetic  heat- 
ing during  early  main-stage  boost.  To 
avoid  insulation  and  minimize  the  in- 
put of  heat  on  this  wetted  area,  an 
attitude  control  device  might  be  re- 
quired so  that  the  rear  end  of  the  tank 
faced  the  sun  during  coasting  phase. 

Pardoe  said  that  while  there  is 
great   merit   in   using   the   basic  Blue 


PROPOSED  basic  vehicle  for  a  British 
satellite  effort  is  the  Blue  Streak. 


Knight,  it  does  fall  short  of  ideal  size 
and  thrust  characteristics  in  relation  to 
its  main  stage. 

He  recommended  an  alternative: 
modifying  tankage  into  a  "doughnut" 
configuration.  Two  hemispherical  tank 
domes  would  be  separated  by  a  paral- 
lel section  of  tank  based  upon  the  lim- 
iting volume  (and  therefore  weight) 
which  could  be  lifted  by  Blue  Streak. 

The  same  maximum  diameter  as 
Blue  Streak  would  thus  be  produced 
in  the  second  stage  to  allow  for 
H.T.P. /kerosene  burning  ratio. 

Pardoe  suggested  that  the  more' 
orthodox  lateral  separation  diaphragm 
could  be  replaced  by  a  longitudinal 
cylindrical-type  diaphragm.  Kerosene, 
being  the  smaller  volume,  could  be> 
contained  within  this  central  tube  and 
H.T.P.  would  be  in  the  outer  torroidal 
container. 

Higher  pressure  would  have  to  be 
maintained  in  the  kerosene  tank  to 
avoid  stress  on  the  central  tube.  How- 
ever, since  pressure  in  both  tanks  is 
relatively  small,  this  should  present  no 
problem. 

A  transition  bay  in  front  of  the 
Blue  Streak  tank  could  contain  the 
inertial  guidance  system  as  well  as 
encompassing  the  Black  Knight  pro- 
pulsion bay.  Small  ancillary  rockets 
would  be  required  in  the  second  stage. 

The  short  configuration  of  the* 
launch  vehicle  would  involve  few 
changes  to  its  servicing  tower,  thus 
cutting  down  development  costs. 

•  Three  choices — Pardoe's  proposal 
for  producing  a  space  vehicle  embraces 
three  areas.  The  first  approach — -sim- 
ple but  with  limited  capability — would' 
be  to  use  a  solid  rocket  system  as  the 
second  stage  to  place,  say.  1000  pounds 
in  a  300-mile  orbit.  On  the  other  ex- 
treme would  be  a  more  elaborate 
liquid  propulsion  second  stage,  based 
on  existing  equipment,  which  would, 
be  able  to  place  a  payload  of  some 
2000-pounds  in  a  300-mile  orbit.  Be- 
tween the  two  measures  is  a  half-way- 
stage  where  Black  Knight  in  its  present' 
form  and  immediate  availability  couldi 
put  about  1000-pounds  in  a  300-mile' 
orbit. 

The  British  have  contracted  for 
three  NASA  Scout  vehicles.  Scout  has 
a  capability  of  placing  about  150-J 
pounds  in  space. 

Soviets  Announce  They'll 
Attend  IAF  Congress 

London — Russia  will  be  repre- 
sented by  at  least  a  token  delegation 
when  IAF  Congress  meets  here  this 
week. 

IAF  officials  received  a  surprise 
cable  indicating  that  Prof.  Leonid' 
Sedov  and  Prof.  Kyril  Ogorodni  would, 
attend,  possibly  accompanied  by  on© 
more  delegate. 


The  Wedding  Would  Have  Its  Problems 


12 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


 astronautics  engineering 


Nozzles  are  Top  Weight  Problem 

Today  they  comprise  some  30%  of  a  rocket's 
dead  weight,  but  the  outlook  for  reduction  appears 
favorable  through  various  industry  efforts 


Washington — Rocketry  in  some 
espects  is  just  one  series  of  problems 
ifter  another.  Solve  one,  and  another 
tears  its  head  to  challenge  any  further 
progress. 

So  it  is  with  solid  rocket  motor 
pases.  For  months  the  big  problem  has 
peen  how  to  crack  the  notch  sensitivity 
barrier  and  come  up  with  a  develop- 
ment series  of  rocket  motor  cases  whose 
cylindrical  walls  had  a  minimum  yield 
Strength  of  220,000  pounds  per  square 
Inch  or  more  (see  M/R  series,  June 
P.  22) 

Now  it  looks  as  though  this  is  about 
l:o  be  achieved — and  all  of  a  sudden 
something  else  takes  over  as  the  limit- 
ing factor  on  improving  mass  ratios. 
Now,  nozzles  are  the  number  one 
weight  problem  in  motor  cases,  with 
forward  bulkheads  and  aft  closures 
[with  their  heavy  thickened  sections  run- 
ping  a  close  second. 

Weight  reduction  in  the  cylindrical 
[section  of  the  case  itself  is  still  im- 
portant, but  the  potential  there  for  im- 
proving mass  ratios  is  far  less  than  it 
Is  in  other  areas.  And  as  always  in  this 
[business,  the  customer  is  willing  to  pay 
If  or  the  answers  he  wants;  more  and 
■more  money  is  going  into  R&D  in 
Ithese  areas. 

Current  mass  ratio  s — propellant 
Weight  to  total  powerplant  weight — 
range  from  0.85  to  a  little  over  0.90 
in  very  exceptional  cases — up  from  less 
than  0.80  during  World  War  II.  For  a 
comparison  with  some  kind  of  theoreti- 
cal maximum,  check  these  figures  by 
Dr.  Hal  Ritchey,  vice-president,  Thio- 
kol  Chemical  Corp.: 

•  Desired  ratios — For  that  can  of 
ibeer  he  wants  to  place  on  the  moon, 
Dr.  Ritchey  has  calculated  a  mass  ratio 
of  0.814;  for  an  egg  (in  the  shell), 
0.896;  a  candy  bar,  0.956;  and  a  pack- 
aged loaf  of  bread,  0.977.  Actually. 
,when  you  compare  current  rocket  mass 
i  ratios  with  these  figures,  we're  not  do- 
ing badly. 

Improvement  in  mass  ratios  since 
World  War  II  has  been  due  to  two 

I  missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


fairly  elementary  technologies : 

— development  of  inside-out  pro- 
pellant burning  techniques  which  cut 
temperature  problems  of  motor  cases 
to  a  minimum. 

— creditable  progress  in  develop- 
ment of  high-strength,  thin-wall  metal 
motor  cases  and  in  low-density  (plas- 
tic/glass) materials. 

Though  still  far  short  of  present 
goals,  motor  case  technologies  are 
approaching  a  point  of  diminishing 
returns.  This  isn't  to  say  solid  rocket 
makers  have  lost  interest  in  a  240,000- 
psi  minimum-yield  strength  steel  motor 
case,  for  example.  Far  from  it.  Millions 
of  dollars  are  still  pouring  into  the 
effort  to  beat  notch  sensitivity  and 
reach  that  elusive  goal — and  with  some 
degree  of  success.  There  are  programs 
under  way  that  strive  to  attain  500.000- 
psi  min-yield  in  the  cylindrical  part  of 


a  steel  case:  200.000  psi  in  a  plastic 
case.  1  y 

•  Deadweight — However,  in  "all  the 
sweat  over  cylinder  wall  improvement, 
other  vital  ( and  heavy)  solid-rocket 
motor  parts  have  been  largely  ignored 
— such  things  as  the  forward  bulk- 
head, aft  closure  and  nozzle.  For  ex- 
ample, in  today's  typical  medium-size 
solid-rocket  motor,  of  the  four  main 
components  which  make  up  all  that 
dead  weight,  the  motor  case  (the  cylin- 
drical section)  may  account  for  20%; 
the  forward  bulkhead,  30%;  aft  clo- 
sure, 20%;  and  nozzle,  30%. 

This  is  for  a  rocket  with  a  length- 
to-diameter  ratio  of  about  2.5.  In- 
crease the  ratio,  and  weight  of  the 
cylindrical  section  goes  up  propor- 
tionately. 

Suppose  our  typical  rocket  motor 
has  a  mass  ratio  of  0.90  and  that  its 


THOUGH  the  wall  thickness  of  this  forward  bulkhead  for  a  large  solid-propellant 
rocket  motor  gets  as  low  as  .070  in.,  thickened  sections  boost  the  total  weight. 

13 


nozzle  approaches  are  varied  and  promising 


MUCH  OF  the  weight  of  rocket  motors 
is  represented  by  wing  attachments  and 
thrust  elements  with  thick  sections. 


FINISH-MACHINED  adapter  rings  for  Nike  booster  case 
show  how  thick  the  metal  can  get  The  aft  closure  represents 
one-fifth  of  the  weight  of  a  typical  rocket  motor. 


cylindrical  section  has  a  min-yield 
strength  of  200,000  psi.  Even  if  we 
increase  that  strength  level  to  400,000 
psi  (a  prodigious  feat  with  current 
technologies),  we  only  run  our  mass 
ratio  up  to  0.91. 

However,  if  we  can  improve  the 
performance-to-weight  ratio  of  the 
other  three  factors  by  the  same  rela- 
tive amount — 2-to-l — mass  ratio  jumps 
to  0.94  without  any  improvement  in 
actual  case  strength. 

And  it  is  in  these  areas  that  the 
coming  bulk  of  solid-rocket  motor  case 
improvement  is  beginning  to  be  con- 
centrated. 

•  Heavy  fittings — In  forward  bulk- 
heads and  aft  closures,  the  main  prob- 
lem is  the  weight  of  fitments,  bosses, 
etc.  For  example,  some  large  solid- 
propellant  motors  have  forward  bulk- 
heads fitted  with  a  series  of  thrust 
reversal  nozzles.  Even  though  the  basic 
wall  thickness  may  be  0.070"  or  less 
(well  into  the  200,000-psi  range), 
bosses  for  fitting  nozzles  may  be  0.75" 
on  their  thinnest  dimension,  with  the 
case  wall  around  them  tapering  grad- 
ually down  to  the  basic  dimension. 

In  addition,  the  bulkhead  itself  must 
be  attached  to  the  case.  If  this  is  done 
by  weldment,  there's  no  material  in- 
crease in  weight  in  this  area.  But  as 
often  as  not  it's  done  with  bolts,  breech- 
locks,  etc. — all  of  which  require  thick- 
ened (thus,  heavier)  sections.  And 
these  thickened  sections  may  weigh 
more  than  all  the  rest  of  the  forward 
dome. 


14 


With  few  exceptions,  propellants 
are  cast  into  solid-rocket  cases  before 
attachment  of  forward  closure  and/ or 
nozzle;  whatever  remains  to  be  fitted 
after  the  propellant  is  cast  and  the  core 
mold  withdrawn  must  be  attached  by 
some  means  other  than  welding.  Heat 
of  welding  would  be  too  likely  to  set 
off  the  propellants.  Again,  this  means 
bolts,  threads,  breechlocks,  keylocks, 
ringlocks — and  inevitably  a  thicker, 
heavier  section. 

•  Peculiar  nozzle  problems — The 
nozzle  falls  into  a  trouble-making  realm 
of  its  own.  Not  only  must  it  usually  be 
fitted  by  similar  means,  but  it  suffers 
from  a  special  set  of  environmental 
problems.  A  rocket  exhaust  is  a  high- 
temperature,  high-velocity,  highly  ab- 
rasive and  highly  erosive  flow;  nozzles 
must  be  resistant  to  heat  and/ or  pro- 
vide a  heat  sink  and  must  be  physically 
and  chemically  tough  to  retain  their 
critical  geometry  until  burn-out.  For 
these  reasons,  they  are  the  heaviest  part 
of  a  rocket  motor  for  the  volume  they 
displace. 

•  Plastic  headaches — Only  in  plastic 
motor  cases  have  fitment  and  attaching 
problems  been  reduced  to  a  near-mini- 
mum. The  case,  forward  bulkhead  and 
aft  closure  are  made  in  a  single  opera- 
tion, resulting  in  a  one-piece  motor. 
Metal  attaching  rings  (usually  alumi- 
num) for  nozzles  and  igniters  are  in- 
serted in  the  plastic  structure  during 
fabrication.  Even  here  there's  room  for 
improvement — such  as  reduction  in 
attachment  ring  size  and  weight.  And 


of  course  the  same  old  nozzle  problem 
remains.  Some  highly  specialized  rocket 
motor  cases  have  85%  of  their  weight 
concentrated  in  the  nozzle.  Others,  uti- 
lizing molybdenum  nozzles,  run  the 
ratio  up  even  higher. 

Another  headache  with  plastic  mo 
tor  cases  made  in  a  single  unit  is  that 
casting  fixtures  must  be  inserted  in 
pieces  and  assembled  inside  the  case, 
then  disassembled  and  withdrawn  one 
by-one  after  propellant  casting.  Though 
there's  a  weight  saving  in  cases  made 
this  way,  cost  and  complexity  of  pro- 
pellant casting  operations  are  substan- 
tially increased. 

•  Solution  still  lacking — The  prob- 
lem of  attaching  the  various  metal 
parts  of  a  motor  case  to  one  another 
is  an  old  one;  but  no  one  has  yet 
provided  a  solution  that  is  both  reliable 
and  lightweight.  Bolted  sections  have; 
been  largely  abandoned  as  unneces- 
sarily heavy.  The  trend,  where  possible 
is  to  weld — though  reliability  of  pro 
duction  welding  is  still  something  of 
problem.  Welding  is  sometimes — bui 
not  always — possible  with  both  the  for 
ward  bulkhead  and  the  aft  closure,  thi 
nozzle  attachment  ring  usually  bein; 
large  enough  for  most  casting  opera 
tions. 

Another  approach  to  both  forward 
dome  and  aft  closure  attachment  in 
metal  cases  is  to  spin  or  deep  draw  the 
case,  including  end  closures,  in  two 
pieces;  then  to  put  them  together  at 
the  middle  with  a  circumferential 
weld;  and  finally  to  machine  igniter 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


boss  and  nozzle  attachment  ring  out 
of  sections  left  thick  during  drawing 
or  spinning. 

None  of  these  systems,  including 
threads,  breech,  ring  and  keylock  sys- 
tems, has  so  far  proved  very  satisfac- 
tory. All  are  heavy  and  sometimes 
cause  trouble  when  attempts  are  made 
to  undo  them — as  may  be  necessary 
for  disassembly  for  such  purposes  as 
propellant  casting  or  later  inspection 
of  the  propellant  grain. 

Anyone  with  a  good,  lightweight 
solution  to  this  attachment  problem 
can  find  a  ready  market  for  a  develop- 
ment contract  with  any  one  of  the 
many  government  agencies  concerned 
with  solid  propellant  rockets  or  the 
companies  that  manufacture  them. 

•  Nozzles  promising — Chances  of 
reducing  nozzle  weight  are  better.  Ap- 
proaches to  this  problem  are  many  and 
varied,  ranging  from  techniques  for 
electroplating  any  electroplatable  metal 
to  such  unlikely  materials  as  paper, 
wood  and  plastic,  to  the  recrystalliza- 
tion  of  silicon  carbide  on  graphite. 

Thin  metal  sections  by  themselves 
do  not  offer  the  same  advantages  in 
nozzles  that  they  do  in  motor  cases. 
Under  the  rigors  of  rocket  exhaust, 
they  lack  dimensional  stability.  But, 
more  importantly,  they  have  no  ability 
to  withstand  the  heat  involved — either 
to  absorb  it  in  a  heat  sink  or  simply 
to  stand  up  and  take  it.  Possible  excep- 
tions are  some  of  the  refractory  metals 
— of  which  molybdenum  is  one.  How- 
ever, moly's  high  density  (over  12 
times  that  of  steel)  makes  it  a  poor 
candidate  for  a  lightweight  structure. 

Non-metallics,  however,  are  begin- 
ning to  show  real  promise  of  nozzle 
weight-reduction.  For  example,  a 
thrust-vectored  nozzle  made  of  molyb- 
denum weighs  something  over  350 
pounds,  compared  to  less  than  50 
pounds  for  a  comparable  nozzle  made 
of  plastic  and  steel.  Plastics  not  only 
have  dimensional  stability  due  to  their 
bulk,  but  demonstrate  very  favorable 
characteristics  in  the  presence  of  high- 
speed, high-temperature  gas  flow. 

Currently,  the  most  popular  ap- 
proach involves  the  use  of  phenollic- 
glass-asbestos-etc.  aggregates  which  are 
first  pressed  into  their  general  shape 
and  then  finish-machined  to  tolerance 
much  in  the  manner  that  metal  is  ma- 
chined. These  are  usually  backed  up 
by  metal  (4130  steel,  for  example), 
but  the  total  weight  is  less  than  it 
would  be  for  an  all-metal  nozzle  with, 
perhaps,  a  graphite  insert. 

•  Other  approaches — One  of  the 
more  successful  current  efforts  in  noz- 
zle weight  reduction  lies  in  refractory 
coated  graphite.  The  Norton  Company, 
for  example,  machines  a  nozzle  out  of 
pure  graphite  and  then  vaporizes  and 


sprays  a  thin  coat  of  silicon  carbide 
on  the  inner  contours  of  the  throat. 
This  is  then  placed  in  a  high-tempera- 
ture furnace  where  silicon  carbide  re- 
forms into  minute  crystals — smooth 
and  as  hard  as  a  carbide  cutting  tool. 
The  problem  with  this  nozzle  is 
strength;  efforts  are  under  way  to  wind 
it  with  narrow  metal  reinforcing  strip. 
Other  companies  are  conducting  simi- 
lar work. 

Yet  another  approach  to  the  nozzle 


NOZZLE  FABRICATION  TECHNIQUES 


ELECTROPLATED  TUNGSTEN, 


C0LUMB1UM,  MOLYBDENUM,  ETC. 


PLASTIC,  PRESSED  PAPER,  DENSIFIED 
WOOD  LAMINATE,  FIBROUS  METAL,  ETC. 


STEEL  REINFORCING  RING 


(RE-CRYSTALIZED  SILICON  CARBIDE) 


problem  comes  out  of  General  Electric 
Company's  Rocket  Engine  Section 
where  efforts  are  being  made  to  find 
a  suitable  plastic  nozzle  material  that 
can  be  arc-sprayed  with  a  tungsten 
liner. 

Ethyl  Corporation's  method  for 
electroplating  heretofore  unplatable 
materials  is  new  and  has  not  yet  been 
fully  investigated.  However,  this,  like 
plasma  spraying,  opens  up  a  whole  new 
range  of  possible  basic  nozzle  structure 
materials. 

Still  other  areas  that  offer  a  longer- 
term  potential  include  fiber  metallurgy 
where  very  thin  (.0001"  diameter) 
metal  fibers  are  pressed  into  the  desired 
shape  and  then  resistance  welded  so 
that  everywhere  a  fiber  touches  an- 
other, it  is  joined  by  a  weld.  A  great 
variety  of  densities  and  strengths  is 
possible  with  this  method.  Although  it 
usually  results  in  a  porous  material, 
this  drawback  can  be  overcome. 

Another  field,  of  course,  is  ce- 
ramics. Efforts  right  now  are  being 
made  to  combine  ceramics  with  other 
materials,  much  as  glass  is  combined 
with  plastic  in  monofilament  winding. 
Work  on  the  development  of  ductile 
ceramics  has  made  considerable  prog- 
ress recently  and  this  may  offer  one  of 
the  better  long-term  solutions. 

Better  Method  Developed 
To  Measure  Solid  Changes 

Menlo  Park,  Calif. — Scientists  at 
the  Stanford  Research  Institute  have 
announced  the  development  of  an  im- 
proved method  of  measuring  creep  and 
stress  relaxation  in  solid  propellants. 

The  research  team  of  R.  B.  Beyer, 
C.  F.  Clark  and  B.  C.  Belt  said  last 
week  they  expect  the  new  process  to 
add  significantly  to  knowledge  of  solid 
propellant  aging. 

The  method  reduces  the  observa- 
tion time  from  two  weeks  to  one  day, 
and  is  accurate  to  0.005  inch.  Another 
advantage  pointed  out  by  the  re- 
searchers is  the  determination  possible 
at  the  initial  portion  of  the  test. 

A  more  accurate  distinction  thus 
is  made  between  the  reversible  elastic 
properties  of  the  material  and  its  ir- 
reversible creep  formation. 

A  unique  apparatus  measures  the 
stress  relaxation  by  mechanically  in- 
troducing an  initial  deformation.  The 
stress  decay  is  then  measured  and 
recorded  automatically. 

The  project  is  sponsored  by  the 
Air  Force's  Wright  Air  Development 
Center  and  is  chiefly  concerned  with 
the  changes  in  solid  rocket  propellants 
during  storing  and  aging. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


IS 


astronautics  engineering 

Double-base  Solids  Still  Standard 
Despite  Inroads  by  Polyurethane 


by  Jay  Holmes 

Indian  Head,  Md. — Although  Po- 
laris and  some  other  missiles  use  the 
new  polyurethane  binder,  double-base 
composition  is  still  the  standard  for  a 
major  part  of  America's  solid-fuel  pro- 
gram. 

At  the  Naval  Propellant  Plant  in 
this  Potomac  River  community,  the 
Navy's  "in-house"  staff  manufactures 
double-base  grains  for  almost  all  of 
the  solid-fuel  rockets  used  by  the  sea 
service — and  a  few  for  the  other 
services. 

Relatively  small  rockets  use  ex- 
truded and  machined  double-base 
grains.  But  the  only  safe  method  of 
making  larger  grains — such  as  the 
3000-pound  grain,  the  largest  made 
here — is  by  casting. 

There  is  still  a  chance  the  big  Po- 
laris grain  may  switch  to  double-base. 
Two  years  ago.  when  the  Navy  chose 
polyurethane.  case  bonding  of  double- 
base  grains  was  a  problem.  Now  that 
has  been  solved.  NPP  announced  last 
December  it  is  working  with  Allegheny 
Ballistics  Laboratory,  Cumberland,  Md., 
on  a  double-base  propellant  for  pos- 
sible Polaris  use.  The  experimental  fuel 
is  now  in  pilot-plant  production  and 
has  undergone  preliminary  testing. 

Double-base  grains  extruded  here 
include  those  of  the  Sidewinder  and 
Zuni  and  gas-generator  propellants  for 
Sidewinder,  Sparrow  and  the  Army's 
Hawk.  Among  the  cast  grains  produced 
at  Indian  Head  are  those  for  the  Talos, 
Terrier,  Weapon  A,  Boar  and  Builpup. 

•  The  process — Recently,  the  De- 
fense Department  declassified  the  de- 
tails of  the  grain  casting  process  at 
Indian  Head.  Capt.  G.  T.  Atkins,  Com- 
manding officer,  outlined  the  opera- 
tion for  a  visitor: 

The  grain  normally  is  cast  inside  an 
inert  plastic  beaker — or  inhibitor — 
which  prevents  the  burning  of  the  pro- 
pellant on  the  outer  circumferential  sur- 
face. In  the  mold-assembly  operation, 
the  beaker  is  placed  inside  a  tight-fit- 
ting corset  of  metal  alloy  or  glass  fiber. 


Cores  are  positioned  longitudinally 
through  the  inhibitor  and  held  in  place 
with  plates  at  either  end.  The  cores 
form  the  perforations  in  the  grain, 
which  determine  the  amount  of  internal 
burning  surface. 

Casting  powder  then  is  poured  into 
the  assembled  mold.  The  powder  con- 
sists mainly  of  either  nitrocellulose  or 
nitrocellulose  with  some  nitroglycerin. 
It  is  in  the  form  of  small,  solid  cylin- 
drical granules  about  the  size  of  a 
thin  pencil  lead  in  length  and  diameter. 
The  powder  is  poured  into  the  mold 
from  overhead  bins. 

After  auxiliary  parts  of  the  mold 
assembly  are  put  into  place,  the  mold 
is  evacuated  for  about  a  day.  This 
reduces  total  volatiles  and  excess  mois- 
ture— which   would  decrease  the  CO- 


WORKER PREPARES  to  remove  cores 
from  east  solid  grain  at  Indian  Head  plant. 


alescent  properties  of  the  mixture. 
Evacuation  also  reduces  the  moisture 
content  of  the  casting  solvent. 

•  Pressure  differential — The  solvent 
— usually  nitroglycerin  with  a  small 
percentage  of  plasticizer  and  stabilizer, 
is  introduced  into  the  mold  through 
one  of  the  end  plates.  Air  pressure 
forces  the  solvent  through  a  tightly 
packed  column  of  powder.  The  casting 
operation  is  complete  when  it  reaches 
the  opposite  end. 

The  temperature  must  be  kept  very 
close  to  70°F  while  the  solvent  is 
being  introduced.  If  it  varies  too  much, 
casting  becomes  very  difficult.  When 
temperature  is  too  high,  the  cast  pow- 
der will  tend  to  gel  too  rapidly.  When 
temperature  is  too  low,  the  viscosity 
of  the  solvent  becomes  too  high  to 
permit  it  to  move  freely  through  the 
casting-powder  granules. 

The  powder  grain  in  the  mold  must 
be  cured  for  several  days  at  tempera- 
tures usually  ranging  from  100°  to 
200°F.  During  this  period,  the  powder 
is  transformed  from  a  sticky  mass  into 
a  solid  plastic  grain.  After  curing,  the 
mold  is  removed  to  a  rest  house  where 
it  remains  at  room  temperature  for 
about  24  hours  or  until  it  reaches 
ambient  temperature. 

The  grain  is  place.1  in  a  special 
hold-down  stand  while  the  core  is  being 
pulled  from  the  mold  after  the  mold 
parts  are  removed.  The  core,  in  either 
horizontal  or  vertical  position,  is  nor- 
mally removed  easily,  but  it  may  need 
a  slight  initial  shove.  A  plastic  coating 
may  lubricate  the  surface  and  make 
this  easier. 

Next  the  grain  is  cut  to  specified 
length  and  the  ends  are  squared.  For 
safety,  this  is  done  by  remote  control, 
with  the  operator  watching  the  opera- 
tion through  a  heavy  glass  window. 
During  the  cutting  operation,  water 
usually  is  played  on  the  saw  blades  to 
reduce  the  hazards  of  excess  friction. 

If  the  grain  meets  the  requirements 
of  a  thorough  and  rigid  inspection,  it 
is  accepted  for  loading  in  a  missile 
motor. 


16 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


RESEARCH 


BRISTOL  SIDDELEY  GAMMA 
ROCKET  ENGINE  POWERS  BLACK  KNIGHT- 
BRITAIN'S  HIGHLY  SUCCESSFUL 
SPACE  RESEARCH  VEHICLE 


On  11th  June,  19,000  lb  of  thrust  sent  Black  Knight  to  the 
threshold  of  outer  space — 500  miles  above  the  Woomera  rocket 
range  in  Australia. 

This  was  the  third  successful  firing  (there  have  been  no 
failures)  and  much  of  the  credit  for  Black  Knight's  trouble-free 
performance  must  be  given  to  the  Gamma. 

The  Bristol  Siddeley  Gamma  201  is  a  liquid  propellant  rocket 
engine.  Four  trunnion-mounted  chambers  burn  kerosene  with 
HTP  and  each  chamber  is  fed  by  its  own  turbopump  unit.  The 
complete  weight  of  the  engine  compartment  is  less  than  700  lb 
(dry)  and  Gamma  delivers  19,000  lb  at  altitude — 16,400  lb 
at  sea  level. 

Black  Knight  is  a  research  vehicle  and  no  military  applica- 
tions are  planned.  But  the  experience  gained  and  lessons  learned 
from  this  highly  successful  space  probe  will  be  invaluable  in 
the  development  of  Britain's  1RBM — Blue  Streak. 

So  impressive  is  Black  Knight's  performance  with  the 
Gamma  powerplant  that  even  more  advanced  applications  are 
being  actively  developed.  In  fact,  Black  Knight  coupled  with 
Blue  Streak  is  first  choice  to  put  Britain's  projected  space  satel- 
lite into  orbit. 


BRISTOL  SIDDELEY  ENGINES  LIMITED 


■■j 


SSBBBH 


Circle  No.  6  on  Subscriber  Service  Cord. 


17 


First  of  a  Series 


Orange  County:  Nowhere  To  Go  But  Up! 

Missile  firms  have  turned  the  former  farming 
community  into  the  nation's  fastest-growing  metro- 
politan area— and  this  is  only  the  beginning 


by  Frank  G.  McGuire 

Los  Angeles — Discover  Orange 
County!  is  the  advice  given  in  the 
county's  Industrial  News  Directory, 
and  a  great  many  firms  in  the  missile 
industry  have  done  just  that. 

Orange  County,  the  fastest-growing 
metropolitan  area  in  the  nation,  had 
6000  jobs  in  manufacturing  employ- 
ment in  1950 — today  it  has  40,000.  Ly- 
ing between  Los  Angeles  and  San  Diego 
Counties  in  Southern  California, 
Orange  County  seems  a  cinch  to  catch 
most  of  the  overflow  of  expansion  from 
firms  in  those  two  heavily  industrialized 
areas,  but  mostly  from  Los  Angeles. 

Over  160  miles  of  high-speed  free- 
ways criss-cross  the  county,  and  a  num- 
ber of  airports  serve  it,  including  the 
large  commercial  airports  of  Los  An- 
geles and  San  Diego.  The  state  is  plan- 
ning a  considerable  expansion  of  the 
freeway  network  in  the  county. 

The  firms  now  located,  or  building, 
in  Orange  County  read  like  a  Who's 
Who  of  the  missile  industry: 

Lockheed  Electronics  and  Avionics 
Division  (LEAD)  is  preparing  to  build 
a  permanent  headquarters  facility  on 
a  200-acre  site  in  Newport  Beach. 

Autonetics  Division  of  North  Amer- 
ican Aviation  is  a  newcomer,  with  a 
370-employe  facility  handling  computer 
operations  and  engineering  work  on 
inertial  navigation  systems  in  Fullerton. 

Aeronutronic  Division  of  Ford 
Motor  Co.  is  in  various  stages  of  con- 
struction and  utilization  of  its  group 
of  buildings  at  Newport  Beach. 

Hughes  Products  Group  also  has  a 
new  home  in  Newport  Beach  for  its 
Semiconductor  Division,  and  turns  out 
subminiature  devices  here.  The  entire 
research  and  manufacturing  activities 
were  moved  from  Los  Angeles.  An- 
other Hughes  unit,  in  Costa  Mesa, 
turns  out  silicon  and  germanium  diodes. 

Hughes  Ground  Systems  Group  is 
another  of  the  missile-industry  entities 
moving  into  Orange  County.  Growing 
from  800  employes  in  1957  to  5000 


now,  the  group  has  recently  occupied 
a  brand-new  plant  of  850,000  square 
feet  in  Fullerton,  housing  administra- 
tion, engineering  and  light  electronic 
assembly  operations. 

Thompson  Ramo  Wooldridge  has  a 
$2  million  component  plant  under  con- 
struction for  its  Tapco  Group.  Sched- 
uled for  completion  in  February,  the 
three-story  plant  in  Anaheim  will  as- 
sume most  of  the  Bell  and  Long  Beach 
operations  of  TRW. 

Interstate  Engineering  Corp.,  of  An- 
aheim, has  an  entire  "family"  of  firms 
in  broadly  diversified  fields,  and  is 
heavily  involved  in  the  missile  program. 

Cannon  Electric  Company  recently 
passed  the  500-employe  mark  in  ex- 
panding its  new  plant  in  Santa  Ana. 
The  ten-month-old  plant  produces  Can- 
non's most  competitive  line — its  mili- 
tary standard  hardware. 

•  Why  Orange  County? — As  is  ob- 
vious from  the  list  of  firms  involved, 
the  growth  in  Orange  County  is  largely 
in  the  electronics  field.  In  past  years, 
there  has  been  a  "latent  resistance" 
againt  the  influx  of  industry  to  Orange 
County,  mostly  because  of  the  disad- 
vantages associated  with  "heavy"  indus- 
try such  as  steel  mills.  It  has  apparently 
come  as  an  awakening  that  it  is  pos- 
sible to  have  the  economic  advantages 
of  industry  without  the  disadvantages 
— -unsightly  huge  plants,  smoke,  heavy 
truck  traffic,  etc. 

Much  of  the  change  in  attitude  is 
due  to  the  campus-type  architecture 
used  in  construction,  and  the  research 
and  development  nature  of  many  of  the 
firms  now  going  into  the  county.  Even 
those  producing  considerable  quantities 
of  goods  are  doing  so  in  attractive 
buildings,  without  the  smokestacks,  rail- 
roads criss-crossing  streets,  and  other 
blemishes  that  the  old-time  residents 
associated  with  industry. 

W.  Worth  Bernard,  publisher  of  the 
Orange  County  Industrial  News,  says 
the  county  hopes  to  have  enough  in- 
dustry to  support  an  anticipated  popu- 
lation of  2V2  million  by  1980.  A  study 


by  Stanford  Research  Institute  indi- 
cated this  was  in  store,  and  some  feel 
that  the  two-million  mark  may  be 
reached  by  1970.  Today's  population 
is  680,000;  in  1950,  it  was  216,000. 

B.  F.  Coggan,  Vice  President  and 
Division  Manager  of  Convair-San 
Diego,  said:  "This  area  (Southern  Cali- 
fornia) is  becoming  the  fountainhead 
of  scientific  manpower.  The  scientists 
are  being  brought  here,  not  by  the 
handful,  but  by  the  hundreds!  .  .  .  Be- 
cause of  this,  the  industrial  growth  of 
Orange  County  will  be  terrific."  With 
its  thousands  of  scientists  qualified  for 
teaching,  the  county  has  been  suggested 
as  the  site  for  a  Science  Academy  par- 
alleling, in  science,  Annapolis,  West 
Point  and  the  Air  Academy. 

•  Beethoven  and  boats — Recrea- 
tional and  other  benefits  of  the  area 
are  numerous:  three  symphony  orches- 
tras, 12  golf  courses,  14  bowling  cen- 
ters, Disneyland,  Knott's  Berry  Farm, 
and  the  greatest  small-craft  harbor  in 
the  nation  Oast  year,  more  boats  were 
sold  in  California  than  new  cars!). 

The  future  may  see  three  colleges 
serving  the  county.  Chapman  College 
in  Orange,  the  new  Orange  County 
State  College  now  being  built  in  Fuller- 
ton,  and  possibly  a  county  branch  of 
the  University  of  California,  still  in  the 
works.  The  county  has  18  high  schools, 
increasing  to  22  by  the  fall  semester, 
and  three  junior  colleges. 

A  detailed  economic  study  of  the 
county  was  undertaken  by  Stanford 
Research  Institute  at  the  request  of  the 
County  Board  of  Supervisors,  to  guide 
planning  in  highway  construction,  flood 
control,  recreation,  airport  planning, 
industrial  development,  and  zoning. 

The  amount  of  land  zoned  for  in- 
dustry, or  in  the  process  of  being  zoned, 
is  upwards  of  45,000  acres  in  the 
county.  Although  some  feel  this  is  too 
much,  it  is  estimated  that  such  an 
amount  will  be  needed  to  support  in- 
dustry for  a  2Vi  million  population. 

In  addition  to  those  listed  previ- 
ously, a  great  number  of  firms  have 


18 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


facilities  in  the  county:  Giannini,  Bur- 
roughs, BJ  Electronics,  Hallamore, 
General  Electric,  Interstate  Engineer- 
ing, A.  O.  Smith,  Bock  in  an  Instru- 
ments Narmco,  Electronic  Engineering 
Co.,  Pacific  Scientific  Aeroproducts, 
U.S.  Borax  and  Chemical  Co.,  Pacific 
Laminates,  and  numerous  others. 

Lockheed's  facility  will  be  one  of 
the  larger  new  ones.  The  site  is  a  200- 
acre  tract  close  to  the  Orange  County 
Airport,  where  construction  will  begin 
before  the  end  of  the  year.  Occupancy 
is  expected  by  late  next  summer.  The 
new  plant  facilities  will  have  a  capacity 
of  up  to  1000  research,  engineering  and 
administrative  personnel  and  support- 
ing groups.  For  the  foreseeable  future, 
LEAD  expects  to  keep  its  temporary 
facilities  as  a  manufacturing  plant. 

Until  the  new  structure  is  ready, 
LEAD  is  gradually  developing  its  new 
position  by  staffing  the  key  administra- 
tive positions,  and  bringing  in  the 
necessary  technical  and  scientific  per- 
sonnel. Concurrently,  it  is  moving  along 
with  sale  and  development  of  its  prod- 
uct line,  which  will  be  all  military  at 
first,  then  branch  out  into  specialized 
industrial  areas.  LEAD  expects  to  have 
about  400  employes  by  year-end,  com- 
pared with  75  now. 

Autonetics  Division  of  North  Amer- 
ican Aviation  (which  has  just  built  a 
200,000-square-foot  building  in  Dow- 
ney) employs  370  people  at  its  Fuller- 
ton  flight  control  engineering  depart- 
ment. The  facility,  which  houses  an 


analog  computer  installation  for  work 
on  flight  control  problems,  may  be  ex- 
panded even  further  by  the  addition 
of  leased  space.  There  are  no  plans 
afoot  as  of  now  to  move  any  Autonetics 
operations  outside  the  LA  area. 

Cannon  Electric  Company,  with 
plants  in  Salem,  Mass.,  and  Phoenix, 
Ariz.,  has  housed  its  production  facili- 
ties for  the  military  standard  line  to  the 
Santa  Ana  plant  in  Orange  County. 
The  company's  most  competitive  line, 
military  standard  plugs,  are  not  spe- 
cifically designed  for  missile  use,  but 
are  used  when  standard  equipment 
shows  up  in  a  missile  system. 

Built  in  October,  1958,  the  plant 
has  a  capacity  of  750  employes,  but 
still  is  not  considered  by  the  firm  to  be 
a  significant  move  away  from  the  Los 
Angeles  area,  since  most  of  the  com- 
pany's eighteen  product  lines  still  come 
out  of  the  Los  Angeles  headquarters 
group.  Two  lines  are  handled  by  Salem 
and  two  by  Phoenix:  the  Guided  Mis- 
sile and  Special  Products  lines  are 
handled  at  Phoenix  because  it  lies  in 
different  procurement  area. 

Most  of  the  new  space  being  util- 
ized by  Cannon  is  for  manufacturing, 
but  each  facility  has  its  own  engineer- 
ing section.  Relative  to  the  headquarters 
group,  the  newer  facilities  are  small: 
Los  Angeles,  340,000  square  feet; 
Phoenix,  70,000,  and  Santa  Ana,  112,- 
000.  The  Los  Angeles  HQ  group  is 
spread  throughout  eight  buildings  oc- 
cupying several  city  blocks,  and  one 


company  spokesman  told  M/R  that 
"we'd  like  to  tear  them  all  down  and 
rebuild  our  facilities  under  one  roof." 
Nevertheless,  there  are  no  plans  for 
ever  removing  the  executive  offices  out 
of  Los  Angeles. 

The  company  recently  bought  a 
new  building  in  Orange  County  that 
had  been  built  by  a  die-casting  com- 
pany, but  never  occupied.  Although  it 
is  now  being  used  mostly  for  storage, 
Cannon  believes  it  is  the  only  die-cast- 
ing facility  in  the  county. 

Aeronutronic  Division  of  Ford, 
similarly  to  LEAD,  is  occupying  a  200- 
acre  site  in  Newport  Beach.  The  di- 
vision's $22-million  research  and  en- 
gineering center,  designed  by  Wm.  L. 
Pereira  &  Associates,  overlooks  the 
Pacific  Ocean,  and  consists  of  an  ultra- 
modern 120,000-square-foot  computer 
electronics  facility  which  was  occupied 
in  July,  a  Space  Technology  Building 
of  120,000  square  feet  scheduled  for 
completion  by  Jan.  1,  and  a  Central 
Services  Building  scheduled  for  com- 
pletion during  the  first  quarter  of  1960. 

A  30,000-square-foot  Environmen- 
tal Test  and  Reproduction  Building  will 
be  built  by  November,  1960,  and  a 
multi-story  administration  and  a  Tac- 
tical Weapon  Systems  Operations  build- 
ing are  both  scheduled  for  completion 
by  mid- 1960. 

Beckman  Instruments  Systems  Di- 
vision in  Anaheim  handles  assembly  of 
the  electronic  data  processing  systems 
used  in  developmental  testing  of  rocket 
engines.  One  of  five  Beckman  divisions 
in  Orange  County,  the  Systems  division 
also  has  a  plant  in  Richmond,  Calif. 

Interstate  Engineering  Corp.,  (with 
a  number  of  sub-organizations),  pro- 
duces missile  and  aircraft  components, 
as  well  as  instrumentation,  in  Orange 
County.  A  Navy  prime  contractor,  In- 
terstate Electronics  Corp.  produced  in- 
strumentation for  the  Polaris  FBM  sys- 
tem, including  three  instrumentation 
systems  for  the  Atlantic  Missile  Range, 
and  instrumentation  for  the  USS  Ob- 
servation Island.  Latter  equipment  in- 
cludes photo  apparatus,  television,  and 
electronic  ranging  gear. 

Interstate  Electronics,  a  subsidiary 
of  Interstate  Engineering,  is  also  at 
work  on  development  of  a  complete 
system  for  underwater  firings  from  nu- 
clear subs.  Interstate  Electronics  has  a 
staff  of  over  350  employes,  with  70  of 
them  engineers. 

Supplementing  and  supporting  the 
many  companies  listed  here  are  dozens 
of  small  contractors  and  their  plants  in 
the  county. 

In  the  entire  industry-laden  area  of 
Southern  California,  the  prime  location 
for  just  about  any  industrially  "clean" 
industry  appears  to  be  Orange  County, 
and  things  will  probably  remain  this 
way  for  some  time  to  come. 


A  LITTLE-KNOWN  agricultural  section  as  recently  as  1950,  Orange  County  today 
has  a  population  of  680,000  and  anticipates  some  2Vi  million  in  another  20  years. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


19 


Clary  introduces  a  new  concept  in  valve  design. 


top-performing 
economical  regulators 

Here  at  last... hand-loader  type  regulator  valves  that  are 
economical  in  the  true  sense  of  the  word! 

First,  they  are  far  less  expensive  than  regulators  of  comparable 
quality  and  performance  specifications.  This  low  price  is  made  possible 
by  a  unique,  simplified  design  and  by  Clary's  years  of  design  and 
manufacturing  experience. 

Second,  their  ease  of  maintenance  saves  valuable  man-hours. 
There's  no  need  to  remove  the  entire  unit  should  failures  occur -a 
simple  replacement  of  the  "0"  ring  seal  does  the  job  quickly  and  easily. 

Third,  because  they  are  adjustable  over  an  extremely  wide  range  of 
pressures,  you  can  use  them  in  a  variety  of  applications. 

To  find  out  more  about  these  exceptional  regulators,  send  for 
technical  bulletin  #CD-150.  And  whenever  precision,  reliability  and 
versatility  are  factors  in  your  plans,  call  on 
Clary  for  complete  services. 


Clary  is  one  of  the  nation's  largest 
manufacturers  of  rocket  and  missile  valves. 
Other  devices  include:  ABSOLUTE  PRESSURE 
REGULATOR  that  maintains  an  outlet  pressure 
of  I8V2  to  20  PSIA  with  variations  in 
flow  rate  from  3  to  350  SCFM  under  30  to  100 
PSIA  inlet  pressure  and  -65°F.  to  +350°F.; 
and  DIFFERENTIAL  PRESSURE  REGULATOR  that 
maintains  an  outlet  pressure  of  6  PSIG 
±.25  with  flow  variations  from  3  to  160 
SCFM  under  10  to  250  PSIG  inlet  pressure 
and  -65°F.  to  +350°F. 


Clary  Dynamics 

San  Gabriel.  California 
Manufacturers  of  business  machines 
electronic  data-handling  equipment, 
aircraft  and  missile  components 


PRESSURE  REGULATOR 

/        Port  Size:  V*  Tube  Per  AND  10050  \ 

/  Pressure  Characteristics:  \ 

A.  Operating  B.  Proof  ^ 

Upstream  4000  PSIG  Max.  Upstream  6000  PSIG  ^ 
Downstream  3000  PSIG  Max.  Downstream  4500  PSIG 

Service:  Air,  Nitrogen,  Helium 
Flow  Area:  Fully  Open  Thru  Area  .003  in 
Ambient  Temperature  Range:  -65°F.  to  +160°F.  1 
Lubrication:  Dow-Corning  DC-11  Silicone  / 
Ml  -  L-  4343  Grease  Unless 
Otherwise  Specified. 

Weight:  1.2  Lbs. 


20 


circle  No.  7  on  Subscriber  service  Cord.       missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


First  public  disclosure 


Report  Pinpoints  Red  Launch  Base 

Czech  article  says  new  satellite  and  missile 
base  is  located  above  the  Aral  Sea  —  new 
details  on  Mechta  are  also  revealed. 


By  Paul  Means 

Washington — The  Soviet  Union's 
new  missile  and  satellite  launching 
base — in  operation  less  than  a  year — 
is  northeast  of  the  Aral  Sea  in  the 
Republic  of  Kazakh,  approximately  70 
miles  north  and  east  of  the  city  of 
Aral'sk. 

The  coordinates  (47  N,  62.5  E)  of 
the  new  Russian  "Cape  Canaveral" 
were  publicly  revealed  for  the  first  time 
in  the  June  9th  edition  of  a  Czech- 
oslovakian  aviation  journal.  The  jour- 
nal, Kridla  Vlasti,  also  disclosed  new 
specific  information  about  the  Soviet 
sun  orbiter  Mechta. 

The  Czech  article  was  translated  by 
the  Central  Intelligence  Agency  for 
publication  in  the  Department  of  Com- 
merce's Office  of  Technical  Services 
bulletin  last  week. 

According  to  reliable  sources,  the 
Czech  article  was  accurate  in  its  listing 
of  the  base's  coordinates,  which  place 
it  one  degree  east  and  one  minute 
north  of  Aral'sk,  but  was  inaccurate  in 
its  description  of  the  location.  The  ar- 
ticle reported  the  location  to  be  in  "an 
area  northeast  of  the  Ural  lakes,  on 
the  dividing  line  between  Europe  and 
Asia" — about  700  miles  away  from  the 
coordinate  location. 

The  IRBM,  ICBM,  and  space  ve- 
hicle launching  base  has  been  in  opera- 
tion less  than  a  year,  according  to 
M/R  sources.  Mechta  was  one  of  the 
first  vehicles  to  be  launched  from  the 
new  base. 

The  old  Soviet  base  waj  at  Kapus- 
tin  Yar  at  the  bend  in  the  Volga  River 
near  Stalingrad.  (See  M/R,  Feb.,  1958, 
p.  61).  M/R  in  the  1958  article  re- 
vealed that  the  Kapustin  Yar  base  was 
within  tracking  distance  of  the  Air 
Force  radar  stations  at  Samsun,  Tur- 
key, in  the  Elburz  mountains  north  of 
Tehran,  and  at  a  third  position  north 
of  Meshed. 

The  Czech  article  said  Mechta's 
first  stage  developed  600,000  lbs.  of 
thrust.  The  main  engine  produced 
440.000  lbs.  of  thrust,  and  two  auxili- 


RED  BASE'S  location,  according  to  the 
coordinates  given  in  the  Czech  article, 
is  northeast  of  the  Aral  Sea.  about  70 
miles  from  Aral'sk. 


ary  solid  motors — which  were  not  ig- 
nited until  the  vehicle  had  reached  an 
altitude  of  about  2000  meters — devel- 
oped a  thrust  of  about  80.000  lbs.  each. 

•  Two  stages? — Experts  on  Russian 
missiles  speculate  that  the  main  engine 
of  the  Sputnik  and  Mechta  vehicles 
may  be  a  two-engine  combination  such 
as  Atlas,  with  each  engine  developing 
220,000  lbs.  of  thrust.  This  is  substan- 
tiated by  the  Czech  article's  report 
that  the  booster  was  clamped  down 
until  full  thrust  was  achieved. 

The  liquid  propellant  for  all  three 
stages,  according  to  the  article,  was  a 
hydrocarbon  fuel  with  a  boron  addi- 
tive, and  liquid  oxygen.  The  ratio  of 
fuel  to  oxydizer,  the  same  for  all  three 
stages,  was  2.4:1. 

The  second  stage,  a  modified 
IRBM,  did  not  separate  from  the 
booster  until  2.5  seconds  after  igni- 
tion, giving  it  time  to  achieve  full 
thrust.  The  third  stage  separated  in  a 
similar  manner. 

The  exhaust  nozzles  and  combus- 
tion chambers  were  lined  with  tung- 
sten. The  rocket  motors  had  a  mixing 
chamber  in  front  of  the  actual  com- 
bustion chamber,  making  it  possible  for 


the  combustion  chamber  to  attain  a 
pressure  of  23.6  kg/cm2  which,  by 
expanding  the  exhaust  orifice,  dropped 
to  0.7  kg/ cm2. 

•  Chamber  cooled — Though  burn- 
ing temperature  was  approximately 
3200°C,  the  temperature  of  the  com- 
bustion chamber  walls  and  exhaust 
nozzles  was  kept  below  600 °C  by  using 
the  rocket  fuel  as  a  coolant  circulating 
through  special  channels  around  the 
combustion  chambers. 

Thermocouples  regulated  the  flow 
of  the  coolant  fuel,  which  when 
warmed  was  returned  to  the  fuel  tanks 
and  re-mixed  with  the  cold  fuel. 

The  injection  pressure  of  the  fuel 
varied  from  135  to  180  kg/cm2,  ac- 
cording to  the  thrust  required  to  main- 
tain a  speed  predetermined  by  an  inte- 
grator working  in  conjunction  with  the 
stabilizing  gear  of  the  third  starge. 

The  injectors  for  fuel  and  oxygen 
in  the  third-stage  rocket  motor  were 
equipped  with  magnetic  needle  valves 
controlled  by  perforated  program  cards. 

The  fuel  pumps,  used  in  all  three 
stages,  were  driven  by  steam  turbines 
which  in  turn  were  driven  by  diverting 
burning  gases  from  the  combustion 
chamber.  A  special  compressor  was 
used  at  launch. 

The  article  stated  that  all  pre-launch 
functions  were  automatic. 

The  trajectory,  according  to  the 
article,  had  been  previously  fed  into 
perforated  aluminum  cards,  which,  with 
the  aid  of  two  electronic  computers, 
directed  the  vehicle's  third-stage  guid- 
ance system.  The  ground  station  was 
located  one  kilometer  from  the  firing 
base. 

The  flight  path  of  Mechta  was  mon- 
itored, according  to  the  article,  by 
13  ground  stations  in  Russia  (one 
main  station  and  12  secondary  sta- 
tions), equipped  with  Doppler,  radar, 
and  photo-theodolite  instruments.  All 
three  equipment  systems  were  set  up 
on  a  common  mounts  which  could  ro- 
tate horizontally  as  well  as  vertically. 
The  stations  were  interconnected  by 
cable. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


2! 


astronautics  engineering 

Exploring  Beryllium's  Potential 


But  Martin  Co.  metals  researcher  says  beryllium  technology  must  be 
greatly  expanded  before  it  can  become  a  truly  useful  material.  Progress 
is  defined  in  overcoming  extreme  brittleness  and  in  working  the  metal. 


by  Charles  J.  Giemza 

Baltimore — Beryllium's  unusual 
combination  of  mechanical  and  phys- 
ical properties  is  generating  interest  in 
its  potential  application  to  missile  and 
other  airframe  structures.  Investigation 
so  far,  however,  indicates  the  light- 
weight metal's  utilization  in  structures 
will  depend  upon  qualities  beyond  sheer 
mechanical  superiority. 

For  before  these  advantages  can  be 
realized,  it  will  be  necessary  to  sub- 
stantially enlarge  beryllium  technology. 

The  necessary  transition  from  the 
basic  material  forms  to  an  element  of 
the  structure  must  be  accomplished 
without  incurring  a  significant  compro- 
mise of  the  material's  virgin  charac- 
teristics, presuming  the  original  prop- 
erties approach  ideality. 

Admittedly,  it  is  possible  to  em- 
ploy beryllium — as  it  is  presently 
known — in  structures  where  the  design 
conditions  are  quite  conservative.  But 
this  approach  is  hardly  ingenious  and 
produces  no  contribution.  Indeed,  it  is 
an  imposed  limitation  which  may  fore- 
stall a  more  rapid  and  complete  de- 
velopment of  structural  beryllium. 

Furthermore,  the  seriousness  of  pos- 
sible catastrophic  structural  failures,  if 
underdeveloped  beryllium  should  be 
employed,  cannot  be  minimized.  The 
assurance  of  beryllium's  structural  in- 
tegrity will  be  achieved  only  when  the 
damaging  factors  are  clearly  estab- 
lished and — having  been  identified — 
are  either  reduced  or  eliminated 
through  defined  fabrication  processes 
and  design. 

•  Re-entry  vehicle  design — Efficient 
structural  design  implies  that  the  struc- 
tural material  would  be  fully  exploited. 
The  comparison  of  beryllium's  indivi- 
dual properties — density,  strength,  stiff- 
ness— to  other  materials'  properties  may 
be  misleading.  Even  the  combination 
of  beryllium's  properties  may  not  be 
particularly  advantageous  in  some  de- 
sign applications.  Therefore,  structural 
indices  of  strength-density  or  modulus- 
density  ratios,  while  indicating  an  ap- 


About  the  Author: 

Mr.  Giemza  is  supervisor  of  metals 
research  at  The  Martin  Co.,  Baltimore. 
For  his  part  in  developing  the  nation's 
first  beryllium  structure  meeting  pri- 
mary structural  standards,  Giemza  re- 
ceived the  Achievement  of  the  Year 
Award  from  the  American  Rocket 
Society. 


parent  advantage,  provide  no  clue  to 
beryllium's  superiority. 

In  one  hypothetical  design  of  a  re- 
entry vehicle,  advantage  was  taken  of 
all  mechanical  and  physical  properties 
— strength,  stiffness,  density,  specific 
heat,  themal  conductivity,  oxidation  re- 
sistance and  creep  resistance.  The  de- 
sign— a  composite,  thermally  protected 
beryllium  structure — was  superior  (for 
the  mission  profile  in  question)  to  alter- 
native designs  made  from  other  ma- 
terials in  these  respects: 

•  Auxiliary  cooling  was  not  re- 
quired. 


Notes:!.  Arrows  indicate  direction  of  slip  or  fracture 
2.  Only  significant  slip  or  fracture  is  considered 


FIG.  1 — Beryllium  unit  cell,  principal 
slip  and  fracture  planes. 


•  The  beryllium  composite  struc- 
ture was  substantially  lighter. 

•  Attainment  of  an  arbitrary  tem- 
perature (above  the  initial  condition) 
occurred  appreciably  after  that  de- 
veloped in  the  alternative  designs — 
thus  effectively  extending  the  range  and 
preserving  a  higher  structural  strength 
throughout  the  mission. 

•  A  critical  dynamic  condition  was 
eliminated. 

Speculative  design  studies  do  not, 
however,  solve  the  immediate  problems 
which  prevent  the  realization  of  these 
designs.  Excepting  the  semi-structural 
and  non-structural  employment  of 
beryllium,  no  practical  design  experi- 
ence has  been  generated.  Moreover,  no 
commercial  beryllium  product  has  been 
developed  which  could  be  construed  as 
a  primary  airframe  structural  material. 
Although  these  observations  appear 
pessimistic,  one  must  consider  that  the 
premature  employment  of  beryllium 
would  not  provide  a  fair  evaluation  of 
its  total  potential. 

If  the  time  when  structural  beryl- 
lium becomes  available  is  to  be  short- 
ened, the  comparatively  modest  beryl- 
lium development  effort  will  require 
new  emphasis.  It  would  be  timely, 
therefore,  to  review  the  factors  which 
would  have  a  bearing  on  the  attain- 
ment of  goals  in  the  development  of 
structural  beryllium. 

•  Crystallographic  texture — Because 
the  developed  properties  and  charac- 
teristics of  beryllium  depend  on  the 
arrangement  of  crystals  in  the  poly- 
crystalline  aggregate,  it  is  necessary  to 
explicitly  define  the  fabrication  parame- 
ters and  consequently  the  mode  of 
fabrication  which  will  impart  the  de- 
sired texture. 

•  Forming — Forming  which  is  per- 
formed subsequent  to  the  original  fab- 
rication— will  alter  what  may  have 
been  an  ideal  texture.  In  addition,  the 
rather  poor  formability  of  beryllium 
will  require  a  thorough  study  in  this 
respect.  The  possible  alteration  of  the 
crystallographic  texture  by  forming 
will  require  a  specification  of  the  de- 

(continued  on  page  29) 


22 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


Sixth  sense  for  the  hunter-killers 


"Our  greatest  need  is  for  longer  range  detection  equipment  and  the  weapons  to  give  us 
the  kill  capability  by  the  time  we  have  the  extended  range  search  and  identification 
gear."'— Rear  Admiral  John  Thach,  Commander  Anti-Submarine  Defense  Group  ALFA. 


The  Navy's  Special  Task  Group  Alfa— 
the  Hunter-Killers  who  defend  against 
enemy  submarines — must  find  faster  and 
deadlier  means  of  detecting  and  destroy- 
ing enemy  submarines  in  time  of  war. 
Submarines  launching  nuclear  warheads 
could  destroy  major  cities  and  military 
installations  in  a  matter  of  minutes.' 

ARMA  has  accepted  the  challenge  to 
provide  for  the  Navy's  greatest  ASW 


need,  insuring  our  future  by  swifter  and 
surer  elimination  of  the  undersea  threat. 

This  and  Other  top-priority  projects 
are  underway  at  ARMA — longtime  de- 
veloper of  new  concepts  and  equipment 
for  the  American  military. 

ARMA,  Garden  City,  N.Y.,  a  division 
of  American  Bosch  Arma  Corporation 
.  . .  The  Future  Is  Our  Business. 

4942-A 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1 959 


VALVING 


EXPLOSIVES  AT 

WORK 


IGNITING 


DESTRUCTING 


DISCONNECTING 


missile  hardware 


When  it  comes  to  the  problems  of  putting 
propellants  and  explosives  to  work  on  the  actu- 
ating jobs  in  and  around  missiles,  Beckman  & 
Whitley  offers  a  background  gained  in  ten 
years  of  pioneering.  Examples  shown  are  just  a 
few  selections  of  solutions  to  typical  problems. 

They  include  a  zero-leakage  re-usable  non- 
contaminating  valve,  a  lanyard-armed  destruct 
package,  a  rocket-engine  starter  for  operation 
at  altitude,  and  a  standard  electrical  connector 


adapted  for  propellant-actuated  disconnecting. 
Our  case-history  files  are  full  of  other  exam- 
ples, and  if  these  don't  happen  to  touch  on 
your  present  problems,  some  of  the  others 
undoubtedly  will. 

This  engineering  capability,  these  production 
facilities,  and  our  tradition  of  performance  and 
reliability  are  at  your  disposal.  Applications- 
engineering  assistance  is  available  in  the 
solution  of  your  problems. 


SAN  CARLOS  16,  CALIFORNIA 


INC. 


circi*  t*m.  8  on  Subs.riber  Service  Cord.       missiles  and  rockets,  September  7 


Missiles  &  Rockets  Astrolog  /  Septenf^ 


PROJECT  CONTRACTORS 

—                  i   _  

DESCRIPTION 

1  STATUS 

SPACE  VEHICLES 

ATLAS-ABLE  (NASA] 

STL,    prime;    GE,  Burroughs,  Arma, 
guidance;   Rocketdyne,  Aerojet-Gen- 
eral, ABL,  propulsion 

Orbit   200-1  b.   vehicle   around  moon 
or  send  into  deep  space 

Moon    orbit   attempt   scheduled  for 
October 

CENTAUR  (NASA) 

Convair,  prime;  Pratt  &  Whitney/JPL, 
propulsion 

Soft-land  730-1  b.  on  moon 

First  test  flight  in  fall,  1961 

COURIER  ( ARPA-Army) 

Army  Signal  Corps,  prime 

Delayed     repeater  communications 
satellite 

R&D;  satellite  in  advanced  stage 

DISCOVERER  (ARPA-AF) 

Lockheed,  prime 

Thor-Agena  launchings  of  early  stabi- 
lized satellites 

6  launched;  3  in  orbit  and  stabilized; 
ejected  capsules  not  recovered 

DYNA-SOAR  1  (Air  Force) 

Boeing  and  Martin/Bell,  competing 

Boost-glide  orbital  test  vehicle 

Late  study  stage 

JUPITER-C  (NASA) 

ABMA/Chrysler,  prime;  Sperry,  guid- 
ance; Rocketdyne,  JPL,  propulsion 

Early  satellite  booster;  small  payload 

Being  phased  out 

JUNO  II  (NASA) 

ABMA  Chrysler,  prime;  Ford  Instru- 
ment,  guid.;   Rocketdyne  JPL,  prop. 

Early  deep  space  booster;  small  pay- 
load 

Being  phased  out 

MERCURY  (NASA) 

NASA,  prime;  McDonnell,  capsule 

First  manned  satellite 

Capsule  testing  being  conducted 

MIDAS  ( ARPA-Air  Force) 

Lockheed,  prime 

Early-warning  satellite;  detect  ICBM 
launchings  by  infrared   before  birds 
leave  pad 

R&D 

MRS.  V  (ARPA) 

No  prime  announced 

Manueverable,  recoverable  space  ve- 
hicle; also  known  as  DYNA-SOAR  II 

Early  R&D 

NOTUS  (ARPA-Army) 

G.E.,  polar  communication  system 

Overall  instantaneous  repeater  com- 
munications satellite  program 

R&D 

NOVA  (NASA) 

Rocketdyne,  prime;  Rocketdyne,  pro- 
pulsion 

Clustered  6  million  lb.  booster 

Early  R&D  on  1.5  million  lb.  engines 

ORION  (ARPA-Air  Force) 

General  Atomic 

Space  station  launched  by  series  of 
atomic  explosions 

reasibility  studies  under  way;  tests 
may  be  attempted 

SAMOS  (ARPA-Air  Force) 

Lockheed,  prime 

Reconnaissance     satellite;  formerly 
Sentry 

R&D;   stabilization   already  achieved 
in  DISCOVERER  series 

SATURN  (ARPA-Army) 

Army   Ordinance   Missile  Command, 
prime;   Convair  Pratt  Whitney,  pro- 
pulsion 

Clustered     1.5     million     lb.  thrust 

1           i           I-       •  1    TITAM             — —  J  , 

booster;  liquid  IIIAN  second  stage; 
CENTAUR  third  stage 

Static  test  early  I960;  first  booster 

n '        Li                                                            ||  ■•■ 

tlight    one    year    later;  operational 
about  2  years 

SCOUT  (NASA) 

Chance  Vought,  prime;  Minneapolis- 
Honeywell,    guidance;  Aerojet-Gen- 
eral/Allegany/ Thiokol,  propulsion 

r-          i                ,   il*i       I          L          i  n/y 

Four-stage    satellite    launcher;  200- 
300  lb.  payload  in  orbit 

Operational  next  spring 

CI  I7A  K  1  C \     1  A  D  D  A  \ 

SUZANCJ  (AKrAJ 

Space  platform  to  be  used  as  base 
for  staging  and  other  missions 

Feasibility  studies 

THOR-ABLE  (NASA) 

STL,      prime;  Rocketdyne/Aerojet- 
General/ABL,  propulsion 

Early  deep  space  booster 

Sun  orbit  shot  in  December 

THOR-DELTA  (NASA) 

STL,  prime;  IT&T,  guidance;  Rocket- 
dyne/Aerojet-General/Allegany,prop. 

Put  65-1  b.  satellite  in   orbit  around 
moon 

R&D;  first  flight  early  I960 

TRANSIT  (ARPA-Navy) 

Lockheed  and  Johns  Hopkins  Labor- 
atory, prime 

Navigational  satellite 

Din 

TRIBE  (ARPA) 

Family  of  space  launching  vehicles 

Planning 

VANGUARD  (NASA) 

Martin,    prime;  Minneapolis-Honey- 
well,   guidance;    GE,    Aerojet,  ABL, 
Grand    Central,    Atlantic  Research, 
Thiokol,  propulsion 

First  planned  satellite  booster;  small 
payloads 

Being  phased  out;  one  bird  left 

VESA  (NASA) 

JPL'Convair,   prime;   GE,  guidance; 
Rocketdyne 'JPL  GE,  propulsion 

Advanced  space  vehicle  with  ATLAS; 
second    stage   start-restart;   can  put 
980  lbs.  around  moon 

First  flight  in  fall,  I960 

X-15  (NASA-Air  Force) 

North  American  prime;  Thiokol,  prop. 

Rocket  plane;  3600  mph; 

Powered  flight  expected  this  fall 

MISSILES  &  ROCKETS 

ABLE  (Navy) 

Avco,  prime 

ASW  surface-to-underwater;  500  lb. 
solid;  conventional 

Deployed  on  destroyer  escorts 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


25 


ASROC  (Navy) 

Minneapolis-Honeywell,  prime 

Surface-to-underwater;    solid  rocket 
torpedo;  nuclear 

R&D 

ASTOR  (Navy) 

Westinghouse,  prime 

ASW    underwater    to  underwater; 
rocket  torpedo;  nuclear 

R&D 

ATLAS  (Air  Force) 

Convair,       prime;  GE/Burroughs, 
ARMA,  guidance;  Rocketdyne,  pro- 
pulsion 

ICBM;  more  than  5500-mile  range; 
licjuid'  nuclear 

29   launchings   of  test   vehicles  all 
types;    14    successes,    7    partial;  8 
failures;    expected    operational  this 
month 

ALBM  (Air  Force) 

Douglas,  prime 

Air  launched  ballistic  missile;  more 
than  1000-mile  range;  solid;  nuclear 

Design  study 

ARM 

No  contract  announced 

Anti-radar  missile 

R&D 

ance;   Marquardt,  A  model/Thiokol 
B,  propulsion 

Air-breathing  surface-to-air  inter- 
ceptor; A  model  liquid,  B  solid;  200- 
400  m.  range,  Mach  2.7,  nuclear 

A  model  operational;  B  under  R&D 

BULLPUP  (Navy) 

Martin,   prime;   Republic,  guidance; 
Thiokol,  propulsion 

Air-to-surface;  4-mile  range;  conven- 
tional 2 50-1  b.  bomb 

Deployed  with  Atlantic  and  Pacific 
Fleets;  bigger  model  under  R&D 

CORPORAL  (Army) 

Firestone,  prime;  Gilftllan,  guidance; 
Ryan,  propulsion 

Surface-to-surface;  75-mile  range; 
liquid;  nuclear 

Deployed  with  U.S.  &  NATO  troops 
in  Europe 

guidance;  Reaction  Motors,  propul- 
sion 

Air-to-surface;  pre-packaged  liquid* 
radar  homing;  about  100-miles  range 

First  sueepstful  tpct  Jnlw   Ifl  I9M 

1  iri,     jui>bC»IUI    'til    t/UIV     IO,  179/ 

CLAYMORE  (Army) 

No  contract  announced 

Anti-personnel  missile 

R&D 

CROSSBOW  (Air  Force) 

Radioplane,  prime;  Bendix,  guidance; 
Westinghouse,  propulsion 

Air-to-surfaee;  turbojet;  radar  hom- 
ing; 200-mile  range 

R&D 

ilAVY  CROCKETT  (Armv) 

In-HousA  Proiftet  at  Rock  Uland  111 

III    1  IVJUiC     I  IU|QI.I                                IMOIIU,  III., 

arsenal 

S  urf  ace~to~surface*  solid*  bazooka 
launched;  sub-kiloton  nuclear  war- 
head 

R&D 

FAGLE  (Navvl 

Bendix,  prime)  Senders  guidance 

Air~fo~airi  lOO-mile  ranije*  nuclear) 
for  launching  from  relatively-slow  air- 
craft 

Early  R&D 

FALCON  (Air  Force) 

Hughes,   prime-    Hughes  guidance* 
Thiokol,  propulsion 

Air-to-air;  5-mile  range;  Mach  2; 
solid;  conventional 

GAR-ID  &  GAR-7A  t  GAR-3  on 
erational;   GAR-4   &   GAR-9  under 
R&D 

GENIE  (Air  Force) 

Douglas,     prime;  Aerojet-General, 
propulsion 

Air-to-air;  unguided;  1.5-mile  range; 
nuclear 

Operational 

GIMLET  (Navy) 

No  contract  announced 

Air-to-surface;  unguided;  considered 
highly  accurate 

R&D 

HAWK  (Army) 

Raytheon,    prime;    Raytheon,  guid- 
ance; Aerojet-General,  propulsion 

Surface-to-air;  20-mile  range;  solid; 
conventional;  designed  to  hit  low- 
flying  planes 

Operational;  units  training  for  early 
deployment 

HONEST  JOHN  (Army) 

Douglas,  prime;  Hercules,  propulsion 

Surface-to-surface;  unguided;  16.5- 
miles  range;  nuclear 

Operational;  deployed  in  Europe 

HOUND  DOG  (Air  Force) 

North  American    prime;  Autonetics 
guidance;  Pratt  and  Whitney,  pro- 
pulsion 

Airbreathing  air-to-surface;  500-mile 
range;  Mach  1.7;  turbojet;  nuclear 

Nearly  operational;  to  be  launched 
from  B-52G  intercontinental  bombers 

JUPITER  (Army) 

Chrysler,    prime;    Ford  Instrument, 
guidance;   Rocketdyne,  propulsion 

IDRk4.  I:_..'J.  -..-1  

ikdM;  liquid;  nuclear 

Being  deployed  with  Italian  troops  in 
Italy;   20  launchings:    14  successes; 
5  partials;  1  failure 

LACROSSE  (Army) 

Martin,     prime;     Federal  Telecom- 
munications  Laboratories,  guidance; 
Thiokol,  propulsion 

Surface-to-surface;  highly  mobile;  20- 
mile  range;  solid;  nuclear 

Operational;  units  being  trained 

LITTLE  JOHN  (Army) 

Emerson  Electric,  prime;  ABL,  pro- 
pulsion 

Surface-to-surface;  unguided;  10- 
mile  range;  solid;  nuclear 

Nearly    operational;    units  training 
with  it 

LOBBER  (Army) 

No  contract  announced 

Surface-to-surface;  cargo  carrier;  10- 
15  mile  range;  also  can  drop  napalm 

Studies 

LULU  (Navy) 

No  contract  announced 

Surface-to-surface;  nuclear 

R&D 

MACE  (Air  Force) 

Martin,  prime;  AC  Spark  Plug,  guid- 
ance; Allison,  propulsion 

Air-breathing  surface-to-surface;  more 
than  650-mile  range;  turbojet  & 
solid;  nuclear 

Being  deployed  with  U.S.  troops  in 
West  Germany 

MATADOR  (Air  Force) 

Martin,   prime;  Thiokol/Allison,  pro- 
pulsion 

Air-breathing  surface-to-surface;  650- 
mile  range 

Being  turned  over  to  West  Germans; 
also  deployed  in  Far  East 

MAULER  (Army) 

No  contract  announced 

Surface-to-air;  IR  guidance;  field 
weapon 

R&D 

MINUTEMAN  (Air  Force) 

Boeing,  prime;  Autonetics,  guidance; 
Thiokol,  propulsion 

znd  generation  ICBM;  solid;  mobile; 
nuclear 

R&D.  Expected  to  be  operational  by 
late  1962  or  early  1963 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


MISSILE  A  (Army)1 

No  contract  announced 

Surface-to-surface;  65-70  mile  range; 
solid 

Design  studies 

NIKE-AJAX  (Army) 

Western    Electric,    prime;  Western 
Electric,  guidance;  Hercules  Powder, 
propulsion 

Surface-to-air;  25-mile  range;  Mach 
2.5;  solid  &  liquid;  conventional 

Deployed  in  U.S.,  Europe  &  Far  East 

NIKE-HERCULES  (Army) 

Western    electric,    prime;  Western 
Electric,     guidance;      Hercules  & 
Thiokol,  propulsion 

Surface-to-air;  80-mile  range;  Mach 
3-)-;  nuclear 

Rapidly  replacing  NIKE-AJAX 

NIKE-ZEUS  (Army) 

Western   Electric,   prime;   Bell  Tele- 
phone,   guidance;    Grand  Central, 
propulsion 

Anti-missile;  3-stage;  200-mile  range; 
solid;  nuclear 

R&D;     major     components  being 
tested;  first  tests  against  ICBM's  to 
be  in  PMR;  first  launched  Zeus  fell 
apart  in  flight  Aug.  26 

PERSHING  (Army) 

Martin,    prime;    Bendix,  guidance; 
Thiokol,  propulsion 

Surface-to-surface;  solid;  700-mile 
range;  nuclear 

R&D;  to  replace  REDSTONE 

POLARIS  (Navy) 

Lockheed,     prime;     GE,  guidance; 
Aero|et-General ,  propulsion 

Underwater  and  surface-to-surface; 
solid;  1500-mile  range;  nuclear 

37  launchings  of  test  vehicle;  26  suc- 
cesses;  9  partial;  2  failures;  launched 
from   surface  ship  Aug.   27,  1959; 
©xpBctcd  op  srs'tn  o    1  Ists  I960 

RAVEN  (Navy) 

No  contract  announced 

Air-to-surface;  about  500-mile  range 

Study 

REDEYE  (Army) 

Convair,  prime 

Surface-to-air;  20-1  b.  baiooka-type; 
IR  guidance;  solid;  conventional 

R&D 

REDSTONE  (Army) 

Chrysler,    prime;    Ford  Instrument, 
guidance;   Rocketdyne,  propulsion 

Surface-to-surface;  liquid;  200-mile 
range;  nuclear 

Deployed  with  U.S.  troops  in  Europe 

REGULUS  (Navy) 

Chance  Vought,  prime;  Sperry,  guid- 
ance; Aerojet-General,  propulsion 

Surface-to-surface;  turbojet  &  solid; 
500-mile  range;  nuclear 

Deployed  aboard  U.S.  submarines 

SERGEANT  (Army) 

JPL/Sperry,  prime;  Sperry,  guidance; 
Thiokol,  propulsion 

Surface-to-surface;  solid;  more  than 
75-mile  range;  nuclear 

Production.  To  replace  CORPORAL 

SHILLELAGH  (Army) 

Aeronutronics,  prime 

Surface-to-surface;  lightweight;  can 
be  vehicle-mounted 

R&D;    expected   to    be  operational 
mid-1960's 

SIDEWINDER  (Navy) 

Philco,     prime;     Avion,  guidance; 
Naval  Powder  Plant,  propulsion 

Air-to-air;  IR  guidance;  6-7-mile 
range;  conventional 

Deployment    with    Naval    and  Air 
Force  units 

SLAM  (Air  Force) 

No  contract  announced 

Surface-to-surface;  low-altitude;  super- 
sonic; nuclear-powered  ramjet;  nu- 
clear 

Study-R&D 

SNARK  (Air  Force) 

Norair,  prime;   Northrop,  guidance; 
Aerojet-General,  propulsion 

Surface-to-surface;  5500-mile  range; 
solid  and  turbojet;  Mach  .9;  nuclear 

Deployed  at  Presque  Isle,  Maine 

SPARROW  III  (Navy) 

Raytheon,    prime;    Raytheon,  guid- 
ance;  Aerojet-General,  propulsion 

Air-to-air;  5-8-mile  range;  Mach 
2.5-3;  solid;  conventional 

Operational    with    carrier  aircraft; 
earlier  SPARROW  1  obsolete 

SUBROC  (Navy) 

Goodyear,    prime;    Kearfott,  guid- 
ance; Thiokol,  propulsion 

Underwater  or  surface-to-underwater; 
25-50  mile  range;  solid;  nuclear 

R&D 

SS-IO  (Army) 

Nord  Aviation,  prime 

Surface-to-surface;  primarily  anti- 
tank; 1600-yards  range;  33  lbs.  solid; 
wire  guided;  conventional 

Operational   with    U.S.   and  French 
units;  battle-tested  in  North  Africa 

SS-II  (Army) 

Nord  Aviation,  prime 

Surface-to-surface;  also  helieopter- 
to-surface;  3800-yard  range;  63  lbs.; 
wire  guided;  conventional 

Operational.    Under    evaluation  by 
Army. 

TALOS  (Navy) 

Bendix,     prime;  Farnsworth/Sperry, 
guidance;  Bendix/MeDonnell,  propul- 
sion 

Surface-to-surface;  65-mile  range; 
solid  &  ramjet;  Mach  2.5;  nuclear 

Operational  this  year  aboard  cruiser 
Galveston 

TARTAR  (Navy) 

Convair,  prime;  Raytheon,  guidance; 
Aerojet-General,  propulsion 

Surface-to-air;  10-mile  range;  Mach 
2;  15  feet  long  &  1  foot  in  diameter; 
solid  dual-thrust  motor;  conventional 

Many    test    firings    in    Padfie;  ex- 
pected deployment  I960  as  primary 
armament    of    guided    missile  de- 
stroyers; production 

TERRIER  (Navy) 

Convair,  prime;  Reeves/FTL,  Sperry, 
guidance;  ABL,  propulsion 

Surface-to-air;  10-mile  range;  Mach 
2.5;  27  feet  long;  solid;  conventional 

Operational  with  fleet 

THOR  (Air  Force) 

Douglas,    prime;    AC    Spark  Plug, 
guidance;  Rocketdyne,  propulsion 

Surface-to-surface  IRBM;  1500-mile 
range;  liquid;  nuclear 

Operational;  bases  being  set  up  in 

f"       1       J                -LI        T     L                            A  "1 

England,    possibly   Turkey   soon;  n 
launchings:  26  successes;  9  partial; 
7  failures 

TITAN  (Air  Force) 

Martin,  prime;  Bell,  Remington  Rand, 
guidance;    Aerojet-General,  propul- 
sion 

Surface-to-surface    ICBM;  5500-mile 
range;  liquid;  90  feet  long;  nuclear 

5    launchings   test   vehicles:    4  suc- 
cesses;   1    failure;    expected   to  be 
operational  late  1960-early  1961 

WAGTAIL  (Air  Force) 

Minneapolis-Honeywell,  prime 

Air-to-ground;    low-level;    solid;  de- 
signed to  climb  over  hills  and  trees 

R&D 

ZUNI  (Navy) 

Naval  Ordnance  Test  Station,  prime 

Air-to-air,    air-to-surface;    solid;  un- 
guided    rocket;   5-mile   range;  con- 
ventional 

Operational 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


27 


U.S.  ARMY  MISSILES 


The  man: 

A  U.  S.  Army  missileman  working 
with  Nike  Hercules  missile  equip- 
ment. The  modern  Army  relies 
heavily  on  the  special  skills  and 
knowledge  of  men  like  this  who 
are  trained  extensively  in  military 
schools,  and  supported  technically 
in  the  field  by  Army  Ordnance 
Corps,  Western  Electric  and 
Douglas  field  service  men. 


The  mission: 

Defense  of  U.S. cities.  Army  Nike 
Hercules  units  are  already  on  duty 
at  many  key  points... have  the  im- 
portant assignment  of  guarding 
against  enemy  aircraft. 


The  missile: 

Douglas-built  Nike  Hercules, 
product  of  a  Douglas -Western 
Electric -Army  Ordnance  team, 
has  successfully  engaged  super- 
sonic drone  targets  at  altitudes 
well  over  60,000  feet.  Other 
drone  targets  have  been  de- 
stroyed up  to  100,000  feet,  and 
at  ranges  beyond  75  miles. 

Status  Combat  ready 

Range  75  miles  plus 

Speed  Supersonic 

Warhead.  .  Nuclear  or  conventional 
Service  U.  S.  Army 


Depend  on  DOUGLAS 

The  Nation's  Partner  in  Defense 


28 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


EXPLORING  BERYLLIUM'S  POTENTIAL 


gree  of  compromise  or,  alternatively, 
an  initial  fabrication  history  which 
would  account  for  the  effect  of  form- 
ing. 

•  Joining — Perhaps  the  most  im- 
portant requirement  for  transforming 
beryllium  products  into  useful  struc- 
tural elements  is  the  capability  of  be- 
ing joined  with  no  appreciable  sacri- 
fice in  properties.  The  methods  of  join- 
ing which  are  available  are:  mechani- 
cal fastening,  brazing,  welding,  and 
adhesive  bending.  Each  method  has 
certain  advantages  but  all  have  dis- 
advantages which  will  require  solution. 

Mechanical  fastening  will  require 
a  study  of  twinning  damage,  stress  con- 
centrations, joint  configurations,  drill- 
ing techniques  and  remedial  treatments 
before  and  after  assembly.  Brazing  will 
require  study  of  intermetallic  com- 
pounds, brazing  alloys,  protective  at- 
mospheres, joint  configurations,  braz- 
ing parameters,  and  crystallographic 
effects.  Welding  will  pose  similar  but 
more  severe  problems  than  brazing. 
Adhesives  will  have  a  limited  applica- 
tion and  present  no  significant  prob- 
lems. 

•  Design  Information — The  aniso- 
tropic character  of  wrought  beryllium 
and  the  damaging  effect  of  many  fac- 
tors will  require  new  criteria  for  char- 
acterizing beryllium's  design  properties. 

•  Alloying — Although  alloying  in 
itself  may  not  prove  feasible,  it  would 
provide  a  basis  for  defining  the  influ- 
ence of  impurity  phases  in  heat  affected 
regions  and  for  developing  filler  metals 
for  welding  and  brazing. 

•  Crystal  Structure — Perhaps  the 
most  important  single  physical  factor 
that  has  impeded  the  development  of 
structural  beryllium  which  would  be 
superior  to  conventional  metals  for  a 
given  application  has  been  the  aniso- 
tropic character  of  the  crystal  structure. 
The  atomic  arrangement — a  hexagonal 
close-packed  system — is  deficient  in  its 
ability  to  flow  plastically  for  arbitrary 
stress  states.  Essentially,  three  atomic 
planes  govern  the  brittle  or  ductile 
behavior  of  beryllium. 

These  planes,  the  direction  in  which 
flow  or  fracture  occur,  and  the  stress 
required  to  initiate  flow  or  fracture  are 
illustrated  for  a  unit  cell  in  Fig.  1.  The 
1010  prism  plane  has  been  established 
as  the  principal  slip  system  and,  as 
measured  in  single  crystal  studies,  re- 
quires about  20,000  psi  to  initiate  slip. 
The  0001  basal  plane  and  1120  prism 
plane  are  the  principal  sources  for 
fracture — having  fracture  stresses  of 
about  4500  psi  and  26,000  psi,  respec- 
tively, as  measured  for  a  single  crystal. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


(continued  from  page  22) 

Comparing  the  three  stress  levels,  it 
is  apparent  that  the  low  ductility  of 
beryllium  is  dependent  on  the  resolved 
stress  to  which  the  basal  planes  are 
subjected. 

As  the  number  of  crystals  increases, 
the  stress  state  required  for  plastic  flow 
or  fracture  will  change — depending  on 
the  geometric  relation  of  the  crystals — 
because  of  the  interaction  among  the 
crystals.  However,  plastic  flow  or  brit- 
tle fracture  of  the  polycrystalline  aggre- 
gate would  be  governed  by  the  three 
atomic  planes  at  stress  levels  somewhat 
proportional  to  those  for  single  crystals. 
If  the  resolved  stress  normal  to  the 
(0001)  basal  plane  is  maintained  below 
a  critical  value  for  a  given  applied 
stress,  then  the  plastic  flow  of  the 
(1010)  prism  planes  will  predominate. 

The  natural  conclusion  can  then  be 
drawn  that  it  would  be  desirable  to 
align  the  basal  planes  of  all  the  crystals 
in  the  polycrystalline  aggregate  parallel 
to  the  applied  force;  then  the  stress 
normal  to  the  basal  planes  would  be 
zero.  Practically,  it  would  be  impossible 
to  obtain  this  ideal  arrangement,  but 
fortunately  when  a  large  number  of 
basal  planes  are  more  or  less  parallel, 
then  ductility  is  evidenced.  In  fact, 
sheet  has  been  produced  which  has  de- 
veloped elongations  in  excess  of  50% 
in  the  plane  of  the  sheet. 

•  Fabrication  Process — In  the  past, 
the  study  of  beryllium  crystal  struc- 
tures and  related  mechanical  properties 
indicated  the  following:  the  mechanical 
characteristics  of  wrought  beryllium 
are  attributable,  when  all  other  influ- 
encing factors  are  held  constant,  to  the 
crystallographic  texture.  More  specifi- 
cally, the  mechanical  properties,  the 
characteristic  response  to  a  stress  state, 
and  the  developed  anisotropy  of  beryl- 
lium depend  on  the  manner  and  degree 
of  deformation.  Such  factors  as  grain 


size  and  impurities  still  required  solu- 
tion. 

The  employment  of  castings  as  a 
starting  condition  for  wrought  forms 
did  not  meet  with  success.  Fortunately, 
a  fine-grained  structure  was  made  pos- 
sible by  the  introduction  of  semi- 
powder  metallurgy  techniques.  The 
powder — produced  by  attritioning  be- 
ryllium chips — develops  an  oxide  coat- 
ing which  inhibits  grain  growth  during 
processing.  The  influence  of  the  second 
factor,  impurities,  was  minimized  by 
employing  inert  atmospheres  and 
vacuum. 

Having  identified  and  partially  re- 
solved the  important  embrittling  prob- 
lems, it  was  possible  to  produce  vari- 
ous shapes  by  hot-pressing  (sintering 
under  pressure);  hot-pressing  and  ex- 
truding, and  hot-pressing,  extruding, 
and  rolling.  In  general,  while  the  proc- 
essed metal  was  mechanically  superior 
to  shapes  produced  from  castings,  the 
material  did  not  develop  the  qualities 
necessary  for  efficient  structural  design. 

Paradoxically,  isotropic  material, 
produced  by  hot-pressing,  and  the  high- 
ly anisotropic  material,  produced  by 
hot-pressing  and  extruding,  exhibited 
undesirable  mechanical  characteristics. 
The  former  developed  only  moder- 
ate strength  Ftu  =  40  -  50,000  psi; 
Fty  =  20  =  30,000  psi  and  low  duc- 
tility (0  -  1%).  On  the  other  hand, 
extrusions,  made  with  large  reductions, 
developed  highly  directional  properties. 
In  the  direction  of  extrusion,  high 
strength  (Ftu  =  100,000  psi)  and  high 
ductility  (10%)  were  developed.  How- 
ever, because  of  the  highly  aligned 
atomic  planes,  the  transverse  properties 
were  very  poor.  Furthermore,  the  ex- 
trusions would  not  withstand,  without 
fracture,  even  moderate  eccentric 
loading. 

When  the  semi-powder  metallurgy 
techniques  were  extended  to  the  fabri- 
cation of  sheet  (hot-pressing,  extruding 
and  cross-rolling),  it  was  demonstrated 
that,  in  addition  to  the  development  of 


Random  Prism  Plane  Orientation 
Moderate  Basal  Plane  Orientation 


Highly  Oriented  Prism 
and  Basal  Planes 


PIG.  2  Crystallographic  texture  in  moderately  and  highly  worked  beryllium  powder. 

29 


. . .  and  B.F.Goodrich  is  selling  it ...  in  the  form  of  microwave  absorbent.  If  you're  in  the 
business  of  space,  this  is  the  testing  material  for  you.  As  you  know,  the  specifications  and 
details  are  complicated.  So  why  not  ask  for  all  the  information?  Write  for  free  booklet  to 
The  B.F.Goodrich  Company,  585  Derby  Place,  Shelton,  Connecticut. 


B.F.Goodrich 


microwave  absorbents 


30 


cirtie  No.  9  on  Subscriber  Servic*  Card.       missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


many  joining  problems  .  .  . 


rather  high  strength,  a  phenomenal  in- 
crease (in  excess  of  50%)  in  the  duc- 
tility was  obtained.  Although  the  me- 
chanical properties  were  exhibited  in 
tests  on  small  specimens,  the  results  of 
these  investigations  established  the 
practical  significance  of  preferred  crys- 
tal orientation.  The  preferred  crystal 
orientation,  termed  "layer  texturing," 
is  identified,  in  the  case  of  sheet  ma- 
terial, with  a  predominant  number  of 
crystals  having  their  basal  planes  par- 
allel to  the  plane  of  the  sheet.  One 
deficiency  arises,  however,  in  that  the 
anisotropy  of  the  single  crystal  is  man- 
ifested, i.e.,  the  thickness  direction  of 
extruded  cross-rolled  sheet  did  not  ex- 
hibit measurable  plastic  flow.  Further- 
more, beryllium  sheet  produced  by  this 
technique  was  sensitive  to  size  embrit- 
tlement.  The  size  embrittlement  is  sim- 
ply a  loss  of  ductility  as  the  size  of 
the  element  increases — which  is  in 
some  manner  related  to  the  restraint 
developed  in  larger  elements — thereby 
generating  a  resolved  fracture  stress 
sufficiently  large  to  govern  failure. 

•  Hot-Upsetting — Recently,  a  novel 
method  based  on  semi-powder  metal- 
lurgy techniques  was  developed  for 
producing  beryllium  sheet  which  would 
better  satisfy  the  structural  require- 
ments of  airframes.  The  method,  called 
"hot-upsetting,"  although  elementary  in 
character,  resolved  many  of  the  prob- 
lems of  brittleness  and  may  have  a 
far-reaching  influence  in  prescribing  the 
manner  in  which  beryllium  is  fabri- 
cated. The  sheet  produced  by  hot- 
upsetting  develops  a  strength  in  excess 
of  70,000  psi  (governed  by  the  amount 
of  hot  work)  and  an  elongation  in 
excess  of  10%. 

In  a  comprehensive  evaluation  of 
the  mechanical  characteristics  of 
wrought  beryllium,  sheets  made  by 
three  methods — hot-pressing,  hot-upset- 
ting, and  extruding  and  cross-rolling — 
were  comparatively  tested.  Respective- 
ly, the  processes  imparted  increasing 
amounts  of  texturing — the  hot-pressed 
sheet  represented  an  essentially  iso- 
tropic condition;  the  extruded  and 
cross-rolled  represented  the  highly  ani- 
sotropic condition;  and  the  hot-upset 
sheet  represented  an  intermediate  state 
of  preferred  orientation. 

Tensile  tests  showed  that  elongation 
in  the  plane  of  the  sheets  was  essen- 
tially proportional  to  the  degree  of  hot 
work.  The  hot-upset  sheet  exhibited  a 
ductility  intermediate  to  sheet  pro- 
duced by  the  other  two  methods  (hot- 
pressed,  0-1%;  hot-upset  \Q-\2V2;  ex- 
truded and  cross-rolled,  over  25  % ) .  In 
plane  stress  tests,  in  which  <rs  =  ay- 
missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


<rz  =  0,  the  inverse  held  true,  i.e.,  the 
highly  worked  sheet  exhibited  the 
greatest  embrittlement.  In  another 
evaluation,  a  measure  of  the  bend  duc- 
tility as  a  function  of  size  or  size  em- 
brittlement was  made.  Although  the 
essentially  isotropic  hot-pressed  sheet 
exhibited  a  uniaxial  ductility  of  about 
1%,  its  bend  ductility  was  consider- 
ably superior  to  the  extruded  and 
cross-rolled  sheet.  However,  the  trend 
for  size  embrittlement  increased  with 
increasing  sheet  size  and  it  was  sig- 
nificantly inferior  to  hot-upset  sheet. 

The  importance  of  bend  ductility 
cannot  be  quantitatively  established,  at 
this  time,  for  structural  applications, 
but  it  is  a  well-known  precept  that 
ductility,  while  not  accounted  for  in 
stress  analysis,  is  an  essential  quality 
necessary  for  redistributing  high  local 
stresses  and  for  withstanding  the  em- 
brittling effect  of  complex  stresses. 

A  characterization  of  the  disposi- 
tion of  crystals  is  shown  in  Fig.  2  for 
sheet  made  by  two  techniques.  On  the 
left,  a  moderately  oriented  crystal  struc- 


ture represents  sheet  produced  by  mod- 
erate deformations  such  as  hot-upset- 
ting. On  the  right,  the  highly  aligned 
structure  is  developed  as  in  extrusion 
and  cross-rolling. 

A  log-log  plot  illustrating  the  bend 
ductility  of  beryllium  sheet  produced 
by  three  different  fabrication  methods 
is  shown  in  Fig.  3.  The  permanent  de- 
flection in  inches  is  plotted  on  the  ordi- 
nate, and  a  width-to-thickness  ratio  is 
plotted  on  the  abscissa.  A  constant 
width-to-thickness  may  not  behave  in 
the  same  way.  In  addition  to  the  plot 
of  data,  some  typical  bend  ductility 
specimens  are  shown  in  Fig.  4  for  ex- 
truded and  cross-rolled  and  hot-upset 
sheet.  The  highly  developed  crack  pat- 
tern of  the  ductile  extruded  and  cross- 
rolled  sheet  is  coincident  with  the 
alignment  of  the  1120  prism  planes. 

The  conclusion  that  can  be  drawn 
from  the  foregoing  discussion  of  the 
three  sheet  fabrication  processes  can  be 
summarized  as  follows: 

1)  An  isotropic  polycrystalline  ag- 
gregate cannot  develop  satisfactory 
mechanical  properties  because  of  the 
lack  of  hot  work. 

2)  A  large  amount  of  the  hot  work 
or  reduction  can  be  associated  with  a 
highly  preferential  grain  structure  and 


1.0 


0.5 


0.25 


0.15 


0.10 


0.05 


0.03 


< 

A 

H. 

Average  Fracture 
Strength  in  Bending 

-c 

tai  nnn  _.: 

II  *  JL.l 

— r 

- 

»  . 

C 

n 

-£ 

r 

tn  nnn  „.,; 

*> 

Hot  Pressed 

/V,VVV  K3 

1 

-  1 

i, 

Si     92,000  psi 

-c 



1 

Extruded  12:   1  Rolled 
Perpendicular  to  the 
Extruded  Direction  5:1 

-c 

15 


30 


60 


100 


Width/  Thickness  (ratio) 


Note:   All  strips  were  0.088  =  0.002  in.  thick  x  3.00  ±  0.010  in. 
Fracture  strength  in  bending  calculated  from  strips  over  1 


PIG.  3  Bend  ductility  of  beryllium  as  it  is  influenced  by  size  and  the  method  of 

fabrication.  A  constant  width-to-thickness  may  not  behave  in  the  same  way. 

31 


potential  justifies  development  .  .  . 


therefore  anisotropic  properties.  Al- 
though the  mechanical  properties  de- 
veloped by  large  reductions  are  appar- 
ently high  in  certain  directions  (as  de- 
termined in  a  tensile  test)  under  prac- 
tical circumstances,  even  ductile  beryl- 
lium becomes  brittle. 

3)  The  manner  and  degree  of  hot 
work  which  produce  a  prescribed  tex- 
ture are  necessary  antecedents  to  the 
development  of  a  structural  beryllium. 

The  structural  superiority  of  hot- 
upset  sheet — established  in  the  com- 
parative examination  of  sheets  produced 
by  several  fabrication  techniques — has 
been  demonstrated  in  the  preliminary 
sense.  Although  definitive  fabrication 
parameters  have  not  yet  been  estab- 
lished, it  is  expected  that  the  texture 
requirements  for  structural  beryllium 
are  significant  and  essential. 

•  Brittleness — The  factors  which 
cause  the  embrittlement  of  beryllium 
have  been  identified,  and  a  relatively 
large  improvement  has  been  made  to- 
ward eliminating  this  deficiency.  Even 
though  a  quantitative  design  value  for 
critical  embrittlement  cannot  be  estab- 
lished, the  incipience  of  brittle  failure 
appears  to  remain  an  important  con- 
sideration. If  the  causes  which  bring 
about  embrittlement  of  beryllium  are 
fully  understood,  then  it  should  be  pos- 
sible through  process  control  and  de- 
sign to  circumvent  the  critical  condi- 
tions. 

A  complete  specification  of  the 
causes  of  embrittlement  would  include 
the  following: 

1 )  Grain  Size:  Semi-powder  metal- 


lurgy techniques  have  eliminated  this 
factor  as  an  initial  cause  for  embrittle- 
ment. However,  subsequent  brazing, 
welding  and  processing  or  prolonged 
exposure  at  elevated  temperature  may 
bring  about  grain  growth. 

2)  Transition  Temperature:  The  im- 
pact transition  from  brittle  to  ductile 
behavior  occurs  above  400°F  and  in- 
creases readily  with  increased  impur- 
ities, cold  work,  and  stress  state.  The 
impact  strength  of  beryllium  is  much 
below  the  poorest  structural  alloys.  Al- 
though impact  strength  has  been  a  con- 
sideration for  material  selection,  the 
value  of  this  property  in  design  appli- 
cations has  not  been  quantitatively 
established.  However,  it  appears  that 
finite  strain  rates  rather  than  impact 
would  govern  in  the  intended  applica- 
tions. 

3)  Impurities:  Impurities  in  the 
form  of  oxides  and  trace  metals  can 
produce  significant  embrittlement.  The 
trace  metals  occur  in  form  of  impurity 
phases — alloys  or  intermetallic  com- 
pounds, and  their  influence  can  be  man- 
ifested as  a  reduction  of  ductility  at 
lower  temperatures  or  grain  boundary 
weakening  at  elevated  temperatures 
(about  900° F,  depending  on  the  mate- 
rial) as  the  result  of  possible  precipita- 
tion of  the  impurity  phases.  Although 
the  initial  purity  can  be  assured,  the 
residual  trace  impurity  content  may 
produce  a  measurable  effect  when  it  is 
combined  with  other  factors. 

4)  Notches:  It  appears  that  notch 
sensitivity  will  remain  an  important 
cause  of  embrittlement   in  beryllium. 


However,  it  will  be  possible  to  mini- 
mize the  sensitivity  to  notch  embrittle- 
ment by  rigidly  observing  a  defined 
fabrication  history. 

5)  Stress  State:  Because  of  the  low- 
fracture  stress  of  the  basal  planes, 
biaxiality  and  triaxiality  may  produce 
resolved  stressed  sufficiently  high  to 
cause  failure  at  low  applied  stresses. 
The  magnitude  of  this  effect  can  be 
greatly  diminished  by  the  development 
of  a  prescribed  crystallographic  struc- 
ture. An  associated  cause  of  embrittle- 
ment, the  size  effect  (not  necessarily 
related  to  the  statistical  occurrence  of 
rrnjor  flaws),  can  at  the  same  time  be 
reduced  when  the  specified  fabrication 
history  is  observed. 

6)  Twinning:  The  phenomenon 
called  twinning  is  an  alteration  of  the 
crystal  structure  generated  by  machin- 
ing or  forming  below  the  recrystalliza- 
tion  temperature.  This  factor  can 
severely  embrittle  the  most  ductile 
beryllium.  Generally,  annealing  and  or 
etching  will  restore  the  ductility  of  the 
metal. 

•  Structure  property  tests — The  su- 
periority of  beryllium  to  other  struc- 
tural metals  must  also  be  weighed  with 
its  deficient  characteristics.  Strength 
and  ductility  determined  by  standard 
test  techniques  have  been  adequate  in- 
dices for  characterizing  the  structural 
merit  of  conventional  metals.  However, 
the  behavior  of  beryllium  is  markedly 
influenced  by  factors  which  are  nor- 
mally considered  unimportant.  These 
factors  have  been  briefly  discussed  rela- 
tive to  embrittlement.  Now  it  becomes 
necessary  to  establish  a  standard  for 
qualifying  the  structural  utility  of  beryl- 
lium as  a  function  of  these  factors. 

The  standard  tensile  test  is  an  un- 
conservative  measure  of  beryllium's 
mechanical  characteristics.  As  the  gage 
width  (size  of  the  element)  increases, 
ductility  decreases:  and,  while  the  em- 
brittling effect  of  size  has  not  been 
carried  out  to  gage  widths  beyond  one 
inch  (generally  because  of  the  high 
cost  of  specimens,  about  $100-200 
each),  it  is  presumed  that  large  forms 
may  develop  only  a  fraction  of  the 
ductility  measured  in  a  tensile  test.  Size 
effect  studies  for  tensile  tests  (con- 
duced by  the  author)  have  shown  the 
occurrence  of  this  phenomenon  in  three 
separate  determinations  for  beryllium 
sheet  produced  by  three  techniques. 

The  potential  value  of  beryllium  in 
weapon  systems  structural  compo- 
nents should  be  sufficient  reason,  in 
itself,  for  an  intensive  development  pro- 
gram. With  this  development  program, 
coupled  with  the  advances  which  have 
been  made  recently  in  the  beryllium 
technology,  there  is  every  reason  to  ex- 
pect that  beryllium  will  soon  be  classi- 
fied as  an  important  structural  ma- 
terial. 


32 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


A  new  division  of 

The  Dow  Chemical  Company— 

THE  DOW 
METAL  PRODUCTS 
COMPANY 


Here's  significant  news  for  everyone  who  has 
an  interest  in  metals  and  metal  fabrication.  The 
Dow  Chemical  Company,  pioneer  developers 
of  Magnesium  and  Magnesium  products,  is 
now  broadening  its  activities  in  metal  work- 
ing. A  new  division,  the  dow  metal  products 
company,  has  been  formed  to  specialize  in  the 
semi-fabrication  and  fabrication  of  not  only 


Magnesium,  but  aluminum  and  other  metals. 
This  new  division  has  excellent  production 
facilities,  plus  knowledge  gained  through 
Dow's  many  years'  experience  in  the  metal 
working  field.  Facilities  include  plants  for  the 
manufacture  of  rolled  and  extruded  prod- 
ucts, sand  and  permanent  mold  castings,  die 
castings,  and  fabricated  assemblies. 


THE  DOW  METAL  PRODUCTS  COMPANY 


DIVISION  OF  THE  DOW  CHEMICAL  COMPANY 

MIDLAND,  MICHIGAN 


missiles  and  roclce+S,  September  7,   1959         Circle  No.  10  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


33 


NASA  flight  plans  call  for  ICBM- 
launching.  The  manned  Mercury 
capsule  will  reach  orbital  velocity  at 
about  120  miles,  separate  from  the 
missile  and  ride  horizontally  in  orbit. 

Hurtling  at  18,000  mph,  the  capsule 
will  circle  the  earth  in  90  minutes. 
Going  into  its  re-entry  phase,  the 
capsule  will  be  rotated  by  attitude 
controls  to  come  "home"  bottom  down. 

A  drogue  parachute  will  be  deployed 
at  70,000  feet,  decelerate  the  capsule 
and  stabilize  it.Thefinal  descent  chute 
will  be  deployed  at  10,000  feet  prepar- 
atory for  surface  landing.  Just  prior 
to  landing,  pneumatic  bags  stored  in 
the  rim  of  the  capsule  will  inflate  to 
assure  stability  if  landing  is  in  water. 


NEW  TYPE  OF  RADIOPLANE 
PARACHUTE  AN  INTEGRAL 
PART  OF  NASA'S  PLAN  FOR 
RECOVERING  FIRST  MAN  IN 
SPACE 

The  leader  in  the  development,  testing 
and  manufacture  of  recovery  systems - 
Radioplane-was  selected  by  McDonnell 
Aircraft  Corp.  to  join  the  National 
Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration's 
Project  Mercury. 

Today  Radioplane  is  readying  the  cap- 
sule landing  system.  For  the  project, 
Radioplane  will  use  the  new  Ringsail 
parachute-a  parachute  with  two  radical 
departures  from  conventional  Ringslot 
style.  For  a  new  kind  of  performance, 
Radioplane  designed  the  new  crescent- 
shape-slot  parachute.  The  Ringsail  with- 
stands and  reduces  by  as  much  as  35%, 
parachute  opening  shock  at  high-speed 
deployment.  Drag  coefficient  and  inher- 
ent stability  are  increased. 
To  solve  the  problem  of  aerodynamic 
heat  without  loss  of  strength.  Radioplane 
is  presently  developing  a  high-tempera- 
ture-tolerant fabric  for  drag  devices. 
This  landing  system  for  Project  Mercury 
exemplifies  Radioplane's  unique  capabil- 
ities. Scientists  and  engineers  in  Radio- 
plane's  Paradynamics  Group  combine 
their  experience  in  the  recovery  field 
with  the  newest  in  equipment  to  develop 
systems  with  the  highest  degree  of  reli- 
ability. They  are  continually  solving  the 
increasingly  complex  recovery  problems 
of  the  space  age  -  producing  the  most 
efficient  answers -at  minimum  cost. 


RADIOPLANE 

Von  Nuys,  Californio,  ond  El  Paso,  Texas 
A  Division  of  NORTHROP  CORPORATION 


cirdo  No.  ii  on  Subscriber  service  Cord.      missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


new  missile  products 


Space  Temperatures  Simulated  in  Chamber 


One  of  the  problems  of  the  Space 
Age  is  development  of  materials  that 
can  withstand  sudden  and  extreme 
temperature  changes.  Accompanying 
this  is  a  need  for  equipment  to  test 
them. 

Such  a  piece  of  equipment  is  the 
environmental  chamber.  This  is  a  box- 
like unit  in  which  temperature,  air 
pressure  and  humidity  can  be  carefully 
regulated  to  test  airplane,  missile  and 
rocket  components  under  conditions 
simulating  those  encountered  in  flight. 

Recently  the  U.S.  Navy  asked  Web- 
ber Engineering  Corp.  to  develop  a 
chamber  that  would  test  materials  at 
1000°F.  This  is  hot  enough  to  melt  lead 
or  zinc,  and  to  consume  a  piece  of 
cloth  almost  instantaneously. 

Interior  volume  of  the  chamber  was 
to  be  27  cubic  feet.  Because  of  the  heat 
extremes  involved,  heavy  insulation  be- 
tween the  inner  and  outer  shells  would 
be  necessary.  But  if  the  insulating  ma- 
terials previously  used  for  environmen- 
tal chambers  were  employed,  each  wall 
would  have  to  be  16  to  18  inches  thick, 
drastically  increasing  the  amount  of 
floor  space  needed  for  equipment. 

Webber's  engineers  found  the  rein- 
forced insulating  material  needed  in 
Foamsil,  a  light-weight,  99%  pure 
fused  silica  foam  developed  by  the 
Pittsburgh  Corning  Corporation.  Tests 
proved  that  Foamsil  could  withstand 
up  to  2200°F.,  1200°  above  the  Navy's 
specified  ceiling.  It  also  was  tested  suc- 
cessfully at  1500°  for  96  hours  and 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


minus  2000  degrees  for  another  96 
hours. 

A  shock  test  also  was  run,  in  which 
the  temperature  of  the  testing  chamber 
was  raised  from  80  degrees  ambient  to 
1000  degrees  in  15  minutes.  The  level 
was  then  dropped  to  100  below  zero 
with  no  damage  or  breakdown  in  the 
insulating  material. 

Most  important,  it  was  determined 
that  all  the  Navy's  requirements  could 
be  met  or  surpassed  by  a  chamber  with 
Foamsil  walls  only  six  inches  thick. 
These  consisted  of  three  layers  of  17- 
inch  by  22-inch  by  2-inch  blocks, 
bonded  together  and  to  the  cabinet  wall 
with  a  bonding  material  capable  of 
withstanding  the  required  temperature 
range. 

The  entire  cabinet  was  insulated 
with  Foamsil  blocks,  weighing  a  com- 
bined 945  pounds.  Insulating  cost  was 
about  one-fifth  of  that  for  a  chamber 
with  18-inch  walls  of  other  available 
materials.  In  addition,  a  chamber  with 
thicker  walls  would  have  required  sub- 
stantially more  steel  and  additional 
labor  to  construct. 

Foamsil  also  proved  rugged  and 
easy  to  handle.  It  has  a  compressive 
strength  of  200  pounds  per  square 
inch,  and  it  can  be  drilled,  sawed  or 
cut.  It  does  not  absorb  moisture.  As  a 
result  there  was  no  condensation  on 
the  exterior  of  the  chamber  with  low 
interior  temperatures,  and  low  trans- 
mission of  heat  to  the  exterior  with 
high  interior  temperatures. 


Spherco 

SPHERICAL 
BEARINGS  &  ROD  ENDS 

"PRECISION  BUILT 
FOR  SUPERIOR 
PERFORMANCE" 


FEATURING... 

•  Quality  engineered  and  produced 

•  Solid  inserts 

•  Swage  staking  of  3-piece  rod  end 

•  Wide  range  of  metals  for  races 


Forged  One-Piece 
Control  Link 


WRITE  FOR  BULLETIN  257 


■    A  PRODUCT  OF 
SEALM ASTER  BEARING  DIVISION 
STEPHENS- A  DAMSON  MFG.  CO. 


25  RIDGEWAY  AVE.  •  AURORA,  ILL. 
Circle  No.  12  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


35 


PACKAGING 


at  your  finger  tips  .  .  .  with 


CLEA 


RSITE  TUBING 

the  very  instant  you  need  it 
the  very  way  you  want  it 


—  with  your  own  supply  of  Clearsite  flexible  tubing  and  polyethylene 
plugs. 

—the  fast,  perfect,  economical  way  to  protect  small  products. 

Make  a  wide  variety  of  containers  to  your  exact  needs.  Simply  snip  off 
a  length  of  tubing,  insert  a  plug,  the  item  and  the  other  plug  .  .  .  and  you've 
got  a  professional  container!  End  makeshift  packaging  methods.  Order  a 
supply  of  Clearsite  tubing  and  plugs  today. 


Diameter 

Tubes  per 
Carton 

Price  per 
Carton 

Plug  Price 
per  M* 

w 

420 

$18.00 

$3.00 

V2" 

306 

15.00 

3.40 

w 

258 

13.50 

3.50 

%" 

206 

13.50 

3.75 

%" 

144 

10.50 

4.25 

Vs" 

91 

9.00 

4.50 

Tubes  of  all 
diameters  are 
18V4"  long. 

*Minimum  Order 


THE  WIDEST  VARIETY  OF  STOCK  PLASTIC  JARS  AND 
VIALS  AVAILABLE  ANYWHERE 

m 


32 


□  U  □  □  a □  u  u  u  □  n 

CELLUPLASTIC  CORPORATION 

NEWARK  5,  NEW  JERSEY 


24  COMMERCE  STREET 


CELLUPLASTIC  CORPORATION 

24  Commerce  Street,  Newark  5,  New  Jersey 

Please  send  us  a  free  sample  of  inch  tubing  and  plugs  to  fit. 

Please  enter  our  order  attached. 

Name  Title  

Company  

Address  


Dept.  559 


new  missile  products 

By  using  Foamsil,  Webber  Engi- 
neering was  able  to  keep  overall  di- 
mensions of  the  pilot  unit,  including  re- 
frigerating, heating  and  control  equip- 
ment, to  four  feet  by  five  feet  by  six 
and  a  half  feet. 

As  the  result  of  developing  the 
chamber  for  the  Navy,  the  Webber 
company  has  manufactured  a  standard 
model  incorporating  temperature  ex- 
tremes of  1000  degrees  and  minus  100 
degrees  with  an  altitude  pressure  test- 
ing to  100,000  feet  and  humidity  con- 
trol from  20  to  95%  and  relative 
humidity  in  the  35  to  185°F.  range. 

Circle  No.  225  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

Oxide  Film  Resistors 
Made  in  1/8  Watt  Ratings 

Oxide  film  resistors  in  new  1/8 
watt  ratings  will  be  introduced  by 
Corning  Glass  Works  at  the  1959 
WESCON  Show  in  San  Francisco. 

The  new  miniature  components 
have  been  added  to  two  lines  of  en- 
capsulated resistors  produced  by  Com- 
ing's Electronic  Components  Depart- 
ment at  Bradford,  Pa.  Both  the  epoxy- 
coated  N-60  resistor  and  the  glass- 
enclosed  NF-60  resistor  conform  to 
MIL-R-10509C,  characteristic  B. 

The  new  units  are  the  first  1/8 
watt  resistors  to  be  made  by  Corning. 


Check  is  enclosed  ....  Invoice  us 

Circle  No.  13  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


1 


They  are  approximately  3/8  inches  in 
length  and  1/8  inches  in  diameter. 

The  epoxy-coated  resistor  was  in- 
troduced in  V2  and  lA  watt  sizes  at 
the  Radio  Engineering  Show  in  March. 
Its  coating  is  said  to  provide  excellent 
insulation  and  moisture  resistance. 

In  the  new  1/8  watt  rating,  as  in 
the  currently  available  lA  watt  size, 
its  glass  case  is  joined  to  the  resistance 
element  in  a  true  glass-to-metal  seal. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


A  UNIQUE  APPROACH  TO  INFRARED  GUIDANCE 


This  precision  spherometer  measures  a  unique  material  de- 
veloped at  Hughes  for  infrared  guidance.  It  can  measure  the 
curvature  of  the  dome's  surface  to  an  accuracy  of  10  6  meters. 
The  material  tested  is  unique  in  that  it  is  completely  opaque  in 
the  visible  region,  yet  transmits  very  well  in  the  infrared.  First 
application  of  this  material  to  military  equipment  requirements 
was  carried  out  at  Hughes. 

This  project  is  just  one  of  the  advanced  studies  in  all  phases  of 
radar,  inertial  and  infrared  guidance  currently  underway  at 
Hughes  Research  &  Development  Laboratories. 


the  West's  leader  in  advanced  electronics 


Assignments  in  missile  guidance  now  open  include: 

Physicists  to  conduct  Radiation  Detector  Studies 

E.E.'s  for  Experimental  Circuit  Design 

E.E.'s  for  IR  Systems  Studies 

E.E.'s  for  Servo  Analysis  and  Simulation 

Optical  Designers 

The  salary  structure  for  the  above  positions  reflects  the  advanced 
nature  of  the  assignments.  Please  inquire  by  writing  directly  to: 
Dr.  Allen  Puckett,  Assoc.  Director,  Hughes  Systems  Develop 
ment  Laboratories. 


HUGHES 


i 


J  Hughes  Aircraft  Company,  Culver  City  54t  California 


>  1958.  H.AC 


-43 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


37 


Jack  Lower,  Chief  of  Gyro  Design 
Honeywell  Aeronautical  Division 


I  need  creative  engineers  for 
advanced  gyro  and 
electrical  components  design 

"Way  back  in  1949,  my  team  at  Honeywell  developed  and  flight  tested 
the  floated  gyro  for  control  systems.  Since  then  we  have  become  the 
focal  point  for  a  multi-million  dollar  component  development  program, 
supporting  the  inertial  navigation  industry.  This  is,  perhaps,  the  most 
advanced  program  of  its  kind.  It  has  expanded  rapidly  and  is  now  in 
need  of  additional  top  level  engineers. 

"The  men  I  need  to  work  with  me  are  creative  men— able  to 
develop  advanced  concepts  for  gyros  and  to  follow  through  on  their 
projects.  The  work  includes  all  areas  of  gyro  design.  It  involves  pre- 
cision gyro  and  accelerometer  design,  hydro-dynamic  bearings,  vibratory 
mechanisms,  precision  electric  suspension  techniques,  gyro  magnetics, 
and  ferro-electric  motors. 

"The  people  I  want  have  a  minimum  of  two  years'  (and  up  to 
twenty  years')  experience  in  such  areas  as  precision  gyro  mechanics, 
servo  techniques,  digital  data  handling,  electronics  packaging,  advanced 
instrumentation,  or  magnetic  component  design. 

"If  you  are  such  a  person,  I'd  like  to  hear  from  you.  Just  drop 
a  line  to  my  technical  director,  Mr.  Bruce  D.  Wood,  including  perti- 
nent information  on  your  background,  interests,  and  accomplishments. 
He'll  arrange  a  meeting— to  answer  your  questions — to  discuss  your 
plans  and  the  possibility  of  a  career  with  Honeywell." 

Write:  Bruce  D.  Wood,  Technical  Director,  Dept.  850B. 


"B"        MINNEAPOLIS       *■   ' 

Honeywell  H 

AERONAUTICAL     DIVISION   I H0NEYWELl 

1433  Stinson  Blvd.,  N.  E.,  Minneapolis  13,  Minn. 

Fine  opportunities  also  exist  in  other  Honeywell  development  and  manufacturing 
facilities  in  Boston,  Philadelphia,  Los  Angeles,  Minneapolis,  Seattle,  St.  Peters- 
burg, Chicago  and  Freeport,  Illinois  and  Denver.  Send  resume  to  H.  T.  Eckstrom, 
Dept.  850B,  Director  of  Employment,  Minneapolis  Honeywell,  Minneapolis  8. 


new  missile  products 


According  to  the  company,  this  makes 
the  components  absolutely  impervious 
to  moisture. 

Both  new  1/8  watt  units  have  a 
resistance  range  of  10  to  100,000  ohms 
at  250  volts  and  70C,  with  derating 
to  150C. 

Circle  No.  227  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


High  Speed  Digital 
Printer  Transistorized 

Potter  Instrument  Company,  Inc., 

has  announced  the  production  of  a 
high  speed  digital  printer,  Model  3303, 
completely  transistorized  and  designed 
to  be  integrated  into  pre-flight  check- 
out systems. 

Built  to  conform  to  MIL-E- 16400, 
the  Model  3303  features  print-out 
rates  in  excess  of  10  lines  per  second 
and  custom  designed  format  with 
choice  of  number  of  columns  up  to  20 
and  type  of  characters  or  symbols. 

Storage  and  programming  elec- 
tronics are  offered  in  a  separate  hous- 
ing that  may  be  integrated  with  the 
printer  onto  a  RETMA  standard  struc- 
ture for  rack  mounting.  Any  charac- 
ter coding  or  single  line  control  can 
be  employed  to  control  the  printer. 

Pressure  sensitive  paper  is  used 
to  avoid  the  troubles  usually  ex- 
perienced with  ribbon  and  associated 
drive  mechanisms. 

Custom  designs  are  available  to 
satisfy  specific  system  requirements. 
Physical  dimension  are:  8V2"  wide  x 
8"  high  x  15  7/8"  long  and  34  pounds 
in  weight. 

Circle  No.  228  on  Subscriber  Service  Cord. 


Line  Shock  Tester  Costs 
Five  Cents  a  Minute 

Consolidated  Electrodynamics  Cor- 
poration, Rochester  Div.,  has  developed 
a  compact  shock  tester  which  repeats 
either  of  a  choice  of  two  widely 
specified  shock  pulses  in  rapid  succes- 
sion. 

Designed  for  on-the-line  testing 
of  high-volume  production  items,  this 
new  Hyge-6500  can  perform  a  com- 
plete test  cycle  every  minute.  Unlike 
other  units  which  require  disassembly 
for  a  change  of  waveform,  external 
adjustment  permits  change-over  of  the 
Hyge-6500  in  just  a  minute  or  two. 

Unit  cost  is  kept  low  by  limiting 
capability  to  the  two  shock  test  specifi- 
cations most  frequently  encountered  in 
volume  production:  MIL-E-5272A 
(11±1    ms    Half-sine),    and  Ramo- 


Circle  No.  14  on  Subscriber  Service  Cord. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


C.  D.  Boyce 


October  1958,  when  the  Thor-Able  lunar  probe  soared 
79,000  miles,  was  a  time  of  quiet  pride  for  Clay  Boyce. 
Design  engineer  Boyce  was  responsible  for  successfully 
predicting  the  in-flight  performance  of  the  Aerojet  second 
stage  of  the  Able  vehicle. 

Clay  Boyce  has  gone  on  to  become  an  Aerojet  Systems 
Division  group  leader,  in  charge  of  design  and  installation 
for  the  next  generation  of  Able  upper-stage  vehicles  for 


scientific  and  military  applications.  You'll  agree,  a  mighty 
important  assignment  for  a  BSME  still  in  his  twenties. 

Clay  Boyce,  with  Aerojet  since  1955,  exemplifies  the 
possibilities  that  exist  at  Aerojet  for  professionally  gifted 
younger  men  to  perform  tasks  of  engrossing  interest. 
We'd  be  delighted  to  hear  from  you.  Write:  Director  of 
Scientific  and  Engineering  Personnel,  Box  296J,  Azusa, 
California,  or  Box  1947J,  Sacramento,  California. 


CORPORATION 


AZUSA  AND  NEAR  SACRAMENTO,  CALIFORNIA  •  A  SUBSIDIARY  OF  THE  GENERAL  TIRE  &  RUBBER  COMPANY 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


39 


THE 


Industrial 
Airbrasive  Unit 


We  don't  recommend  slicing  up  the  family's  fine  Limoge  China,  but  this 
does  illustrate  the  precisely  controlled  cutting  action  of  the  S.  S.  White 
Airbrasive  Unit.  Note  how  clean  the  edge  is,  and  how  the  delicate  ceramic 
decoration  is  unharmed. 

The  secret  of  the  Airbrasive  is  an  accurate  stream  of  non-toxic  abrasive,  gas- 
propelled  through  a  small,  easy-to-use  nozzle.  The  result  is  a  completely  cool 
and  shockless  cutting  or  abrading  of  even  the  most  fragile  hard  materials. 

Airbrasive  has  amazing  flexibility  of  operation  in  the  lab  or  on  an  automated 
production  line.  Use  the  same  tool  to  frost  a  large  area  or  to  make  a  cut  as 
fine  as  .008"  !...  printed  circuits  ...  shaping  and  drilling  of  germanium  and 
other  crystals. . .deburring  fine  needles... cleaning  off  oxide  coatings. .  .wire- 
stripping  potentiometers... engraving  glass,  minerals,  ceramics.  Jobs  that 
were  previously  thought  impossible  are  now  being  done. 

Send  us  samples  and  specs  on  your  difficult  jobs  and  let  us 
test  them  for  you. 


SEND  FOR  BULLETIN  5705A. . .  complete  information. 


S.  S.  WHITE  INDUSTRIAL  DIVISION 
Dept.  20  A  10  East  40th  Street,  New  York  16,  N.  Y. 

Exclusive  representatives  for  Arizona  and  California 
WEIGHTMAN  AND  ASSOCIATES,  Burbonk,  Calif 

Circle  No.   1 5  on  Subscriber 

40 


•  ... : 


new  missile  products 


Wooldridge  (6±.5  ms  Sawtooth). 
Purchase  price  is  less  than  that  of 
other  testers  limited  to  a  single  wave- 
form. Use  of  compressed  bottled  nitro- 
gen as  the  power  source  keeps  operat- 
ing cost  down  to  an  average  of  5* 
per  test. 

The  Hyge-6500  tests  specimens 
ranging  in  weight  from  a  fraction  of 
an  ounce  up  to  150  pounds  .  .  .  from 
transistors  to  motor  generators.  In- 
ternal deceleration  eliminates  the  need 
for  rail  systems,  so  that  wide,  bulky 
specimens  can  be  easily  accommodated 
on  the  specimen  carriage.  The  car- 
riage is  MV2"  in  diameter,  and  2" 
thick  with  a  natural  frequency  of  2000 
cycles.  Fixture  mounting  holes  are 
standardized  with  those  used  in  shaker 
testing. 

Acceleration  level  for  the  half- 
sine  test  is  from  lOg  to  lOOg.  For 
the  sawtooth  test  the  level  is  25g  to 
lOOg.  Like  change  of  waveform,  ac- 
celeration level  can  be  varied  by  a  fast, 
simple  external  adjustment.  Maximum 
specimen  thrust  is  15,000  pounds,  the 
product  of  the  maximum  specimen 
mass  accommodated  and  the  maximum 
acceleration  level  attainable. 

Elimination  of  external  braking 
devices  such  as  rail  systems  makes  this 
Hyge-6500  compact  enough  to  be  built 
right  into  production  lines.  Base  is  only 
13"  square,  while  height  is  not  quite 


30".  Simplicity  of  operation  permits 
use  of  inexperienced  help.  Operating 
safety  is  assured  by  automatic  pressure 
bleed-off  after  firing,  and  by  manual 
operation  of  toggle  valve  to  rebuild 
pressure  for  the  next  shot. 

Circle  No.  230  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

nissiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


BX.Goodrich 


B.  F.  Goodrich  Unilock  Rivnuts 
designed  especially  for  aircraft  and  missiles 

New  lightweight  steel  Rivnuts  with  thread-locking  feature 
preserve  structural  strength . . .  save  assembly  time  and  costs 


Ordinary  anchor  type  fasteners  used  in 
aircraft  and  missiles  require  as  many  as 
three  holes.  And  installation  is  made  by 
two  men  who  must  have  access  to  both 
sides  of  the  work. 

But  new  B.  F.  Goodrich  Unilock 
Rivnuts  can  be  installed  by  one  man  from 
one  side  of  the  work.  Only  one  hole  is 
needed.  And  the  job  can  be  done  at  any 
time  during  or  after  assembly. 

This  greater  flexibility  in  manufactur- 
ing procedure  means  a  substantial  savings 
in  cost.  In  addition,  with  only  one  hole 
required  instead  of  three,  greater  struc- 
tural strength  is  maintained. 

B.F.Goodrich  Unilock  Rivnuts,  in  fact, 
actually  reinforce  holes.  That's  because 
the  equally  spaced  V- teeth  under  the 
Rivnut  heads  lock  the  Rivnuts  to  the 


Typical  Unilock  Rivnut  installation  in 
blind  application.  Installation  principle 
is  same  as  for  regular  Rivnuts. 


mateiial  in  which  they  are  installed. 
This  eliminates  the  need  for  a  key  and 
keyway  —  elements  which  ordinarily 
set  up  points  of  stress  concentration. 

The  thread-locking  featute  is  a  short 
crimp  in  the  shank  of  B.  F.  Goodrich 
Unilock  Rivnuts.  This  provides  attach- 
ing screws  with  an  all-metal  interfer- 
ence fit  that  locks  them  securely  in  place. 

Made  from  aircraft  quality  alloy 
steel,  B.  F.  Goodrich  Unilock  Rivnuts 
are  actually  lighter  than  most  anchor 
type  fasteners.  Yet  they  will  meet 
sttength  and  torque  requirements  of 
Military  specification  MIL-N-25027 
for  lock-type  nuts. 

B.F.Goodrich  engineers  will  be 
happy  to  make  recommendations  con- 
cerning the  use  of  Unilock  Rivnuts 
in  your  products.  For  complete  infor- 
mation write  B.F.Goodrich  Aviation 
Products,  a  division  of  The  B.  F.  Goodrich 
Company,  Dept.  MR- 99.  Akron,  Ohio. 


B.F.Goodrich  Unilock  Rivnuts  are  basic- 
ally the  same  in  appearance  and  function 
as  regular  type  Rivnuts.  However,  the 
Unilock  design  is  identified  by  the  V-teeth 
under  the  head  and  the  crimped  shank  end 
which  provides  the  thread-locking  feature. 
Radial  marks  on  top  of  the  head  readily 
indicate  grip  range. 


Equally  spaced  V-teeth, 
made  as  an  integral  part  of 
the  under  side  of  the  head, 
engage  with  surface  of  ma- 
terial in  which  the  Rivnut 
is  installed,  thus  providing 
high  torque  resistance  and 
eliminating  need  for  keyed 
head  and  slot. 


B.F.Goodrich  aviation  products 


missiles  and  rocleets,  September  7,  1959      circle  No.  16  on  subscriber  servke  c, 


NEW  VOUGHT  PROJECTS 
OFFER  CAREER  APPEAL 
TO  CREATIVE  MEN 


Space,  ASW,  and  weapon  system  work 
at  Voaglit  requires  continuous  R  4?  D 
in  methods  and  materials,  structures  and 
design.  These  projects  have  prompted 
exploratonj  work  in  the  following  areas: 

Structures 
( Supersonic  and  Hypersonic) 
Heat  transfer,  thermal  stress  and  deflec- 
tion analysis,  and  stress  analysis  using 
high-speed  computers. 

Manufacturing  R&D 
Welding  and  brazing  of  super  alloys  and 
exotics;  advanced  forming  and  cutting 
Studies;  prediction  of  metal  fabricability. 

Industrial  Engineering 
Project  estimating,  work  sampling,  line 
load  and  balance,  and  packaging  and  in- 
stallation of  new  procedures. 

Antisubmarine  Warfare 
Studies  of  detection  and  classification 
techniques  involving  Acoustics,  Geo- 
magnetism, Geophysics,  Electromagnet- 
ics, Electrochemistry,  Math. 

Engineering  Planning 
Man-hour  and  budget  forecasting,  and 
project  planning  and  scheduling. 

Structures  Materials 

Advanced  metallurgical  analysis  of  ex- 
otic materials.  High-temperature  studies. 
Refractories,  ceramics.  Fusion  welding 
of  precipitating  hardening  stainless  steels 
and  tool  steels. 

Flight  Test  Instrumentation 
R  &  D  in  new  techniques  for  electronic 
gathering  and  reducing  of  flight  test  data. 

Aerodynamics 
Wind  tunnel  and  model  work  employing 
Vought's  3,800-mph  high-speed  wind 
tunnel  and  new  "high-temperature" 
laboratory. 


Qualified  applicants  are  invited  to  write: 
Engineering  Personnel 
Dept.  P-16 

CHANCeM     

Circle  No.  17  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

42 


propulsion  engineering  

By  M/R  STAFF 

Better  than  molybdenum  .  .  . 

is  molybdenum  silicide  (MosSi).  Chemists  and  metallurgists  know 
that  the  compound  is  better  than  unalloyed  molybdenum  at  high 
temperatures:  the  silicide  retains  its  strength  better  and  shows  greater 
resistance  to  corrosion.  The  reasons  for  this  are  now  being  uncovered 
by  Prof.  Erwin  Mueller  (renowned  as  the  pioneer  in  work  with  the 
field  emission  microscope)  and  his  colleague  at  Pennsylvania  State 
University,  Dr.  E.  C.  Cooper.  The  two  are  studying  surface  migration 
of  atoms  under  a  contract  with  the  Air  Force  Office  of  Scientific 
Research. 

Migration  rate  of  atoms  .  .  . 

is  much  slower  on  the  surface  of  molybdenum  silicide  than  on  the 
surface  of  pure  molybdenum,  when  traces  of  oxygen  are  present. 
Mueller  and  Cooper  believe  this  is  related  to  the  strength  of  the  sili- 
cide in  this  way:  Materials  which  are  not  readily  deformed  often  are 
ones  from  which  dislocations  cannot  be  removed  at  the  surface — a 
result  of  slow  atom  migration  and  rearrangement  on  the  surface. 

High-temperature  strength  .  .  . 

of  molybdenum  silicide  may  depend  on  the  presence  of  oxygen  and 
its  action  in  blocking  surface  migration,  reports  AFOSR's  Solid  State 
Sciences  Directorate,  which  administers  the  Mueller  contract.  It  says 
that  when  the  last  trace  of  oxygen  was  removed  from  the  apparatus 
in  which  the  Pennsylvania  State  team  studied  the  metal  and  its  alloy, 
"the  migration  rate  on  the  silicide  greatly  increased  until  it  equaled 
that  on  molybdenum." 

The  most  important  point  .  .  . 

made  by  the  study,  AFOSR  concludes,  is  that  the  discovery  "empha- 
sizes the  need  for  further  studies  of  the  properties  of  metals  in  ultra- 
high vacuums  where  the  absence  of  normally  present  contamination 
may  alter  important  physical  properties." 

"It  may  develop  .  .  . 

for  example,"  the  office  suggests,  "that  molybdenum  silicide  is  weak 
rather  than  strong,  in  a  good  vacuum  at  high  temperatures."  The 
implication  here  is  that  a  material  we  now  regard  as  ideal  for  certain 
applications  may  fail  us  completely  under  some  space  conditions. 

Solid  propellants  .  .  . 

were  the  subject  of  another  recent  AFOSR  activity.  The  classified 
(confidential)  15th  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Joint  Army-Navy-Air 
Force  Solid  Propellants  Group,  Washington,  D.C.,  brought  together 
750  people.  Most  of  them  were  from  working  levels  of  research  and 
development  on  solid  propellants.  It  was  the  largest  meeting  of  its 
type  ever  held. 

Some  solid  propellants  contractors  .  .  . 

who  attended  the  meeting  and  contributed  papers:  Dr.  Raymond 
Friedman,  Atlantic  Research  Corp.;  Dr.  R.  F.  Chaiken,  Aerojet- 
General;  and  Prof.  C.  J.  Marsel,  New  York  University.  All  hold  Air 
Force  research  contracts.  What  they  discussed  and  what  their  prime 
interests  are  cannot  be  revealed.  However,  Friedman  is  one  of  the 
nation's  leading  authorities  on  flame  and  combustion.  He  held  a 
$250,000  grant  from  the  Air  Pollution  Foundation  for  basic  studies 
on  combustion  which  other  chemists  might  someday  apply  to  the 
problem  of  air  pollution  resulting  from  incomplete  combustion  in 
automobile  engines.  Marsel,  a  prominent  chemical  engineer,  was  one 
of  the  first  persons  to  have  wide  knowledge  of  plans  for  chemical 
fuel  (boron)  operation  of  the  B-70.  Under  AFOSR  rules,  their  studies 
must  be  fundamental  and  out  of  the  ordinary. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


Red  Astronauts  Not  Yet  Chosen 


from  an  m/r  correspondent 

London — Russia  is  planning  sev- 
eral lunar  probes  soon  but  has  not 
yet  selected  astronauts  for  her  first 
manned  space  flights. 

Furthermore,  Academician  Leonid 
Sedov  told  a  news  conference  last  week, 
Russia  has  not  even  fired  a  prototype 
of  a  manned  capsule  on  a  simple 
ballistic  trajectory.  This  could  indicate 
the  Soviet  "man  in  space"  program 
is  not  ahead  of  America's  Project 
Mercury. 

Sedov,  head  of  the  three-man  Soviet 
delegation  to  the  annual  congress  of 
the  International  Astronautical  Federa- 
tion, agreed  with  NASA  Deputy  Ad- 
ministrator Hugh  Dryden  that  inter- 

Atlas  Now  Operational, 
Turned  Over  to  SAC 

Washington — The  Air  Force  has 
quietly  added  the  Atlas  ICBM  to  its 
arsenal  of  operational  weapons. 

Air  Force  officials  have  disclosed 
that  the  big  Convair  missile  was  turned 
over  to  SAC  at  Vandenberg  Air  Force 
Base  by  ARDC  on  Aug.  31. 

Defense  Secretary  Neil  McElroy 
announced   earlier  this  summer  that 


Atlas  RE-ENTRY  vehicle  looks  back  at 
Cape  Canaveral  shortly  after  separation 
from  missile  295  seconds  after  lift-off 
Aug.  24.  Florida  east  and  west  coasts 
run  diagonally  at  upper  right. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


national  cooperation  in  space  is  very 
desirable.  Sedov  said  his  nation  will 
cooperate  with  the  U.S.  in  a  major 
space  exploration  experiment  or  a 
series  but  the  question  should  be  settled 
first  on  the  political  level. 

At  the  opening  session  of  the  con- 
ference attended  by  a  record  600  dele- 
gates, Dryden  declared  that  broad 
astronautics  exploration  is  beyond  the 
resources  of  any  single  nation  and 
world  cooperation  is  an  immediate 
necessity. 

Americans  again  dominated  the 
congress.  The  U.S.  congressional  dele- 
gation is  reported  headed  for  the  Soviet 
Union  next  week  to  make  an  opening 
request  for  U.S.-U.S.S.R.  astronautics 
cooperation. 


Atlas'  operational  date  had  to  be  post- 
poned until  at  least  September  because 
of  technical  difficulties.  The  Air  Force 
has  said  the  technical  difficulties  were 
solved  and  proved  it  by  the  recent 
series  of  successful  Atlas  firings  from 
Cape  Canaveral. 

U.K.  Orders  Malkara 
SSMs  from  Australia 

London — A  "substantial"  order  for 
the  Australian  Malkara  SSM  has  been 
placed  by  the  British  Ministry  of  Sup- 
ply. The  Malkara  thus  becomes  the 
British  Army's  first  anti-tank  guided 
weapon. 

Thirty  Malkaras  have  been  de- 
livered for  acceptance  trials  and  150 
are  understood  to  have  been  ordered 
some  months  ago.  The  ministry  did 
not  make  it  clear  whether  the  order 
referred  to  now  is  in  addition  to  these. 

The  weapon  has  had  extensive 
trials  on  the  Ministry  of  Supply  range 
in  Kircudbrightshire.  It  is  cruciform- 
winged  and  is  controlled  by  wires. 
The  Malkara  uses  a  solid  fuel  rocket. 
It  weighs  200  lbs.,  is  about  6  feet  long 
and  has  a  range  of  about  3,500  yards. 
It  was  designed  by  the  Government 
Aircraft  Factories,  near  Melbourne. 

NSF  Awards  Grants  for 
Gas,  Plasma  Research 

Cambridge,  Mass. — Fundamental 
research  in  plasma  dynamics  at  M.  I.  T. 
and  high-temperature  gas  dynamics  at 
Harvard  will  be  sponsored  under  grants 
from  the  National  Science  Foundation. 

Dr.  William  P.  Allis  of  M.  I.  T. 
said  a  $500,000  grant  will  lead  to  in- 
creased knowledge  of  electric  plasmas 
and  their  uses. 

Dr.  Howard  W.  Emmons  of 
Harvard  disclosed  that  the  $300,000 
grant  will  support  research  into  be- 
havior of  gases  at  high  temperatures. 


A  Special  Memo 
from 

ROCKETDYNE 

to  a 

PHYSICIST 

Rocketdyne,  the  Nation's  leader  in 
Research  &  Development  of  high 
and  low  thrust  propulsion  systems 
has  a  position  demanding 

PROJECT  RESPONSIBILITY 

for  a  Senior  Research  Scientist  or 
Specialist  to  perform 

THEORETICAL-EXPERIMENTAL 
RESEARCH  in 
ELECTRICAL  PROPULSION 

including 

IONIZATION  OF  SPECIES 
ELECTRICAL  DISCHARGE 
PHENOMENA 

ION  ACCELERATION 

Desired  Qualifications:  PhD  de- 
gree and  five  years  of  applicable 
experience. 

Please  write : 

Mr.  D.  J.  Jamieson, 
Engineering 
Personnel  Department, 
6633  Canoga  Ave., 
Canoga  Park,  California 

ROCKETDYNE  I* 

A  DIVISION  OF  NORTH  AMERICAN  AVIATION,  INC. 
First  with  Power  for  Outer  Space 


Circle  No.  18  on  Subscriber  Service  Card.  43 


more  about  the  missile  week 


AMC  Ballistic  Center 
In    Major  Shakeup 

Major  reorganization  is  underway 
at  the  AF  Air  Materiel  Command  Bal- 
listic Missiles  Center,  Beverly  Hills, 
Calif.  The  change  involves  establish- 
ment of  several  new  directorates.  One 
combines  the  formerly  independent 
staff  agencies  for  procurement,  and  for 


production,  into  a  single  procurement 
and  production  directorate  under  Col. 
Samuel  W.  Bishop. 

Former  independent  weapon  sys- 
tems organizations  for  Atlas,  Titan, 
Tlwr  and  Minuteman  have  been  merged 
under  a  single  directorate  of  ballistic 
missiles  headed  by  Col.  John  A.  Kewitt. 
Col.  Sherman  E.  Ellis  is  commanding 
the  new  directorate  of  satellite  and 


|  Our  most  potent  weapon 

\    in  the  battle  of  time: 

1 


JLL& 


In  advanced  military  electronics  research,  the  ability  to  do 
the  job  isn't  good  enough.  The  job  must  be  done  reliably 
and  on  time. 

Hallicrafters'  QRC  program  was  originated  to  provide 
not  only  the  finest  of  engineering  facilities  and  people,  but 
the  flexibility  required  for  immediate,  crash  effort  on  criti- 
cal electronics  problems. 

Hallicrafters  has  provided  our  military  forces  for  the  past 
six  years  with  a  Quick  Reaction  Capability  that  has  played 
a  major  role  in  helping  to  win  the  battle  against  time. 

*H  Quick  Reaction  Capability:  Re- 
fer to  Air  Force  Reg.  No.  80-32 


The  tough  jobs 
get  off  the  ground 
in  a  hurry  at ... 

hallicrafters 


Chicago  24,  III 


Qualified  Engineers:  new  contracts 
have  created  openings.  Contact 
William  F.  Frankart,  Di 
Sngineering 


44 


Circle  No.  19  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


space  systems,  which  encompasses  the 
old  directorate  of  satellite  systems  and 
special  projects. 

The  directorates  of  sub-systems  and 
resources  are  being  regrouped  into  a 
single  directorate  of  equipment  and 
installations  under  Col.  William  W. 
Snavely.  This  organization  will  include 
the  functions  of  resources,  installations, 
guidance,  propulsion  and  reentry  ve- 
hicles. 

The  Air  Force  is  pressing  develop- 
ment of  a  large  packaged  liquid  rocket 
engine.  It  has  awarded  a  contract  to 
Thiokol  Chemical  Co.'s  Reaction  Mo- 
tors Division,  Denville,  N.J.,  calling  for 
refinements  in  present  packaged  state- 
of-the-art.  Thiokol's  Guardian  1  and 
Guardian  II  packaged  engines  are  used 
in  the  Navy's  Sparrow  HI  and  Butlpup 
missiles. 

Rare-earth  oxides  research  is  being 
extended  to  July,  1960,  by  the  AF 
Office  of  Scientific  Research.  The  pro- 
gram at  Ohio  State's  Research  Founda- 
tion is  expected  to  add  considerably 
to  the  field  of  materials  for  high- 
altitude  and  space  flight. 

Minuteman  Nose  Cone 
Contract  Won  by  Avco 

The  Air  Force  has  awarded  Avco 
Corp.'s  Research  and  Advanced  De- 
velopment Division,  Wilmington,  Mass., 
a  $36.6  million  prime  contract  to  de- 
velop an  ablative  re-entry  vehicle  for 
the  Minuteman  ICBM.  Avco,  prime 
for  the  Titan  nose  cone,  will  also  de- 
velop advanced  materials  for  Minute- 
man's  rocket  motor  nozzles. 

Ford  Motor  Co.'s  Aeronutronics 
Division  has  an  ARDC  contract  to  use 
its  BIAX  computer  elements  in  de- 
veloping an  electronic  "logical  evalu- 
ator  set"  for  selection  and  retrieval  of 
information  from  a  large  magnetic 
tape  file  .  .  .  The  AMC  is  buying  $5.2 
million  worth  of  APN-59  radar  sets 
from  Sperry  Gyroscope  ...  In  the 
first  half  of  1959,  ARDC  centers 
awarded  $29  million  in  contracts;  of 
the  1038  contractors,  669  were  classi- 
fied as  small  business. 

Expansions  and  Mergers 

A  $1 -million  missile/ space  R&D 
facility  is  being  built  by  Solar  Aircraft 
Co.  at  San  Diego  .  .  .  Wirepots  Ltd.  of 
England,  potentiometer  producer,  has 
been  purchased  by  General  Controls 
Co.,  Burbank,  Calif.  .  .  .  Latest  addi- 
tion to  New  Jersey's  growing  elec- 
tronics industry  is  Oliver-Shepherd  In- 
dustries— a  new  company  which  will 
employ  250  persons  at  Nutley. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


NO 

FIELD 

FIRING 

FAILURES 

WITH 

ORDCO 

SO  FAR 


west  coast  industry 


By  FRANK  G.  McGUIRE 

The  name  Astrodyne  will  be  dropped,  now  that  North  American 
Aviation  is  full  owner  of  the  solid-rocket  producer.  The  company 
will  henceforth  be  known  as  the  solid  rocket  operation  of  Rocket- 
dyne  Division,  and  will  be  as  much  a  part  of  Rocketdyne  as  the 
Neosho  operations. 

The  recruiting  of  personnel  .  .  . 

has  been  growing  in  intensity  and  audacity  among  the  talent-starved 
firms  of  the  missile  industry.  Several  instances  pointed  out  at  the 
recent  WESCON  show  by  Arthur  Hoppe  of  the  San  Francisco 
Chronicle,  are  actually  ironical  and  humorous  .  .  .  though  expensive 
for  Uncle  Sam.  He  ultimately  gets  the  recruiting  bill,  which  is  esti- 
mated at  $2  billion  annually. 

The  recruiting  that  went  on  at  WESCON  was  described  by  one 
electronics  executive  as  "the  greatest  white-slave  market  in  the  world." 
Techniques  ranged  from  that  of  Republic  Aviation  Corp.,  (which 
handed  out  Chinese  fortune  cookies  advising  "A  brighter  future  can 
be  yours  with  Republic  .  .  .  ")  to  that  of  the  unnamed  company 
which  is  reported  to  have  bribed  the  hotel  telephone  operators  to 
mis-route  calls  intended  for  rival  recruiting  suites.  One  firm,  also 
nameless,  handed  this  writer  a  pack  of  recruiting  cards  with  the 
suggestion  that  they  be  passed  out  to  promising  young  talent! 

Of  the  WESCON  Attendance  . . . 

one  in  twenty  was  estimated  to  be  a  recruiting  agent,  and  one-third 
of  the  remainder  were  supposed  to  be  looking  for  new  jobs.  The 
pickin's  are  conceded  to  be  much  better  in  the  smog-ridden,  over- 
crowded Los  Angeles  area  than  in  the  San  Francisco  Bay  area.  In 
order  of  apparent  importance  to  available  engineers  are  the  type  of 
job  offered,  local  living  conditions,  and  salary — which  is  now  pretty 
well  standardized  in  similar  technical  positions. 

Probably  the  most  ironical  instance  . . . 

cited  about  the  recruiting  scramble  is  that  of  one  electronics  com- 
pany executive  who  sadly  related:  "We  sent  ten  strong,  eager  and 
dependable  recruiters  out  to  an  electronics  show  in  Chicago  recently 
.  .  .  and  do  you  know — only  four  came  back!  " 

The  X-75's  interim  powerplant . . . 

will  probably  remain  "interim"  for  a  long  time.  Many  here  hold  that 
the  single-barreled  XLR-99  engine  won't  be  ready  even  by  the  end 
of  1960,  although  some  optimists  expect  delivery  by  the  middle  of 
the  year.  The  research  craft's  present  powerplant  consists  of  two 
RMI  XLR-11  engines,  each  with  four  nozzles  developing  2000- 
pounds-thrust.  The  resulting  16,000  pounds  thrust  is  one-fourth  that 
of  the  XLR-99— a  50,000-pound-thrust  engine.  The  XLR-11.  in- 
cidentally, was  first  tested  at  Edwards  AFB  ten  years  ago  as  the 
first  operation  in  the  base's  rocket  test  facility. 

Production-line  economy  paid  off . . . 

for  Uncle  Sam  in  the  T-33  jet  trainer  program  just  terminated  at 
Lockheed.  The  aircraft,  described  as  a  "transistion  trainer  between 
yesterday's  aircraft  and  tomorrow's  spaceships,"  was  reduced  in  cost 
so  drastically  that  the  final  aircraft,  No.  5691,  cost  1/25  of  the  first. 
Another  example,  also  at  Lockheed,  is  that  of  a  $10,000  annual 
saving  through  reduction  of  console-lights  for  electronic  equipment 
from  150  types  to  four. 

Consolidated  Electrodynamics  Corp.  . . . 

is  in  the  strongest  financial  position  in  its  22-year  history,  the  firm 
says.  Sales,  new  orders  and  backlog  for  the  first  six  months  topped 
all  similar  periods  for  the  company  and  its  subsidiaries,  while  earn- 
ings after  taxes  were  $858,844,  topped  only  by  the  record  first  half 
of  1957.  The  CEC  AVi%,  25-year,  $7,616,500  convertible  sub- 
ordinated debenture  issue  was  96.61%  subscribed  through  exercise 
of  stockholder  rights. 


ORDCO  Sound  Fixing  And  Ranging  de- 
vices—SOFAR— are  engineered  for  no 
field  firing  failures.  SOFAR  units 
withstand  water  impact  up  to  70,000 
Gs,  arm  at  the  correct  depth  and  have 
fired  with  100%  reliability. 
These  SOFAR  bombs,  and  related 
location-tracking  equipment,  have  ex- 
plosive charges  ranging  from  .7  of  a 
lb.  to  10  lbs.  Produced  for  the  Armed 
Forces,  they  are  the  result  of  five 
years  of  ORDCO  pioneering  research 
and  development. 

ORDCO  needs  ordnance  engineers. 
Please  submit  resumes  to  the  chief 
engineer,  Verne  Luedloff. 


—  reliable  explosive- 
actuated  devices  made 
for  the  missile  industry 


ORDNANCE  RESEARCH  &  DEVELOPMENT  CO. 

division  of  Bermite  Powder  Co. 

6856  Tujunga  Ave.,  North  Hollywood,  Calif. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


Circle  No.  20  on  Subscriber  Service  Card.  45 


REPUBLIC  VALVES 


FREE-FLOW  CHECK  VALVES 

No  leakage.  3000  psi.  Very 
low  pressure  drop.  Can  be 
furnished  to  open  at  M  to  35 
psi.  Brass,  stainless  steel,  or 
aluminum  alloy.  Y%"  to  2 
pipe  or  tube.  Temp,  range 
-65°  to  200°F. 


RELIEF  VALVES 

Quick  unloading,  smooth  operation.  Guided 
shut-off  piston  with  stainless  steel  or  Nylon 
seat.  Pressure  range  to  4000  psi.  Brass,  alumi- 
num alloy,  or  stainless 
steel.  Y%"  to  pipe  or 
tube.  Temp,  range  to 
400°F. 


HAND  PUMP 

For  hydraulic  applications  on 
missile  carrier  and  support 
equipment.  Double-acting.  2 
cu.  in.  displacement  per  cycle. 
1000  psi.  working  pressure. 
Aluminum  alloy  body,  stain- 
less steel  trim.  -65°  to  160°F. 

LEVELATOR  VALVE 

For  automatically  maintain- 
ing height  and  level  condition 
in  any  vehicle  with  air  spring 
suspension.  Controls  swaying 
in  transit,  and  off-level  posi- 
tion while  standing.  Appli- 
cable to  trucks,  buses,  trailers, 
carriers,  cranes,  etc. 


LO-TORQ  SELECTOR  VALVES 

Smooth,  easy  operation,  with  low  turning 
torque  because  of  pressure  balancing  design. 
0  to  6000  psi.  Bronze,  steel,  or  aluminum 
alloy.  W  to  2"  pipe  or  tube.  2,  3,  4  ports. 


DUAL  HAND 
PUMP 

2  pumps,  2  relief  valves,  and 
2  needle  shut-off  valves,  com- 
pactly manifolded  for  elevat- 
ing mechanisms,  hydraulic 
applications  on  ground  sup- 
port equipment,  etc.  Alumi- 
num alloy  body,  stainless  steel 
trim.  -65°  to  160°F. 


Distributors  in  principal  cities  coast  to  coast 


GLOBE  NEEDLE  PLUG 


REPUBLIC  MANUFACTURING  CO. 

15653  BROOKPARK  ROAD   •.  CLEVELAND  IS,  OHIO 


Circle  No.  SI  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


contracts 


MISCELLANEOUS 

$8.500,000 — Bendlx  Aviation's  System  Division,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich., 
for  development  of  communications  subsystem  for  Project  jVotus. 

$5,500,000—  General  Electric,  Missile  &  Space  Vehicle  Dept.,  for 
development  of  the  satellite  vehicle  system  for  Project  Notus. 

$3,100,000 — Cornell  Aeronautical  Laboratory,  Buffalo,  N.Y.,  for  con- 
struction and  operation  of  a  wind  tunnel  for  long-duration 
testing  of  hypersonic  missiles. 

$1,535,000— Bell  Aircraft  Corp.,  Avionics  Division,  Buffalo,  N.Y.,  for 
spare  parts  for  a  coder-decoder  group  used  with  radars  to  deter- 
mine frlend-or-foe. 

$1,000,000—  General  Dynamics  Corp.,  for  continuation  of  feasibility 
study  of  space  vehicle  propulsion  through  controlled  nuclear 
pulses  at  John  Jay  Hopkins  Laboratory  for  Pure  and  Applied 
Science,  San  Diego. 

$117.000 — Northrop  Corp.,  Radioplane  Div.,  for  development  and 
production  of  four  prototype  recovery  systems  for  the  Mark  3C 
test  vehicle.  (Sub-contract  from  General  Electric's  Missile  and 
Space  Vehicle  Dept.) 

ARMY 

$4,430,000 — Radio  Corp.  of  America,  Moorestown,  N.J.,  for  UHP 
precision-tracking  radar  for  Nike-Zeus. 

$264,000 — Parabam,  Inc.,  Hawthorne,  Calif.,  for  design  and  fabrica- 
tion of  21  astrodome-type  shelters  for  the  protection  of  optical 
missile- tracking  Instruments.  (Three  contracts.) 

$262,805 — General  Electric  Company,  Schenectady,  N.Y.,  for  electron 
tubes.  (Two  contracts.) 

$191,151 — Steel  Erectors,  Inc.,  Savannah,  Ga.,  for  construction  of 
radar  tower,  utilities  and  electrical  distribution  at  Charleston 
AFB. 

$64,932 — Kuthe  Laboratories,  Inc.,  Newark,  N.J.,  for  electron  tubes. 
$56,475 — Sylvania  Electric  Products,  Inc.,  N.Y.,  for  electron  tubes. 
$50.683 — Raytheon  Co.,  Newton,  Mass.,  for  electron  tubes. 
$31,616 — International  Telephone  &  Telegraph  Corp.,  Clifton,  N.J., 

for  electron  tubes. 
$26,462 — Tung-Sol,  Inc.,  Newark,  N.J.,  for  electron  tubes. 
$25,500 — Raytheon  Co.,  Microwave  &  Power  Tube  Div.,  Waltham, 

Mass.,  for  electron  tubes. 

AIR  FORCE 

General  Electric  Missile  and  Space  Vehicle  Dept.,  Philadelphia,  has 
been  awarded  a  contract  for  research  and  development  of  the 
re-entry  vehicle  or  nose  cone  of  the  XGAM-87A  missile.  Amount 
not  disclosed.  (Subcontract  from  Douglas  Aircraft  Co.) 

$9,000,000— Burroughs  Corp.,  for  SAGE  air  defense  units. 

$1,750,000 — Summers  Gyroscope  Co.,  Santa  Monica,  Calif.,  for  addi- 
tional guidance  subsystems  and  parts  for  the  GAM-72  Quail 
missile.  (Subcontract  from  McDonnell  Aircraft  Corp.) 

$1,365,343 — Canadian  Commercial  Corp.,  for  60  coordinate  data 
monitors  which  decode  telephone  line  signals  from  search  radar. 

$45,080 — American  Institute  for  Research,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  for  inves- 
tigation to  determine  optimal  learning  units  and  optimal  presen- 
tations for  use  with  automated  instruction. 

$26,101 — Boston  University,  for  research  in  statistical  quantum 
mechanics. 

$25,997 — University  of  Miami,  for  continuation  of  research  on 
Nuclear  Emulsion  Studies  of  Antlprotons,  Strange  Particles  and 
K  Meson  Interactions. 

$23,000 — Bogue  Electric  Manufacturing  Co.,  Paterson,  N.J.,  for 
development  and  production  of  ultrasonic  continuous  liquid  level 
measuring  equipment  to  control  both  liquid  oxygen  and  liquid 
nitrogen  level  in  a  double  dewar  vessel,  storing  super  cooled 
liquid  oxygen. 


when  and  where 


46 


AFOSR/ Directorate  of  Aeronautical  Sciences,  Office  of 
Naval  Research  National  Science  Foundation,  Sixth 
Midwestern  Conference  on  Fluid  and  Solid  Mechanics, 
University  of  Texas,  Austin,  Sept.  9-11. 

New  York  University's  College  of  Engineering,  Titanium 
Metallurgy  Conference.  For  information:  Dr.  Harold 
Margolin,  New  York  University,  University  Heights, 
New  York,  Sept.  14-15. 

Society  of  Automotive  Engineering,  Display  of  USAF 
Ground  Support  Equipment  for  Manned  and  Un- 
manned Aerospace  Vehicles,  Milwaukee  Arena,  Mil- 
waukee, Sept.  14-15. 

Institute  of  the  Aeronautical  Sciences,  Western  Regional 
Meeting  on  Frontiers  on  Science  and  Engineering,  Los 
Angeles,  Sept.  16-17. 

Army  Signal  Corp.,  Conference  on  Effects  of  Nuclear 
Radiation  Semiconductors,  Western  Union  Auditorium, 
New  York.  Sept.  17-18. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


EXPANDING  THE  FRONTIERS 

OF  SPACE  TECHNOLOGY. . .  IN 


AERODYNAMICS 


HTWFBBrWffffffwj^ffifffWffy  >s  being  conducted  in  free  molecular 
flow  in  orbital  flight;  high  altitude  atmospheric  properties;  trajectory  studies 
and  missile  flight  dynamics;  celestial  mechanics  with  emphasis  on  orbital  track- 
ing predictions  and  de-orbiting. 

An  important  aspect  of  Lockheed's  basic  research  and  development  is  the 
systems  approach  to  optimum  flight  performance  by  means  of  computer  simu- 
lation of  missile  airframe,  autopilot  and  guidance  characteristics.  Other  studies 
are  being  made  in  the  problems  of  lunar  and  planetary  probes  and  man-in-space. 


Lockheed  Missiles  and  Space  Division  pro- 
grams reach  far  into  the  future  and  deal  with  unknown  environments.  Excit- 
ing opportunities  exist  for  engineers  and  scientists  to  contribute  to  the  solution 
of  new  problems  in  these  fields.  If  you  are  experienced  in  one  or  more  of  the 
above  areas  or  have  background  in  related  work  in  aerodynamics  or  celestial 
mechanics,  we  invite  your  inquiry.  Write:  Research  and  Development  Staff, 
Dept.  1-1-29,  962  W.  El  Camino  Real,  Sunnyvale,  California.  U.S.  citizenship 
required. 


MISSILES  AND  SPACE  DIVISION 


Systems  Manager  for  Navy  POLARIS  FBM;  DISCOVERER,  SENTRY 
and  MIDAS;  Army  KINGFISHER;  Air  Force  Q-5  and  X-7 


SUNNYVALE,  PALO  ALTO,  VAN  NUYS.  SANTA  CRUZ, 


ANAVERAL,  FLA. 


.AMOGOHDO,  1 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


EMPLOYMENT 


A  chance  to 
inject  your  ideas 
and  personality 
into  something 
that  works" 

ENGINE  DEVELOPMENT 

Must  have  a  sound  knowledge 
of  mechanical  and  thermo- 
dynamic or  controls  design 
for  development  of  small  en- 
gines being  used  in  highly  ad- 
vanced aircraft  such  as  super- 
sonic fighters,  high  speed 
transports  and  helicopters. 

Direct  engine  development 
through  design  studies  and 
test  programs  including  flight 
test. 

Determine  and  evaluate  en- 
gine performance  character- 
istics and  initiate  design  im- 
provements. 

ENGINE  MECHANICAL 
DESIGN 

Must  have  experience  in  de- 
signing and  developing  ma- 
chine components.  Working  in 
a  free  atmosphere,  you  will 
be  responsible  for  creative 
and  analytical  design  of  tur- 
bo-engine components.  With 
laboratory,  production,  and 
evaluation  liaison,  you  will 
have  opportunity  to  follow 
your  design  through  manu- 
facturing and  development 
stages  to  flight  qualifications. 

Reply  in  complete 
confidence  to: 

Mr.  Richard  A.  Hollenberg 

Professional  Recruiting  and 
Placement 

SMALL  AIRCRAFT 

ENGINE  DEPARTMENT 

1175  Western  Ave. 
West  Lynn,  Mass. 

GENERAL  H  ELECTRIC 


people 


CASTRUCCIO 


Dr.  Peter  A.  Castruccio,  one  o£  the 

country's  foremost 
space  scientists,  has 
been  elected  techni- 
cal director  of  the 
newly-formed  Aero- 
space Division,  Aer- 
onca  Manufactur- 
ing Corp.  Dr.  Cas- 
truccio has  played 
a  major  role  in  the 
development  of  sev- 
eral military  mis- 
siles and  weapon  systems.  In  12  years 
with  American  industry,  he  has  to  his 
credit  some  200  disclosures  and  about 
twenty  patents  pending  or  issued.  He  is 
on  M/R's  Editorial  Advisory  Board.  J. 
A.  Wascavage,  formerly  of  Westinghouse 
Air  Arm  Division,  has  been  named  direc- 
tor of  marketing  of  the  new  division. 

James  E.  Veres  has  joined  the  staff  of 
Summers  Gyroscope  Co.'s  military  rela- 
tions department  as  senior  applications 
engineer.  Veres  formerly  was  a  sales  en- 
gineer with  Brush  Instruments  Division, 
Clevite  Corp. 

Filtron,  Inc.,  has  announced  the  ap- 
pointment of  five  new  engineers  and  sci- 
entists to  staff  positions  in  the  Systems 
Division.  The  new  associates  are:  Kim 
R.  Schuette,  former  physicist  with  the 
National  Bureau  of  Standards;  Denny 
Williams,  former  chief  engineer  and  con- 
sultant in  radio  interference  suppression; 
Clifford  T.  Culver,  formerly  with  Convair 
Astronautics  Engineering;  George  C. 
Stump,  Jr.,  former  senior  engineer  at 
Martin-Denver;  and  Hollice  Favors, 
former  project  engineer  on  the  AN/ 
APQ53  project. 

Harold  A.  Wheeler  has  been  elected 
a  vice  president  and 
director  of  Hazel- 
tine  Corp.,  producer 
of  military  elec- 
tronics equipment. 
Wheeler  worked 
with  Prof.  Alan 
Hazeltine  on  the 
original  neutrodyne 
radio  receiver,  in- 
vented diode  auto- 
WHEELER  matic  volume  con- 

trol, and  holds  more  than  150  patents. 

Ronald  Compton  has  been  appointed 
senior  engineer  for  computer  design  at 
Bendix  Aviation  Corp.'s  Computer  Di- 
vision. Compton  has  been  an  associate 
engineer  at  the  division  and  previously 
was  affiliated  with  Librascope,  Inc. 

Rheem  Semiconductor  Corp.,  has 
named  David  F.  Brower  assistant  man- 
ager of  the  engineering  department. 
Brower  for  three  years  engaged  in  ad- 
vanced research  in  the  controlled  thermo- 
nuclear research  program  of  the  General 


Atomic  Division  of  General  Dynamics 
Corp.  and  co-authored  several  research 
papers  including  "Atoms  for  Peace."  He 
also  holds  several  patents  on  fusion  de- 
vices and  allied  components. 

Dr.  Alexander  H.  Flax,  vice  president 
and  director  of  the  Cornell  Aeronautical 
Laboratory,  has  been  appointed  chief  sci- 
entist of  the  Air  Force.  He  will  serve  as 
scientific  adviser  to  the  Air  Force  Chief 
of  Staff. 

General  Electric  has  announced  the 
appointment  of  John 
R.  Crittenden  as 
"severe  environ- 
ment specialist,"  a 
newly-created  posi- 
tion in  the  com- 
pany's receiving  tube 
department.  Critten- 
den will  provide  in- 
formation on  diffi- 
cult environments 
in  which  electronic 


CRITTENDEN 


equipment  must  operate.  Prior  to  join- 
ing the  firm,  he  was  associated  with 
Chance  Vought,  where  he  worked  on 
guidance  system  design  for  the  Regulus 
missile.  He  also  holds  a  patent  applica- 
tion concerning  a  guidance  system. 

Robert  D.  Hallock  has  been  named 
manager  of  the 
Leach  Corp.  Inet 
Division,  producer 
of  ground  power 
support  equipment 
for  commercial  and 
mi  1  i  t  a  r  y  aircraft, 
missiles  and  space 
vehicles.  Prior  to 
joining  the  com- 
pany he  was  staff 
HALLOCK  engineer  at  Convair 

where  he  coordinated  engineering  and 
manufacturing  activities  on  major  missile 
projects.  Other  previous  affiliations  in- 
clude: National  Electronics,  Acme  Elec- 
tronics Co.,  Bardwell  and  McAllister, 
Inc.,  Solar  Mfg.  Co.  and  Standard  Coil 
Products  Co. 

Zembry  P.  Ciddens  has  been  named 
to  the  newly  created  post  of  executive 
vice  president  of  Dynamics  Corporation 
of  America.  Giddens  previously  held  the 
position  of  assistant  to  the  president  and 
executive  vice  president  of  Electronic 
Switch  and  Signal  Co.  Before  entering 
the  electronics  field,  he  was  president 
of  the  Palmer  Stendel  Oil  Company. 

Glenn  N.  Hackett  has  been  appointed 
to  the  newly  created  position  of  Director, 
Purchases  and  Traffic  for  Thompson 
Ramo  Wooldridge  Inc.  He  served  in  a 
similar  capacity  on  the  corporate  staff  of 
Thompson  Products,  Inc.,  prior  to  the 
merger  with  The  Ramo- Wooldridge  Corp. 


48 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


EMPLOYMENT 


EMPLOYMENT 


AEROSPACE 
ENGINEERS  — SCIENTISTS 

How  about 
YOUR  future? 

Here's  a  company  where  the  past  and 
the  present  PROVE  the  future  is  inter- 
esting and  worthwhile. 

ic  Leadership    In    Engineering  Design 

ir  Leadership    in    Business  Airplanes 

jc  Leadership    in    Ground    Support  Equipment 

ir  Diversified  Production  Contracts 

ic  Winner  of  Mach  3  Alert  Pod  Design 

Diversity  of  Creative  Opportunities 
*k  Winner  of  Mach  2  Missile-Target  Award 
ir  Builder  of  Major  Assemblies  for  Fighters 
ic  Stability  of  Engineering  Employment 
ir  Expansion  Programs  Now  in  Process 

BEECH  AIRCRAFT  has  responsible  positions 
open  now  for  specialists  in  LONG  RANGE 
programs  on  advanced  super-sonic  aircraft  and 
missile-target  proiects  in  the  following  aero- 
space fields: 

Human  Factors 
Analogue  Computer 
Reliability  (Electrical) 
Stress 

Aero-Thermodynamicist  (Heat  Transfer) 
Structures  (Basic  Loads) 
Senior  Weight 
Dynamics  (Flutter) 
Systems  (Missiles) 

Electronic 
Electro-Mechanical 
Airframe  Design 

For  more  information  about  a  company  WITH 
A  LONG  RANGE  FUTURE  where  your  talents 
will  build  your  own  future — call  collect  or  write 
today  to  D.  E.  BURLEIGH,  Chief  Administra- 
tive Engineer,  or  C.  R.  JONES,  Employment 
Manager,  Beech  Aircraft  Corporation,  Wichita, 
Kansas.  All  expenses  paid  for  interview  trip. 


eeco.( 


Wichita,  Kansas 


Boulder,  Colorado 


Advertisers'  Index 

Aerojet-General    Corp.,  Sub.-General 

Tire  &  Rubber  Co   39 

Agency— D'Arcy   Adv.  Co. 
American  Bosch  Arma  Corp   23 

Agency— Doyle,   Kitchen  4  McCormick,  Inc. 
American  Machine  &  Foundry  Co., 

Government  Products  Group   ....  51 

Agency— Cunningham  4  Walsh,  Inc. 
Becltman  &  Whitley,  Inc   24 

Agency— Gerth.  Brown,  Clark  4  Elkus  of 
San  Francisco,  Inc. 
Bristol  Siddeley  Engines  Limited  ....  17 

Agency — Young  4  Rubicam,  Ltd. 
Brunswiclc-Ballce-Collender  Co   6 

Agency — McCann-Erickson,  Inc. 
Brush  Beryllium  Co.,  The    8 

Agency — The  Ken  Fox  Co. 
Celluplastic  Corp   36 

Agency — Heffernan  4  McMahon,  Inc. 
Chance  Vought  Aircraft,  Inc   42 

Agency — Tracy-Locke   Co.,  Inc. 
Clary  Corp   20 

Agency — Erwin  Wasey,  Ruthrauff  4  Ryan,  Inc. 
Douglas  Aircraft  Co.,  Inc   28 

Agency — J.  Walter  Thompson  Co. 
Dow  Chemical  Co.,  The    33 

Agency — MacManus,  John  4  Adams,  Inc. 
Electro  Instruments,  Inc   52 

Agency — Clyde  D.  Graham  Adv. 
B.  F.  Goodrich  Aviation  Products,  Div.- 

The  B.  F.  Goodrich  Co   41 

Agency — Batten,  Barton,  Durstine  4 
Osborn,  Inc. 
B.  F.  Goodrich  Co.,  The,  Sponge 

Products  Div   30 

Agency — Cunningham  4  Walsh,  Inc. 
Goodyear  Tire  &  Rubber  Co.,  Inc., 

The   3 

Agency — Kudner  Agency 
Government  Products  Group,  American 

Machine  &  Foundry  Co   51 

Agency — Cunningham   4  Walsh,  Inc. 
Hallicrafters  Co   44 

Agency — Henry  B.  Kreer  4  Co.,  Inc. 
Hughes  Aircraft  Co   37 

Agency — Foote,  Cone  4  Belding 
Lockheed  Aircraft  Corp.,  Electronics  & 

Avionics  Div   2 

Agency— Donahue  4  Coe  Adv.,  Inc. 
Lockheed  Aircraft  Corp.,  Missile  System 

Div   47 

Agency — Hal  Stebbins,  Inc. 
Minneapolis-Honeywell,  Aeronautical 

Div   38 

Agency — Kerker  Peterson  Hixon  Hayes,  Inc. 
Nems-Clarke  Co.,  Div-Vitro  Corp.  of 

America    4 

Agency — John  E.  Waterfield  Admasters 
Adv.,  Inc. 
North  American  Aviation,  Inc., 

Rocketdyne  Div   43 

Agency — Batten,   Barton,   Durstine  4 
Osborn,  Inc. 
Northrop  Corp   34 

Agency— Erwin  Wasey.  Ruthrauff  4  Ryan,  Inc. 
Ordnance  Research  &  Development  Co., 

Div.-Bermite  Powder  Co   45 

Agency — John  R.  MacFaden  Public 
Relations  Service 
Republic  Mfg.  Co   46 

Agency — J.  N.  Paterson  4  Assoc. 
Stephens-Adamson  Mfg.  Co.,  Spherco 

Bearings  &  Rod  Ends  Div   35 

Agency — Connor  Assoc.,  Inc. 
Vickers  Inc   10 

Agency — Witte  4  Burden 
S.  S.  White  Dental  Mfg.  Co,  Industrial 

Div   40 

Agency — W.   L.  Towne  Co.,  Inc. 

EMPLOYMENT  SECTION 

Beech  Aircraft  Corp   49 

General  Electric  Co.,  Small  Aircraft 

Engine  Dept   48 

Agency — Hoag  4  Provandie,  Inc. 
Minneapolis-Honeywell,  Aeronautical 

Div   49 

Agency — Kerker  Peterson  Hixon  Hayes,  Inc. 


careers 
in  control 
of  space 


PRODUCTION:  Develop  and  establish  as- 
sembly processes  for  a  wide  range  of 
products.  Requires  background  in  com- 
plex devices  such  as  gyros,  aeeeler- 
ometers,  flight  systems,  and  a  thorough 
knowledge  of  production  processes. 

EVALUATION:  Test  engineer  interested  in 
career  in  development,  qualification, 
reliability  testing.  Must  be  graduate 
engineer  with  electronic  background. 

ADVANCED  GYRO  DESIGN:  Engineers  with 
two  and  up  to  twenty  years'  experience 
in  such  areas  as  precision  gyro  mech- 
anics, servo  techniques,  digital  data 
handling,  electronics  packaging,  ad- 
vanced instrumentation  and  magnetic 
components  design. 

FLIGHT  CONTROL  SYSTEMS:  Analytical,  sys- 
tems, component  engineers  to  design 
and  develop  advanced  flight  reference 
and  guidance  systems.  Prefer  airborne 
systems  or  servo  experience. 

FIELD  SERVICE:  Monitor  airborne  system 
performance  in  U.S.  and  overseas.  Con- 
duct training,  liaison  with  military 
BSEE  preferred,  or  graduate  engineer 
with  high  electronic  aptitude. 

GROUND  SUPPORT:  Senior  engineers  with 
logical  design  experience  and  engineers 
with  experience  in  ground  support  or 
related  areas.  Outstanding  growth  op- 
portunity in  new  division. 

//  you're  interested  in  a  challenging  career  in 
advanced  automatic  controls,  write  Mr.  Bruce 
D.  Wood,  Technical  Director,  Dept.  soua. 


CLASSIFIED 

WASH.  REPRESENTATION  Govt.  sales 
liaison.  Public  Relations,  cover  all  fields. 
J.  V.  Hurson  Assoc.,  412  Albee  Bldg.,  D.C., 
RE  7-4122. 


Honey  well  H 

AERONAUTICAL     DIVISION  V. 

1433  Stinson  Blvd.,  N.E.,  Minneapolis  13,  Minn. 

Fine  opportunities  also  exist  in  other  Honey- 
well development  and  manufacturing  facilities 
in  the  Boston  Area,  the  Philadelphia  Area,  the 
Los  Angeles  Area,  Minneapolis,  Seattle,  St. 
Petersburg,  Chicago  and  Freeport,  Illinois, 
Denver,  and  the  Washington,  D.C.  Area.  Send 
resume  to  H.  D.  Eckslrom,  Director  of  Employ- 
ment, Minneapolis  Honeywell,  Dept.  850A, 
Minneapolis  8,  Minnesota. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 


49 


editorial . . 


The  First  Man  on  the  Moon 


The  scientific  community  which  deals  in  such 
matters,  has,  according  to  reports  reaching  us, 
divided  into  two  camps  and  drawn  sharp  battle 
lines  over  a  most  unusual  problem.  Three  years  ago 
it  would  have  sounded  ridiculous,  even  today  it 
sounds  a  little  remote.  But  tomorrow  it  may  be  as 
pressing  as  the  matter  which  Columbus  took  before 
Ferdinand  and  Isabella. 

The  problem?  Whether  space  exploration  should 
be  done  with  men  or  with  instruments. 

One  school  of  U.S.  scientists  maintains  that  most 
space  exploration  should  be  done  with  instruments, 
that  men  should  be  sent  far  aloft  only  after  years 
of  unmanned  exploration.  This  group  seems  to  be 
pretty  much  in  command  at  the  moment. 

But  there  is  another  group  pressing  to  be  heard 
— a  group  which  insists  that  we  could  learn  much 
more  about  space  environment,  particularly  our 
lunar  satellite,  and  learn  it  sooner  by  using  men. 

Last  week  in  London  (M/R  Aug.  31,  Page  24) 
two  champions  of  the  bolder  approach  presented 
their  views  on  manned  lunar  exploration  at  the 
annual  Congress  of  the  International  Astronautical 
Federation.  They  were  M.  W.  Rosen  and  F.  C. 
Schwenk,  who  emphasized  that  their  views  did  not 
necessarily  represent  those  of  their  employer — the 
National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration. 

They  contended  that  because  our  knowledge  of 
distant  celestial  bodies  is  so  meagre  the  scientific 
community  tends  to  magnify  the  importance  of  the 
simple  data  which  can  be  obtained  by  instruments. 
Specifically: 

"We  overlook  that,  if  an  instrument  can  do  one 
or  several  things,  there  are  thousands,  indeed  mil- 
lions, of  things  it  cannot  do.  To  put  it  bluntly,  no 
instrument  or  array  of  instruments  exist  that  can 
duplicate  the  sensing  capabilities  of  a  man.  When 
to  this  is  added  man's  capability  to  record,  re- 
member, interpret  and  discriminate,  we  see  how 
paltry  are  the  powers  of  the  most  sophisticated 
mechanical  substitute." 

They  agree  that  there  are  a  number  of  things 
man  cannot  do — see  ultraviolet  light,  sense  magnetic 
fields  or  detect  cosmic  rays,  for  instance — and  that 
instruments  have  their  purpose,  with  or  without  a 
man  along.  But  they  feel,  and  in  this  they  un- 
doubtedly will  get  plenty  of  popular  support,  that 
in  the  space  race  with  Russia  we  haven't  time  for 


the  waiting  game;  that  while  we  are  being  cautious, 
bolder  and  braver  men  will  be  on  the  moon. 

We  agree  with  Messrs.  Rosen  and  Schwenk, 
because  in  these  days  national  prestige  is  of  over- 
riding importance.  But  we  cannot  escape  the  feel- 
ing that  the  entire  matter  is  academic. 

Man  is  born  to  explore,  to  dare  the  unknown. 
Just  as  he  has  always  scaled  the  mysterious  moun- 
tains and  braved  uncharted  seas,  so  he  will  want  to 
fly  into  space.  Call  it  thirst  for  knowledge,  quest 
for  adventure,  escape  from  the  humdrum,  search  for 
glory,  a  contract  with  Life  Magazine — man  cannot 
face  the  unknown  without  wanting  to  know  what 
in  blazes  is  there. 

So  we  suspect  that  mechanical  progress  and  not 
policy  will  really  solve  the  question  of  who  is  first 
on  the  moon.  The  nation  which  first  produces  a 
device  capable  of  flying  to  the  moon  and  back  will 
also  find  men  willing  to  ride  in  it — and  a  govern- 
ment willing  to  let  them.  And  if  the  first  man 
doesn't  return — others  will  follow,  for  that's  the  way 
men  are. 

Need  to  Standardize 

The  recent  word  that  studies  are  being  made 
with  a  view  to  forming  an  industry-government 
group  for  coordination  and  standardization  of  mis- 
sile telemetry  (M/R,  Aug.  24,  Page  11)  comes  as 
welcome  news  and  has  already  created  considerable 
interest.  The  inadequacy  of  coordination  between 
missile  makers,  instrument  manufacturers  and  test 
ranges,  and  the  lack  of  proper  and  authoritative 
standards,  has  been  a  basic  fault  of  the  U.S.  missile 
program  for  a  long  time. 

Maj.  Gen.  Donald  N.  Yates,  commander  of  the 
Air  Force  Missile  Test  Center,  only  recently  pointed 
out  that  there  must  be  significant  progress  in  range 
instrumentation — of  which  telemetering  is  a  large 
part — if  the  ranges  are  to  keep  up  with  the  advances 
which  will  come  with  second  and  third  generation 
missiles. 

This  is  a  problem  which  affects  the  entire  missile 
industry — one  which  should  get  the  attention  of 
both  business  and  government.  The  early  indications 
of  strong  interest  in  the  formation  of  a  coordinat- 
ing group  point  up  the  fact  that  such  a  body  is 
urgently  needed — and  has  been  for  many  years. 

CLARKE  NEWLON 


50 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  7,  1959 

Circle  No.  22  on  Subscriber  Service  Card.  ► 


SUBSCRIBER  SERVICE 
Missiles  and  rockets 


For  additional  information  about  any  product  or  service  advertised 
or  mentioned  in  the  editorial  pages  of  this  issue  of  Missiles  and 
Rockets: 

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bottom  of  the  card. 

Your  requests  for  information  will  be  forwarded  promptly  to  the 
companies  concerned. 

NEW  PRODUCT  BRIEFS 


iMP  SHIELDS.  Two  new  all-metal  lamp 
elds  for  the  T-3  '/t  lamp  used  in 
ot  Lights  and  other  instrument  light- 
j  are  now  in  production  by  The  Ama- 
in Electronic  Hardware  Co.  These 
elds  are  of  spring-type  brass,  cad- 
um  plated,  and  fit  directly  on  the  glass 
rtion  of  the  T-3  '/t  lamp.  They  come 
two  styles,  straight  and  flared,  with 
erture  for  controlling  the  lamp  beam, 
cle  No.  275  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

.EANLINESS  TESTER.  How  clean  is 
>an?  With  the  Model  CM- 1  cleanliness 
iter,  manufactured  by  Branson  Ultra- 
nic  Corporation,  you  now  can  tell.  De- 
loped  by  the  Graham  Research  Lab- 
atories  of  Jones  and  La u g hi i n  Steel 
jrp.  and  built  by  Branson  under  a 
ensing  arrangement,  the  new  tester 
ikes  it  possible  to  assign  numerical 
lues  to  surface  cleanliness  where  non- 
mded  soils  are  involved.  For  example, 
9  CM-I  will  measure  smut  residue 
rer  pickling  of  steel.  In  addition,  the 
ster  may  be  used  to  evaluate  I )  de- 
merits and  oils  used  on  cold  mills;  2) 
nealing  furnace  performance;  and  3) 
ficiency  of  electrolytic  and  alkaline 
janing  lines.  Plating,  lithographing, 
ganic  coating,  adhesive  bonding — 
ese  are  typical  applications  where  ab- 
nce  of  foreign  matter  is  vital  to  the 
ccess  of  the  operation, 
cle  No.  276  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

VING  JOINTS.  New  stainless  steel 
ing  Joints  now  available  from  OPW- 
rdan.  Used  as  elbows  in  pipe  lines 
erever  flexibility  and  rigidity  are 
ith  needed.  Easily  withstands  tough, 
rrosive  conditions  and  prevents  prod- 
t  contamination.  The  series  7400 
unless  steel  swing  joints  are  available 
|  l-l/"  4"  sizes;  in  17  different  styles. 
1st  in  316  stainless  steel  and  designed 
'  1000  psi  service;  temperature  de- 
mined  by  O-ring  seal.  O-rings  avail- 
jle  in  a  variety  of  materials:  Viton, 
na-N,  Neoprene,  Butyl  and  Teflon. 
>mplete  engineering  information,  illus- 
ions, specifications,  chemical  recom- 
.indations  and  prices  in  12-page  bul- 
'  in,  F-8  and  SRBC  52-59. 
do  No.  277  on  Subscriber  Servcie  Card. 

SC  CAPACITATORS.  Three  new  high 
oacirance  ceramic  disc  capacitors  have 
en  added  to  the  centralab  line  of 
D"  series  hy-kaps,  it  was  announced 
lay  by  Gerry  Mills,  distributor  sales 
mager.  With  capacitances  of  .03,  .04, 
i  .05  mfd,  600  VDCW  these  units 
asure    only    %"    in    diameter  and 


15/64"  thick.  They  wax  to  withstand  ex- 
tremes of  temperatures  and  humidity. 
No.  22  tinned  copper  leads  are  I'/j" 
long.  Primarily  designed  for  by-pass, 
coupling  and  filter  applications,  these 
"DD"  series  units  are  available  from 
stock  through  electronic  parts  distribu- 
tors. A  separate  group,  the  "ID"  series, 
rated  at  500  V.D.C.W.  are  available 
from  parts  distributors  in  industrial 
quantities  only. 

Circle  No.  278  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

TIME  TOTALIZER.  New  Cramer  Type 
632  time-totalizers  offer  a  simple,  ac- 
curate means  of  recording  elapsed  time 
in  industrial  or  laboratory  operations. 
Time  ranges  available  are  seconds  or 
tenths  of  seconds,  minutes,  tenths  or 
hundredths  of  minutes,  and  hours,  tenths 
or  hundredths  of  hours.  High  torque  in- 
stant start-stop  motor  drives  a  drum- 
type  counter  from  the  instant  power  is 
applied.  External  connections  are  easily 
arranged  to  operate  the  meter  during 
equipment  running  time,  idle  time,  or 
any  operational  phase.  In  all  time 
ranges,  the  meters  are  available  with  or 
without  reset,  and  in  hermetically  sealed 
cases  designed  to  meet  applicable 
specifications  of  MIL-E-5272A. 
Circle  No.  279  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

TEMPERATURE  INDICATORS.  Accurate 
temperature  measurements  even  at  re- 
mote locations  are  said  to  be  possible 
with  Kahn  and  Company's  Thermi-Tran 
Temperature  Indicators.  Thermi-Trans  are 
designed  for  use  with  thermistors,  which 
are  inexpensive,  thermally  sensitive  re- 
sistors having  high  negative  coefficients 
of  resistance.  The  high  resistances  of 
thermistors  permit  the  use  of  ordinary 
copper  wire  leads  of  any  practical  length 
with  negligible  effect  on  accuracy  of 
meter  readings.  This  accuracy  is  plus  or 
minus  2%  of  full  scale.  Coupled  with  the 
proper  thermistor  probes,  Thermi-Trans 
can  be  used  to  measure  temperatures  of 
static  or  dynamic  liquids,  gases  soft 
solids  as  well  as  surface  temperature 
changes.  Thermistors  respond  quickly  to 
temperature  changes  and  readings  are 
practically  instantaneous.  There  are  two 
series  of  ThernrmTrans  available.  Series 
KC-532  is  a  single  channel,  portable 
unit  which  can  be  supplied  with  single 
or  dual  temperature  range  scales.  Series 
KC-871  is  a  panel-mounted,  multi-input 
unit  with  provision  for  up  to  six  tempera- 
ture sensing  channels  and  single  or  dual 
temperature  ranges. 

Circle  No.  280  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


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MISSILE  LITERATURE 


SOLID  STATE  CONVERTER.  The  Rem- 
ington Rand  Div.  of  the  Sperry  Rand 
Corp.  has  published  a  12  page  booklet 
describing  the  new  Univac  solid-state 
computer.  Compatible  to  any  punched- 
card  installation,  and  representing  a  ma- 
jor breakthrough  in  the  field  of  data- 
automation,  this  new  system  provides 
high-speed  processing  at  relatively  low 
cost,  compactness,  and  unsurpassed  ac- 
curacy and  reliability.  Advanced  solid- 
state  design  is  the  difference.  Because 
of  tiny  magnetic  core  amplifiers  and 
transistors,  it  can  be  operated  in  an 
area  as  small  as  575  square  feet.  These 
new  devices  emit  very  little  heat,  and 
power  requirements  are  extremely  low. 
Circle  No.  200  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

SPRING  CLUTCHES.  The  Marquette 
Division,  Curtiss- Wright  Corporation, 
Cleveland,  Ohio,  announced  today  pub- 
lication of  a  new  catalogue  describing 
five  standard  lines  of  spring  clutches  in 
bore  sizes  from  l/g"  to  I"  and  torque 
capacity  up  to  2500  pounds-inches.  These 
spring  clutches  are  specifically  designed 
for  use  in  machinery,  equipment  and  in- 
strument applications  utilizing  drive  up 
to  5  hp.  There  are  five  basic  series  of 
clutches  offered  in  the  30-plus  page 
catalogue:  Series  A,  Over-running  and 
Back-stopping;  Series  B,  Indexing;  Series 
C,  On-off;  Series  D,  On-off  Indexing; 
and  Series  E,  Safety  Lock  Control. 
Circle  No.  201   on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

FACILITIES.  United  States  Testing 
Company  announces  availability  of  a  new 
six-page  Bulletin  5902,  describing  the 
company's  Materials  Evaluation  Division's 
facilities  and  services  for  analysis,  de- 
velopment, research  and  inspection  of 
materials  and  products.  Among  the  serv- 
ices offered  are  metallurgical  studies, 
metals  chemistry,  plastics  evaluation,  and 
physical  testing.  This  work  is  done  with 
the  help  of  a  complete  range  of  analyti- 
cal equipment,  such  as  an  X-ray  diffrac- 
tion unit,  emission  spectrograph,  spectro- 
photometer, a  variety  of  tensile  and 
compression  test  units,  heat  treating 
furnaces,  and  the  like.  The  tests  and 
studies  handled  in  the  laboratory  in- 
clude: defect  analysis,  legal  investiga- 
tions, photomicroscopy,  chemical  analysis, 
physical  and  mechanical  properties  at 
sub-  and  supra-normal  temperatures,  air 
pollution  surveys,  and  many  others. 
Circle  No.  202  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

WIRING  HARNESSES.  Methods,  Inc., 
has  published  a  14-page  booklet  of  key 
points  in  the  design,  manufacture,  and 
use  of  wiring  harnesses.  It  contains  many 
practical  hints  for  improving  stripping, 
tinning,  soldering,  etc.  of  cable  wires, 
and  suggests  design  procedures  for 
facilitating  in-the-instrument  connecting 
operations  and  ways  for  the  harness  user 
to  plan,  simplify  and  improve  cable  in- 
stallations. Also  delineated  are  ways  for 
stepping  up  speed  and  accuracy  of  in- 
spection. Line  drawings  are  used 
throughout  to  illustrate  techniques. 
Circle  No.  203  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 
SOLDERING  MANUAL.  The  American 
Welding  Society  has  announced  publica- 
tion of  the  first  manual  on  soldering  ever 
published.  Containing  176  pages,  81 
illustrations  and  34  tables,  the  book 
completely  covers  all  phases  of  solder- 
ing, combining  the  theoretical  with  the 
practical.  The  twenty-one  chapters  deal 


with  the  following  subjects:  principl 
of  soldering;  solders;  fluxes;  joint  d 
sign;  precleaning  and  surface  prepai 
tion;  equipment,  processes  and  proc 
dures;  flux  residue  treatment;  inspecti 
and  testing;  copper  and  copper  alio; 
steel;  coated  steels;  stainless  stee 
nickel  and  high-nickel  alloys;  lead  a 
lead  alloys;  aluminum  and  alumini 
alloys;  magnesium  and  magnesium  alio 
tin;  cast  irons;  precious  metal  coatii 
printed  circuits;  and  safety. 
Circle  No.  204  on  Subscriber  Service  Co 

MICROWAVE  METERS.  A  new  12-pa 
catalog  with  complete  technical  d< 
on  a  line  of  microwave  meters  a 
filters  is  available  from  Frequei 
Standards.  The  catalog  includes  pre 
sion  frequency  meters  in  the  500- 1 8( 
mc  tuning  range  and  tunable  band  p 
filters  with  tuning  ranges  from  960 
9600  mc.  General  design  data  coveri 
cavity  types,  and  frequency  response  al 
insertion  loss  information  on  filters  J 
included,  together  with  frequency — krl 
dissipation  loss-db,  and  rejection— J 
curves. 

Circle  No.  205  on  Subscriber  Service  Ccl 

PLASTIC  RESINS.  A  technical  bulla] 
describing  the  properties  of  reinforal 
plastic  resin  systems  as  ablation  rl 
terials  for  re-entry  into  the  earth's  arrr  - 
phere  has  been  published  by  Zerl 
Plastics,  Co.  Designated  as  Technical  i  - 
letin  $2.15,  the  report  covers  a  result 
of  general  results  obtained  in  a  se  s 
of  tests  using  variations  of  "Scotches! 
brand  reinforced  plastic. 
Circle  No.  206  on  Subscriber  Service  ClL 

POWER  SUPPLIES.  Sixty-three  high-vk 
age  dc  power  supply  models  are  m 
scribed  along  with  tabular  specification 
in  a  new  "HV  DC"  product  data  shlit 
now  available  from  Sorensen  and  Oii- 
pany.  Data  is  given  on  the  new  Soren  n 
P,  MP,  HP  and  VHP  Series  high-vjr- 
age  supplies  as  well  as  on  the  1000  .'a 
2000  Series  high-voltage  supplies.  Mi- 
mum  output  voltage  ratings  compleiy 
cover  the  range  from  I  to  350  kilovcis. 
Nominal  maximum  output  powers  ra  • 
up  to  60  kilowatts.  Recommended  I 
plications  include:  dc  dielectric  test  ), 
capacitor  charging,  injection  and  fo > 
ing  sources  for  nuclear  particle  acceli- 
tors,  electrostatic  precipitation  and  it- 
eration, vacuum  tube  testing,  and  miy 
similar  applications. 

Circle  No.  207  on  Subscriber  Service  Cld. 

TURBINE  GRINDER.  A  new  low  c*. 
l2'/2  oz.  light  duty  turbine  grinder  mle 
by  Desoutter  Brothers  Ltd.,  Engl.a, 
now  being  distributed  throughout  la 
U.S.  by  Newage  Industries,  is  descriid 
in  a  booklet  offered  by  the  distribuf. 
The  new  grinder  uses  a  "balanced  'e- 
sign  body  for  comfortable  handlinelt 
comes  complete  in  a  fitted  wooden  ee, 
with  6  mounted  grinding  wheels,  elek 
spanners,  a  hed  spanner,  10'  of  %"  '** 
with  two  connectors,  jet  plates  an,  a  I 
dressing  stone.  It  is  guaranteed  foil2 
months.  The  grinder  runs  cool,  blovig 
chips  away  from  work,  and  featei 
automatic  air  shut-off  when  it  is  disin- 
nected.  It  is  specially  designed  for  >•! 
and  die  makers  requiring  a  grinderor 
intricate  hand  work.  The  Desoutter  ).- 
000  rpm  turbine  '03'  grinder  grinds,  a- 
burrs,  cuts,  polishes,  and  engraves 
Circle  No.  208  on  Subscriber  Service  I'd. 


He  smashed  the 
sound- in-water 
barrier 


Because  its  energy  passes  only 
through  air,  radar  can  pick  up  tar- 
gets hundreds  of  miles  away.  The 
ocean  isn't  so  cooperative:  water 
rapidly  absorbs  all  types  of  energy. 
How  do  you  breach  this  barrier  to 
produce  a  really  long-range  under- 
water surveillance  system? 

This  AMF  Anti-Submarine  War- 
fare Specialist  set  his  underwater 
sights  on  a  range  far  over  100  times 
that  of  sonar.  A  conventional  instal- 
lation able  to  accomplish  this  would 
be  prohibitively  big  and  expensive. 
So,  he  came  up  with  a  completely 
new  method.  A  6'  x  12'  unit  puts  a 
megawatt  of  power  into  the  water 
with  100  times  the  weight  efficiency 
of  existing  techniques  and  at  a  frac- 
tion of  the  cost.  The  name  of  this 
new  system  is  a.mfar,  for  which  a 
proposal  has  now  been  submitted  to 
the  Navy  for  consideration. 

Single  Command  Concept 

This  contribution  to  the  free 
world's  defense  is  one  more  example 
of  AMF's  resourcefulness. 

AMF  people  are  organized  in  a 
single  operational  unit  offering  a 
wide  range  of  engineering  and  pro- 
duction capabilities.  Its  purpose :  to 
accept  assignments  at  any  stage 
from  concept  through  development, 
production,  and  service  training... 
and  to  complete  them  faster. ..in 

•  Ground  Support  Equipment 

•  Weapon  Systems 

•  Undersea  Warfare 

•  Radar 

•  Automatic  Handling  &  Processing 

•  Range  Instrumentation 

•  Space  Environment  Equipment 

•  Nuclear  Research  &  Development 

GOVERNMENT  PRODUCTS  GROUP, 

AMF  Building,  261  Madison  Avenue, 
New  York  16,  N.  Y. 


n  engineering  and  manufacturing  AMF  has  ingenuity  you  can  use...  American  machine  &  foundry  company 


Low  cost,  versatile  DIGITAL  SYSTEMS 

for  automatic  testing  of 
transistors^  resistors  diodes 
and  capacitors 


Small  E-I  automatic  digital  systems  pro- 
vide many  advantages.  First,  they  cost  less. 
This  is  primarily  the  result  of  large-quan- 
tity manufacture  of  modules  which  make 
up  the  E-I  system.  Cost  is  almost  a  linear 
function  of  performance  capabilities 
desired  in  the  system. 

Second,  they  are  exceptionally  versatile. 
The  E-I  system  can  be  expanded  simply 
by  adding  appropriate  modules.  Typical 
systems  presendy  in  use  measure  resist- 
ance, capacitance,  DC  and  AC  voltages, 
DC/DC  ratios,  AC/DC  ratios,  AC/AC 
ratios  and  combinations  of  these.  Meas- 
urements to  four  or  five  digits  can  be  vis- 


ually displayed  and  printed  out  at  rates  up 
to  five  readings  per  second.  Operation  can 
be  semi-  or  totally  automatic  with  go/no 
go  comparison  of  values  and  programmed 
readout  at  periodic  intervals.  Scanners  can 
be  provided  for  scanning  thousands  of 
single  and  multi-wire  input  channels.  In 
brief,  the  E-I  system  has  an  extensive 
scope  of  operating  capability. 

Third,  E-I  systems  provide  unmatched 
reliability.  Where  practicable,  circuits  are 
totally  transistorized.  The  use  of  etched, 
plug-in  circuit  boards,  and  modular  inter- 
nal construction  make  maintenance  checks 
and  in-plant  repairs  easy. 


Typical  E-I  system  for  evaluating  components- 
includes  100  channel  input  signal  scanner.  Can  digi- 
tize DC  voltage,  resistance,  AC  voltage  and  DC/DC 
voltage  ratio  analogs.  Digital  equivalents  are  recorded 
on  strip  printer  for  "quick  look"  data  and  on  punch 
paper  tape  for  additional  data  reduction  by  digital 
computer. 


Lower  cost,  maximum  versatility  and 
greater  reliability— if  you  want  these 
advantages  in  your  component  test  sys- 
tem, contact  your  nearest  E-I  representa- 
tive. He  can  give  you  complete  informa- 
tion or  answer  any  specific  questions  you 
may  have. 


Circle  No.  23  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


missiles  and  rockets 

MAGAZINE    OF    WORLD  ASTRONAUTICS 


Peaceful  Gains  from  Cold  War  R&D  1 
The  Surge  of  Microminiaturization  18 
Reliability  Drive  Gains  Momentum  28 


■SWH34.  ?  KOiSfiOH 

AN  AMERItAW  WaTI uix  ruotiw 


.Double-break  contacts  guarantee  maximum 
circuit-breaking  capacity. 

Lightweight,  high  dielectric  strength 
materials  are  used  throughout. 

Positive  lock 
terminals  guard 
against  faulty 
operation 
caused  by  move- 
ment of  terminals. 

Bi-polar  rotary 
design. 

Balanced  armature 
construction  and 
dual  coil  design 
provide  the  most 
efficient  magnetic 
circuit  for  maximum 
resistance  to  shock 
and  vibration. 


Your  airborne  and  electronic  high  performance  require- 
ments dictated  the  design  and  construction  of  Leach 
rotary  contactors  —  the  new  power  control  devices  that 
operate  with  unequaled  reliability  under  extremes  of  high 
temperature,  altitude,  shock  and  vibration. 

These  bi-polar,  rotary  mechanisms  incorporate  the  bal- 
anced armature  principle  to  help  solve  application  prob- 
lems of  inverter  control,  motor  control,  motor  reversal, 
and  power  transfer.  Compact  design  achieves  the  ad- 
vantages of  small  size  and  light  weight  to  meet  the  needs 
of  the  aircraft,  missile  and  electronic  industries. 

Leach  Rotary  Contactors  meet  and,  in  many  cases,  sur- 
pass the  stringent  requirements  of  MIL-R-6106. 

Write  today  for  specifications  and  a  complete  descrip- 
tion of  operating  characteristics.  Ask  for  the  new  Leach 
Power  Contactors  Brochure. 


LOOK  TO  LEACH 


RELAY  DIVISION. ..LEACH  CORPORATION 


DISTRICT  OFFICES  AND  FIELD  REPRESENTATIVES  IN  PRINCIPAL  CITIES  OF  U.  S.  AND  CANADA  •  EXPORT:  LEACH  CORP.,  INTERNATIONAL  DIVISION 


GENERAL 
ELECTRIC 


MISSILE 
SYSTEMS 

INTELLIGENCE 
SYSTEMS 

INFORMATION 
SYSTEMS 

SUPPORT 
SYSTEMS 

RANGE 
MANAGEMENT 

SPECIAL  CUSTOMER 
SERVICES 

positions 

exist  for 

ANNOUNCES 

the  establishment  of  the 

Special 
Programs  Section 

of  the 

DEFENSE 
SYSTEMS 
DEPARTMENT 

(A  Department  of  the  Defense 
Electronics  Division) 

.  .  .  fo  serve  the  needs  of 
THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY 
in  the  areas  of 
SYSTEMS  ENGINEERING  and  MANAGEMENT 


systems  engineering.  We  would  welcome  the  opportunity  to  review  your  resume,  sent  to: 

Dr.  W.  Raithel 
Manager  —  Engineering 
Special  Programs  Section 
General  Electric  Company 
21  South  12th  Street 
Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania* 


*Temporary  location  while  new 
facility  is  being  constructed  in 
suburban  Radnor,  Pennsylvania. 


GENERAL  H  ELECTRIC 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


3 


Here  is  a  man  you  should  know 

he's  a  DELAVAN  FUEL  INJECTOR  SPECIALIST 

Henry  F.  Rothwell  is  Vice  President  of  Engineering  for  Delavan.  He  is  respon- 
sible for  the  engineering  policies  and  organization  which  have  successfully  satis- 
fied some  of  the  aircraft  industries' most  challenging  fuel  injection  requirements. 
Mr.  Rothwell  has  14  years  experience  in  this  field  —  experience  which  has  given 
him  a  research,  design  and  development  facility  uniquely  suited  to  solve  fuel 
injection  problems  for  the  aircraft  of  today  and  tomorrow. 

If  fluid  metering  and  atomization  are  part  of  your  product,  take  advantage  of 
Delavan's  specialized  experience  and  proven  ability  to  deliver  aircraft  quality. 
Send  specifications  to  the  address  below  for  obligation-free  recommendations. 

WORLD'S  LARGEST  MANUFACTURER  Of  NOZZLES  •  WEST  DES  MOINES  •  IOWA 


Executive  Editor   Clarke  Newlon 

Managing  Editor  ....  Donald  E.  Perry 


NEWS  STAFF 

News  Editor   Reed  Bundy 

Defense  and  Legislative   James  Baab 

Betty  Oswald 

West  Coast   Richard  van  Osten 

Editorial  Assistant   David  Newman 

ASTRIONICS 

Guidance  and  Control   Charles  D.  LaFond 

Support  Equipment   Hal  Gettinos 

ASTRONAUTICS  ENGINEERING 

Chemistry  &  Propulsion   Jay  Holmes 

John  P.  Judge 
Astrodynamics   Paul  Means  l 

MISSILE  SUPPORT 

Installations  and  Equipment 

East  Coast   William  E.  Howard 

West  Coast   Prank  McGume 

BUREAUS 

Los  Angeles   William  J.  Coughlin 

Paris   Jean-Marie  Riche 

Geneva   Anthony  Vandyk 

CONTRIBUTORS 

British  Astronautics   G.  V.  E.  Thompson 

Propulsion   Michael  Lorenzo 

Industry   James  J.  Hagcerty,  Jr. 

Soviet  Affairs   Dr.  Albebt  Parry 

Space  Medicine   Dr.  Hubertus  Struchold 

Astrophysics   Dr.  I.  M.  Levitt 

Research   Hey  ward   Canney,  Jr. 

ADVISORY  BOARD 

Dr.  Wernher  von  Braun  Robert  P.  Havtlland 
Dr.  Peter  Castruccio  Dr.  Arthur  Kantbowitz 
Conrad  H.  Hoeppner  Dr.  Eugen  Saengeb 

R.  F.  Gompertz  Alexander  Satin 

PRODUCTION   AND  ART 

Art  Director   William  Martin 

Assistant  Art  Director   Bacil  Guiley 

Production  Manager   J.  F.  Walen 

Ass't  Production  Manager   Elsie  Gray 

BUSINESS  STAFF 

Publisher   B.  D.  Muhlfeld 

Advertising  Sales  Manager  W.  E.  Brown 

Eastern  Advtg.  Manager   P.  B.  Kinney 

Circulation  Manager   Eugene  White 

Promotion  Manager   J.  E.  Mulroy 

Advtg.  Service  Manager  .  .Mrs.  Gladys  Bussell 

ADVERTISING  OFFICES 

New  York  ..  (20  East  46th  St.)  P.  N.  Anderson 

A.  B.  SCHEFFLER 

Detroit  ...  (201  Stephenson  Bldg.)  K.  J.  Wells 

Chicago    (139  N.  Clark  St.)  G.  E.  Yonan 

Los  Angeles  ..(8929  Wllshlre  Blvd.)  J.  W.  Claar 
C.  R.  Martz,  Jb. 

Miami    (208  Almerla  Avenue)  R.  D.  Haceb 

Toronto  (12  Richmond  St.  E.)  Allin  Associates 

London    (28  Bruton  St.)  Norall  &  Hart 

Paris   11  Rue  Condorcet 

Geneva   10  Rue  Grenus 


Missiles  and  Rockets  Volume  5  Number  38 


Published  each  Monday  by  American  Aviation 
Publications.  Inc..  1001  Vermont  Ave..  N.W., 
Washington  5,  D.C.  Wayne  W.  Parrlsh,  Presi- 
dent; Leonard  A.  Eiserer,  Executive  Vice  Presi- 
dent <fe  General  Manager;  Fred  Hunter,  Vice 
President  &  Editorial  Director;  A.  H.  Stackpole, 
Eric  Bramley,  Robert  R.  Parrlsh.  Vice  Presidents. 

Printed  at  the  Telegraph  Press,  Harrlsburg,  Pa- 
Second  class  postage  paid  at  Washington,  D.C, 
and  at  additional  mailing  offices.  Copyright 
1959.  American  Aviation  Publications,  Inc. 


Subscription  rates:  U.S..  Canada  and  Postal 
Union  Nations — 1  year,  $5.00;  2  years,  $8.00; 
3  years,  $10.00.  Foreign— 1  year,  $10.00;  2 
years,  $18.00;  3  years,  $26.00.  Single  copy 
rate — $.50.  Subscriptions  are  solicited  only 
from  persons  with  identifiable  commercial 
or  professional  Interests  In  missiles  and 
rockets.  Subscription  orders  and  changes  of 
address  should  be  referred  to  Circulation 
Fulfillment  Mgr.,  M/R,  1001  Vermont  Ave., 
Washington  5.  D.C.  Please  allow  4  weeks 
for  change  to  become  effective  and  enclose 
recent  address  label  If  possible. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


COVER:  Mass  production  of, 
optical  glass,  developed  for 
military  by  Corning  Glass,  pro- 
vides high-quality.  1  o  w  -  c  o  s  t 
spectacles  for  millions.  Survey 
of  non-war  uses  of  R&D  starts 
on  p.  13. 


OPERATING  micro -module 
made  by  RCA  under  contract 
for  the  Army.  Nearly  100  com- 
panies so  far  have  taken  part 
in  the  R&D  of  micro  minia- 
turization. A  progress  report 
starts  on  p.  18. 


w»  1 

RELIABLE  Thor  rises  from  Cape 
Canaveral.  The  urgent  need  for 
better  reliability  of  components 
and  the  steps  that  are  being 
taken  to  achieve  it  are  reported 
in  story  beginning  on  p.  28. 


OXIDIZER  is  reduced  to  size  in 
this  grinder  and  gyratory  sift- 
ing machine  at  Thiokol  Chemi- 
cal Corp.'s  Utah  Division,  Brig- 
ham  City,  Utah.  For  a  picture 
report  on  work  at  the  new  di- 
vision, see  pp.  32  &  33. 


missiles  and  rockets . 

MAGAZINE  OF  WORLD  ASTRONAUTICS 

^  SEPTEMBER  14  HEADLINES 

issile/Space  Spending  Yields  Peacetime  Dividends 

A  preliminary  survey  based  on  M/R  questionnaires  sent  to  hun- 
dreds of  companies  shows  that  the  nation  is  already  gaining  new 
goods,  techniques  and  industries  from  its  investment  in  Cold  War 
research  and  development   13 

IAF  Congress  Hears  Papers  Covering  the  Space  Field 

A  special  service:  abstracts  from  some  of  the  most  significant 
papers  at  the  recent  London  meeting;  emphasis  on  space  medicine 
and  magnetohydrodynamics   37 


^  ASTRIONICS 

Microminiaturization — A  Revolution  is  Well  Under  Way 

A  report  on  the  dramatic  development  of  a  concept  that  will  be 
here  in  full  force  in  about  two  years,  saving  millions  of  dollars 
and  enhancing  reliability    18 


MISSILE  SUPPORT 

U.  S.   Reg.  Pdg. 

New  Impetus  Is  Given  to  Drive  for  Reliability 

Military  services  plan  to  step  up  use  of  off-the-shelf  components; 
NASA  will  stretch  out  firing  schedules  in  effort  to  raise  its  bat- 
ting average   28 


► 


ASTRONAUTICS  ENGINEERING 

U.S.  Reg.  Pdg. 

A  Picture  Report  on  Thiokol's  Utah  Division 

Huge  solid-propellant  plant,  less  than  two  years  old,  sprawls  over 
11,000  acres,  is  40%  Air  Force-owned    32 


► 


THE  MISSILE  WEEK 

U.S.  Reg.  Pdg. 

Washington  Countdown    7 

Industry  Countdown    9 

More  About  the  Missile  Week   44 


► 


DEPARTMENTS 

Soviet  Affairs    46  Contracts    50 

Missile   Business    48  When  and  Where    51 

Letters    49  Editorial   52 


lissiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


5 


COUNTDOWN.,  .at  full  fathom  five 


One  day.  a  new  fleet  weapon  system  will  be 
on-station  beneath  the  ocean  surface  — ready 
to  hurl  retaliatory  missiles  toward  strategic 
inland  targets  with  pinpoint  accuracy.  This 
new  weapon  system  will  be  part  of  the  Navy's 
Polaris  Fleet  Ballistic  Missile  Program. 

Though  new  in  concept,  the  Polaris  pro- 
gram makes  full  use  of  the  precision  Ship- 
board Inertial  Navigation  Systems  (SINS) 
developed  and  produced  by  Autonetics  for  the 
United  States  Navy. 

System  design  and  components  of  earlier 


autonavigators  have  proved  reliable  in  an  Air 
Force  supersonic  missile,  aboard  the  Navy's 
surface  ship  USS  Compass  Island,  and  on  the 
USS  Nautilus  and  Skate. 

Advanced  Autonetics'  Shipboard  Inertial 
Navigation  Systems— like  those  to  be  used  by 
the  USS  George  Washington,  the  first  Polaris- 
carrying  submarine— will  provide  the  critical 
missile  alignment  data  to  insure  effective  mis- 
sile launching.  SINS  emits  no  tell-tale  signals 
. . .  requires  no  receipt  of  external  transmis- 
sion at  any  time. 


DID  YOU  KNOW? 


The  flattening  of  the  earth  at  the 
poles  can  result  in  a  navigational  I* 
error  of  almost  eleven  nautical  miles  I 
if  not  taken  into  account. 


Inertial  navigation  by  Autonetics 

A  DIVISION  OF  NORTH  AMERICAN  AVIATION,  INC.,  DOWNEY,  CALIFORNIA  .  REGIONAL  OFFICES:  WASHINGTON,  D.C.  AND  DAYTON,  OHIO 
INERTIAL  NAVIGATION /ARMAMENT  CONTROL/FLIGHT  CONTROL/COMPUTERS  AND  DATA  PROCESSING 


6 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


Washington  Countdown 


IN  THE  PENTAGON 
Transit  will  go  .  .  . 

into  orbit  within  the  very  near  future  if  the 
present  ARPA-Navy  schedule  is  followed. 
Plans  call  for  launching  the  first  U.S.  naviga- 
tional satellite  with  a  Douglas  Thor  booster. 

•  •  • 

Minuteman  would  roll  .  .  . 

over  the  nation's  western  wastelands  under 
Air  Force  plans  now  being  considered.  The 
Boeing  solid  ICBM's  would  be  mounted  on  big 
trucks  which  would  roam  empty  Federal- 
owned  lands,  preventing  Russia  from  zeroing 
in  its  missiles  on  them.  The  Minuteman  could 
be  fired  from  the  trucks. 

•  •  • 

The  price  of  survival  .  .  . 

according  to  Gen.  Thomas  Power,  SAC  com- 
mander: Dispersion  and  hardening  of  missile 
and  bomber  bases,  secure  communications,  a 
constantly  ready  alert  system  and  defense 
against  sabotage. 

•  •  • 

The  threat  of  sabotage  .  .  . 

incidentally,  is  putting  many  a  gray  hair  on 
the  heads  of  SAC  security  officers  as  ICBM 
bases  become  a  reality.  The  big  ICBM's  are 
particularly  vulnerable  to  simple  methods  of 
sabotage.  One  shot  from  a  .22  calibre  rifle, 
for  instance. 

•  •  • 

Music  to  launch  by  .  .  . 

is  considered  "a  must"  for  hardened  ICBM 
bases.  Air  Force  psychologists  say  music 
should  be  piped  into  underground  missile 
sites  to  prevent  missile  "molemen"  from 
losing  their  efficiency  because  of  monotony. 

•  •  • 

A  new  secrecy  gimmick  .  .  . 

for  withholding  information  in  the  Pentagon 
is  said  to  be  tripping  up  missile  industry 
officials.  It's  reported  that  unclassified  material 
is  being  withheld  by  labeling  it  "not  releasable." 

•  •  • 

The  battle  of  the  B-70  .  .  . 

is  looming.  Air  Force  commanders  are  braced 
for  an  all-out  fight  to  save  the  North  American 
Mach  3  bomber  and  its  fighter  companion — 
the  F- 108— from  the  budget  ax.  The  B-70 
would  carry  the  Douglas  ALBM.  The  F-108 
would  be  used  to  defend  the  United  States 
against  the  Soviet  counterparts  of  the  futuris- 
tic bomber  and  missile. 


ON  CAPITOL  HILL 

Anti-influence  legislation  .  .  . 

will  accompany  the  report  of  the  Hebert  Sub- 
committee on  its  lengthy  investigation  of  the 
so-called  munitions  lobby.  The  subcommittee 
plans  to  meet  in  late  November  to  write  its 
recommendations.  The  report  and  legislation 
will  follow — probably  just  before  Christmas. 

•  •  • 

A  few  more  hearings  .  .  . 

by  the  Hebert  subcommittee  will  be  held 
during  the  fall  to  take  care  of  some  loose 
ends.  But  for  the  most  part  the  public  hear- 
ings are  ended.  This  is  a  switch  from  previous 
subcommittee  plans  to  hold  some  finger- 
pointing  hearings  in  early  December. 

AT  NASA 

Equatorial  launching  range  .  .  . 

plans  have  reached  the  stage  where  NASA 
is  expected  soon  to  ask  for  bids  for  construc- 
tion of  tracking  and  launching  facilities.  The 
proposal  is  expected  to  place  the  launching 
site  at  Manus  Island  in  the  western  Pacific 
(M/R,  May  18).  The  contract  probably  will 
be  let  next  spring. 

•  •  • 

Silent  sound  sickness  .  .  . 

is  a  new  perile  of  the  Missile  Age.  Scientists 
have  found  that  "silent"  high-frequency  sounds 
given  off  by  large  rocket  space  vehicle  boost- 
ers may  injure  the  health  of  launching  crews. 
The  sounds  have  been  found  to  cause  stomach 
ulcers  and  reproductive  disorders  in  animals. 
NASA  is  trying  to  come  up  with  effective 
mufflers  for  the  big  rockets. 

AROUND  TOWN 

A  Nipponese  missile  navy  .  .  . 

may  be  in  the  offing  in  the  Far  East.  The 
Japanese  are  reported  to  be  planning  to  begin 
it  with  construction  of  a  missile  destroyer.  It 
would  be  armed  with  surface-to-air  missiles — 
maybe  Convair  Terriers. 

•  •  • 

Some  other  reports  .  .  . 

being  passed  as  "the  latest"  in  the  nation's 
capital: 

.  .  .  Defense  Secretary  Neil  H.  McElroy 
is  planning  to  resign  by  Jan.  1,  at  the  latest. 

.  .  .  NASA  Chief  T.  Keith  Glennan  will 
stick  out  the  Eisenhower  Administration  in  his 
post  despite  rumors  that  he  also  will  resign 
soon. 

.  .  .  Western  Europe  wants  to  confine  its 
space  programs  at  least  for  the  present  to 
R&D. 


7 


WORLD  S  MOST 
FLEXIBLE 
MOTION  PICTURE 
CAMERA 


Mitchell  camera  shown  with  1200'  magazine. 


MITCHELL 


No  other  motion  picture  camera  is 
today  used  for  such  a  broad  range  of 
exacting  film  making  as  is  the 
Mitchell.  The  versatile  speed  of  the 
camera,  ranging  from  1  to  128  frames 
per  second,  plus  14  exclusive  features 
equip  the  Mitchell  for  an  impres- 
sively broad  range  of  cinematogra- 
phy. A  single  Mitchell  can  meet  the 
requirements  for  finest  quality  TV 
commercials,  feature  productions, 
public  relations,  sales  and  training 
films,  progress  and  report  films,  plus 
critical  research  and  development 
data  and  record  photography. 

Mitchell  cameras  include:  35mm 
and  16mm  cameras;  70mm  2\i  x  2\i 
high  speed  cameras;  and  70mm, 
65mm  and  standard  aperture  cam- 
eras. 

For  information,  write  on  your 
letterhead  — please  indicate  which 
model  camera  your  request  concerns. 


GENERAL  ELECTRIC  uses  Mitchell  for 
wide  range  of  work,  including  slide 
films. 


BUD  WILKINSON  PRODUCTIONS  shoots 
its  award-winning  TV  Sports  Series 
with  the  Mitchell. 


KEARNEY  &  TRECKER  films  first  fully 
automated  tape  controlled  combina- 
tion machine  tool  with  the  firm's 
Mitchell  camera. 


LOCKHEED  AIRCRAFT  CORP.,  uses 
Mitchells  continuously  throughout 
plant,  here  records  jet  flight. 


*85%  of  All  Professional  Motion  Pictures  Shown  Throughout  the  World  Are  Filmed  with  Mitchell  Cameras 


Corporation,  666  West  Harvard  Street,  Glendale  4,  California 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


Industry  Countdown 


MANUFACTURING 

Competitor  to  NASA's  Scoot  .  .  . 

space  vehicle  is  being  pushed  by  Grand  Cen- 
tral Rocket  Co.  The  all-solid  three-stage  GCR 
Envoy  would  cost  $300,000  per  flight  vs. 
$500,000  for  Scout.  Envoy  would  be  37.8  feet 
high,  weigh  17,000  pounds  and  be  capable  of 
sending  a  50-pound  payload  to  the  moon  or 
orbiting  230  pounds  at  300  miles  .  .  .  GCR 
also  is  developing  a  high  mass  ratio  solid 
motor  for  NASA  called  "Wolf"  which  the 
company  expects  will  "revolutionize  the  satel- 
lite launching  technology."  Object:  cheaper 
upper  stage  rockets. 

•  •  • 

Inside  AF  pressure  .  .  . 

for  more  spending  on  the  North  American 

air-to-surface  Hound  Dog  is  being  stepped  up. 
This  bird  may  be  the  mainstay  of  AF  "missile 
mobility"  until  it  gets  the  long-range  Douglas 
ALBM. 

•  •  • 

Dyna-Soar  contract  decision  .  .  . 

is  still  four  or  five  weeks  away  while  ARDC 
takes  more  "long  looks"  at  booster  designs 
of  competing  Boeing  and  Martin-Bell  teams. 
Summer-long  delay  in  making  the  R&D  award 
also  is  attributable  in  part  to  forthcoming 
ARDC  reorganization  and  possible  policy 
change  wherein  AF  procurement  officers  would 
have  greater  in-house  management  capability 
and  responsibility. 

•  •  • 

Women's  underwear  mesh  .  .  . 

nylon  closure  may  be  the  answer  to  weightless 
walking.  USAF  space  medicine  chief  Col.  John 
T.  Stapp  told  M/R  at  London  IAF  Congress 
his  team  is  testing  out  "Velcro"  as  substitute 
for  suction  cups  or  magnets.  The  material 
consists  of  thousands  of  small  nylon  fishhooks 
which  interlock  as  strong  as  a  zipper  when 
pushed  together,  and  are  easily  disengaged. 
The  idea  is  to  line  the  interior  of  a  space  ship 
with  the  material  and  also  the  soles  of  the 
spaceman's  shoes  so  he  can  obtain  traction. 

PROPULSION 

New  high-thrust  fuel  .  .  . 

has  been  patented  by  Dow  Chemical.  It's  a 
mixture  of  an  oxidizer  and  2-propynyl  hydra- 
zine. The  compounds  1,1 -bis  (2-propynyl) 
hydrazine,  1  methyl-(2-propynyl)  hydrazine, 
1 -ethyl  1  (2-propynyl)  amine,  dimethyl  (2- 
propynyl)  amine,  and  allyl  (2-propynyl)  amine 
are  also  claimed  as  alternatives  within  the  in- 
vention. 


Big  boost  for  composites  .  .  . 

is  seen  in  15%  price  slash  on  ammonium 
perchlorate — most  widely  used  solid  rocket 
oxidizer.  American  Potash  and  Chemical 
Corp.,  principal  AP  producer,  last  week  cut 
its  quotation  from  34  to  29  cents  per  pound 
FOB  Henderson,  Nev.  Missile  programs  will 
use  between  9000  and  15,000  tons  of  AP  this 
year;  thus  the  price  cut  may  mean  a  saving 
of  about  $1  million. 

ASTRIONICS 

High-density  pulse-packing  .  .  . 

techniques  in  a  lightweight  magnetic  tape 
recorder  are  reported  successful  in  a  new  sys- 
tem devised  by  Consolidated  Electrodynamics 
and  Douglas  Aircraft.  The  100-pound  digital 
recorder  handles  1500  bits/ in.  on  each  of  16 
tracks.  With  1-inch  tape  this  provides  total 
capacity  of  2.4  x  109  bits. 

•      •  • 

System  can  sample  .  .  . 

100  primary  channels  each  at  a  frequency  re- 
sponse of  100  cps  for  a  one-hour  test.  It  is 
designed  for  PCM/FM  telemetry  compatibility. 

SPACE  MEDICINE 

Men  garbed  in  coveralls  .  .  . 

have  survived  five  minutes  in  an  oven  with 
the  air  temperature  at  300°F  and  the  walls  at 
500°F  in  new  tests  of  human  endurance.  Tests 
now  also  show  the  body  can  withstand  16.1 
g's  for  15  seconds  during  4-minute  run-up 
and  back  with  the  subject  supine  and  with- 
out a  water  jacket. 

WE  HEAR  THAT— 

AC  Sparkplug  is  readying  .  .  . 

a  major  plant  expansion  at  Milwaukee  and 
Flint.  The  company  will  add  nearly  a  quarter- 
million  square  feet  to  consolidate  its  defense 
engineering  facilities  under  one  roof  at  Mil- 
waukee .  .  .  Space  Technology  Laboratories 
is  officially  denying  rumors  that  it  is  about  to 
be  bought  by  Ford  Motor  Co.  .  .  .  However, 
it  is  known  Twin  Coach's  Aircraft-Missiles 
Division  is  in  the  market  for  acquisitions  and 
mergers  .  .  .  Anticipating  a  big  increase  in 
space/  missile  beryllium  usage.  Beryllium  Corp. 
is  expanding  its  Hazleton,  Pa.,  facility  to  install 
three  vacuum  hot  press  furnaces  to  produce 
billets  from  6  to  45  inches  in  diameter  and  up 
to  60  inches  long. 


More  About  the  Missile  Week  on  Page  44 


9 


A  1 

HOW  BLOODHOUND 

FOR 


WEAPON  DESIGN  AND  CONSTRUCTION  BY  BRISTOL  •  GUIDANCE  AND  CONTROL  BY  FERRAlj 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959  j 


'ROVIDES 


Surface-to-air  guided  missiles  represent  the  most  important 
advance  in  defence  against  air  attack  since  aerial  aggression 
began.  These  unmanned  interceptors  are  not  committed 
to  a  predetermined  course,  but,  even  after  launching,  take 
corrective  action  against  target  aircraft  evasion. 

READY  NOW 

The  World's  most  effective  surface-to-air  guided  missile 
system  is  Bloodhound.  Already  in  operational  service  with 
the  RAF  and  adopted  by  non-NATO  Sweden.  Bloodhound 
is  now  to  be  further  developed  for  the  RAF.  Bloodhound 
has  been  proved  in  many  hundreds  of  test  firings.  It  exists 
for  defence — now. 


LONG  RANGE 

RADAR  INFORMATION 

STING  RAY 

ILLUMINATING 

RADAR 

\ 

-►H 

W  Ml£ 


LAUNCH 
CONTROL 
POST 


MISSILE  SALVO 
CALCULATES 
INTERCEPTION 
POINT 


WHAT  BLOODHOUND  PROVIDES 

By  using  radar  intelligence,  enemy  aircraft  may  be  allocated 
for  interception  either  to  Bloodhound  missiles  or  to  manned 
fighters. 

Essentially  a  deterrent  designed  to  frustrate  not  to 
initiate  aggression,  Bloodhound  contributes  to  air  defence 
the  advantages  of  very  effective  high  fire  power  which  is 
always  available  for  action  at  a  moment's  notice.  And  the 
development  of  Bloodhound  is  still  in  its  infancy. 


Now — and  for  many  years  to  come — 
Bloodhound  provides  the  world  with  its  most 
impregnable  defence  system. 


BRISTOL/  FERRANTI 


r 

Bloodhound 

GUIDED  WEAPON  SYSTEM 


RGET  ILLUMINATING  RADAR  BY  BTH  •  SYSTEM  SALES  ORGANISATION  BY  BRISTOL  AIRCRAFT  LIMITED 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


ii 


MOVING  AHEAD  


TO  PROVIDE  FOR  THE 
COMMON  DEFENSE" 


Only  by  conceiving  today  the  weapons  which  will  be  needed  tomorrow} 
can  the  free  world  continue  to 
preserve  the  peace  — or  successfully  meet  an  attack. 


TIME  IS  OF  THE  ESSENCE! 


ANOTHER  STEP  FORWARD 

To  cope  successfully  with  this  urgent  and  continuing 
problem,  RCA  recently  extended  to  a  corporate-wide 
basis  the  techniques  which  had  been  proven  successful 
within  its  various  departments,  by  creating  an  Advanced 
Military  Systems  organization  at  Princeton,  New  Jersey. 
There,  in  an  atmosphere  of  intellectual  freedom,  a  group 
of  mature  scientists  and  engineers  are  engaged  in  the 
analysis  and  study  of  our  national  defenses — present  and 
future— and  how  they  can  be  made  most  effective  to 
meet  any  future  enemy  capability. 

These  studies  are  conducted  at  the  frontiers  of  knowl- 
edge and  encompass  such  areas  as  the  physical  and  engi- 
neering sciences,  military  science,  economics,  and  geo- 
physics. Studies  have,  as  an  end  result,  the  creation  of 
military  systems  which  will  satisfy  projected  mili- 
tary requirements. 

A  SPECIAL  KIND  OF  MAN 

Members  of  the  technical  staff  are  at  the  highest  creative 
and  intellectual  level.  They  have  a  degree  of  maturity 
which  comes  only  with  many  years  of  experience.  They 
generally  have  held  responsible  positions  in  research, 
advanced  development,  or  systems  planning.  Most  of 
them  have  an  extensive  background  in  the  broad  fields 
of  electronics,  vehicle  dynamics,  physics  (astro,  nuclear, 
or  plasma),  or  military  science  (operations  research). 
All  are  temperamentally  suited  for  performing  highly 
sophisticated,  comprehensive  analysis  and  planning  of  a 
detailed  nature.  They  are  men  who  enjoy  seeing  the 
fruits  of  their  work  turn  into  realities  that  have  an  exten- 
sive effect  on  the  defenses  of  the  country. 

A  SPECIAL  KIND  OF  CLIMATE 

Each  member  of  the  technical  staff  operates  either 
independently  or  in  a  loosely  organized  group,  and  is 
generally  free  to  select  his  own  area  of  work.  The  only 


12 


condition:  results  must  have  a  direct  application  to 
problems  of  national  defense.  He  has  no  responsibility  for 
administrative  details,  although  he  must  be  ready  to 
give  guidance  to  program  implementation.  He  can  call 
in  any  specialists  he  may  need.  He  has  full  access  to  all 
available  information— military,  academic  and  industrial. 
Specialized  research  projects  and  laboratory  work  can  be 
carried  out  at  his  request  by  other  departments  of  RCA. 
In  a  word,  he  is  provided  with  every  opportunity  and 
facility  to  use  his  creative  and  analytical  skills  to  maxi- 
mum advantage  and  at  the  highest  level. 

A  SPECIAL  KIND  OF  ENVIRONMENT 

Princeton  offers  unique  civic,  cultural  and  educational 
advantages  along  with  the  convenience  of  its  proximity 
to  New  York  City.  In  this  pleasant  environment, 
Advanced  Military  Systems  occupies  a  new,  air-condi- 
tioned building  on  the  quiet,  spacious  grounds  of  RCA's 
David  Sarnoff  Research  Center.  Working  in  individual, 
well-furnished  offices,  staff  members  find  their  total 
environment  highly  conducive  to  creative  activity. 

INQUIRIES  ARE  INVITED 

If  you  are  interested  in  learning  more  about  this  far- 
reaching  program,  write: 

Dr.  N.  I.  Korman,  Director, 
Advanced  Military  Systems,  Dept.  AM-11 
RADIO  CORPORATION  OF  AMERICA, 
Princeton,  New  Jersey. 


RADIO  CORPORATION 
of  AMERICA 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


How  Missile/Space  Spending 
Enriches  the  Peacetime  Economy 

Survey  shows  that  the  nation  is  already  benefitting 
greatly  in  new  goods,  techniques  and  industries 


Finding  that  little  or  no  research  material  on  the  subject  was  avail- 
able, Missiles  &  Rockets  last  spring  sent  questionnaires  to  several  hun- 
dred companies  in  the  missile  and  space  fields,  asking  which  of  their 
products  developed  during  defense  or  space  research  had  resulted  in 
products  or  techniques  for  peacetime  usage.  The  survey  resulted  in  the 
story  which  follows.  We  realize  that  the  survey  is  far  from  complete 
and  would  welcome  further  information;  the  field — now  and  potentially 
— is  almost  limitless. — Editor. 


by  Edward  J.  Michelson* 

Washington — Vast  U.S.  govern- 
ment spending  during  the  past  Cold 
War  decade  for  missile  and  space  re- 
search, technological  military  develop- 
ment, testing  and  space  exploration 
activities  is  beginning  to  yield  tremen- 
dous dividends  in  terms  of  American 
economic  growth. 

The  nation  has  spent  billions  for  re- 
search and  development  in  these  fields. 
The  current  R&D  budgets  alone  for  the 
Department  of  Defense  and  the  Na- 
tional Aeronautics  and  Space  Adminis- 
tration total  more  than  $4.2  billion.  Of 
this  more  than  $2.4  billion  is  for  mis- 
siles and  space  activities. 

From  this  Cold  War  research, 
quantities  of  new  consumer  goods,  serv- 
ices and  industrial  processes  are  now 
appearing  on  the  American  scene.  Even 
new  industries  have  appeared  as  the 
results  of  inventions,  techniques  and 
knowledge  gained  since  the  dawn  of 
the  Space  Age. 

One  of  these  is  the  computer  in- 
dustry. Computers  were  developed  as 
a  result  of  military  demands  for  faster 
figuring  and  the  industry  itself  has  de- 
veloped as  a  result  of  the  even  greater 
demands  imposed  by  missile  and  space 
operations. 

Companies  of  virtually  every  size 
and  description  participating  in  missile 
and  space  programs  today  are  alert  to 
the  opportunities  for  new  industrial, 

*Edward  J.  Michelson  is  Washing- 
ton correspondent  of  Forbes  and 
Printer's  Ink  magazines  and  a  contrib- 
utor to  other  general  and  business 
publications.  He  has  been  a  national 
capital  press  corps  member  since  1946. 


commercial  and  consumer  ventures 
growing  out  of  their  work. 

The  firms  surveyed  by  M/R  range 
in  size  from  General  Motors  to  small 
electronics  companies  founded  in  the 
first  half  of  the  now-ending  1950's.  In 
numerous  cases,  newcomers  in  nucle- 
onics, avionics,  metallurgy,  "hardware" 
production  and  plastics  are  planning  to 
promote  goods  and  services  for  indus- 
trial and  consumer  use  even  though 
the  enterprises  don't  have  sales  promo- 
tion or  marketing  staffs.  Their  sole 
customer  until  now  has  been  Uncle 
Sam. 

One  Space  Age  supplier,  North 
American  Aviation,  Inc.,  has  gone  to 
the  length  of  establishing  a  subsidiary, 
Navan  Products,  Inc.,  for  the  specific 
purpose  of  marketing  its  own  and 
others'  inventions. 

Evidence  that  military-supported 
scientific   and  technological  advances 


MATERIAL  developed  for  radomes  was 
made  into  a  tough  line  of  kitchenware 
by  Corning  Glass  Works. 


have  already  resulted  in  new  goods 
now  under  development  abounds.  West- 
inghouse  Electric  Corp.  is  actually 
showing  three  prototype  appliances  in 
television  commercials — thermoelectric 
devices  for  cooling  and  heating.  Ther- 
moelectric research  has  been  a  com- 
pany interest  sporadically  since  1937, 
but  it  was  Navy  and  Air  Force  require- 
ments for  highly  efficient,  lightweight 
prime  energy  sources  for  space  vehicles 
that  spurred  this  development. 

Corning  Glass  Works  cites  an  im- 
pressive array  of  products  ranging  from 
Pyroceram  skillets  and  pans  to  silicone 
rubber  interlayer  material,  making  pos- 
sible "windows"  capable  of  resisting 
Mach  2  temperatures  (approaching 
500  °F).  Emphasis  is  on  improved  glass- 
making  technology  and  higher  quality 
materials  for  myriad  uses  including  nu- 
clear food  preservation  and  power  re- 
actors. 

•  Born  of  WW  II — Corning  devel- 
oped a  mass-production  process  for  the 
manufacture  of  optical  glass  to  meet 
military  needs  during  World  War  II. 
The  company's  scientists  developed 
platinum-clad  melting  chambers  and 
blending  machines  that  made  possible 
an  unprecedented  production  rate  of 
50  pounds  of  optical  glass  per  hour. 

In  the  ensuing  years,  the  process 
was  adapted  to  production  of  optical 
blanks  of  all  sizes — for  use  in  lenses 
for  bombsights,  periscopes,  aerial  cam- 
eras, wind  tunnel  windows  and  missile- 
tracking  optics.  (See  cover  picture.) 

The  production  technique  allowed 
Corning  to  go  into  peacetime  produc- 
tion of  low-priced,  high-quality  lenses 
for  spectacles,  telescopes  and  cameras. 

The  chief  accent  of  management 
men  responding  to  a  survey  question- 
naire is  on  development  of  better,  more 
durable  materials,  more  reliable  manu- 
facturing techniques  and  increased 
product  reliability.  This  reaction  is  in- 
evitable; American  businessmen  have 
traditionally  excelled  in  developing  en- 
gineering ideas  aimed  at  offering  end 
products  of  higher  quality,  greater  util- 
ity and  minimum  unit  manufacturing 
cost. 

In  the  missile  and  space  field,  gains 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


13 


have  been  made  in  such  areas  as  ma- 
terials, electronics,  equipments,  medi- 
cine, propulsion,  communications,  aero- 
nautics, air  traffic  control  and  naviga- 
tion, and  knowledge  of  human  psychol- 


ogy and  physiology. 

•  Competitors  reluctant — For  obvi- 
ous competitive  reasons,  some  firms 
are  none  too  communicative.  This  is 
especially  true  of  the  motor  car  manu- 


facturers. Chrysler  Corp.  acknowledges 
that  its  propulsion  work  for  satellite 
vehicles  is  bound  to  generate  scientific 
and  engineering  suggestions  to  be  con- 
sidered ultimately  for  application  to  its 


SWORDS  INTO  PLOWSHARES'— SOME  EXAMPLES- 


COMPANY 


Stalker  Corp., 
Essexville,  Mich, 


Rahm  Instruments, 
Westbury,  N.  Y. 


MILITARY  USE 


Jet  Engines  (for  GE) 


Pressure  transducer  for  Van 
guard 


RCA,  Los  Angeles 


AF  and  Navy  weather  radar 
including  Loran;  Navy  bea 
cons 

Ground  weather  radar  for 
AF 

Micro-miniature  Army  trans 
mitters   and  receivers 


CIVILIAN  USE 


Jet  engines 


Commercial    pressure  meas- 
urement systems 


Commercial  Airlines 


Weather  Bureau,  radio-TV 
stations 


Police  and  Doctors 


McCormick  Selph 
Assoc.,  Hollister, 
Calif. 


Summers  Gyro- 
scope, Co., 
Santa  Monica, 
Calif. 


Allegany  Instru- 
ment Co.,  Cum 
berland,  Md. 


Explosives 


Several  products  applicable, 
but  no  action  so  far  in  ex- 
ploiting commercial  market. 


Target   Drone  Autopilot 


Inexpensive  pilot  assist  and 
safety  device  for  private  air- 
craft. 


Electronic  integrators  and 
amplifiers;  equipment  for 
measuring  low-level  electri- 
cal signals  from  thermo- 
couples, load  cells,  and 
pressure  cells  used  to  eval- 
uate performance  of  solid 
fuel  rockets  at  static  test 
facilities. 


Medical  research  to  measure 
body  temperature  and  blood 
flow. 


Stavid  Engineering, 
Inc.,  Plainfield, 
N.  J. 

AN/FMS-3  designed  to  re- 
ceive, locate  and  plot  light- 
ning flashes,  over  a  2,000- 
mile  radius.  Six  satellite  re- 
ceivers take  in  and  simul- 
taneously transmit  data  by 
telephone  wires  to  central 
receiving  and  plotting  sta- 
tion where  lightning  flashes 
are  plotted  on  a  cathode 
ray  tube.  Overlays  are 
marked  by  a  monitor  to 
show  movement  and  loca- 
tion of  fronts. 

For    Weather    Bureaus.  The 
system  is  being  installed  in 
the  Tornado  Belt  to  detect 
severe   atmospheric  disturb- 
ances. 

General  Precision 
Laboratory,  Inc., 
Pleasantville, 
N.Y. 

Radan  (radar  doppler  auto- 
matic navigator)  for  mili- 
tary aircraft 

Radan  500  for  business  and 
commercial  aircraft 

ECO  Engineering 
Co.,  Newark, 
N.J. 

Inert  thread  sealing  com- 
pound, developed  for  Red- 
stone Arsenal. 

T-Film    thread    sealing  and 
anti-seize     compounds  for 
pump  manufacturers  serving 
process  industries. 

Miskella  Infra-Red 
Co.,  Cleveland, 
Ohio 

Atlas  Satellite 

New     Infrared  appliances, 
i.e.,   lamps,   hot  dog  roast- 
ers, switches,  ovens. 

Fairfield  Engineer- 
ing Co.,  Marion, 
Ohio 

Automatic    control  compo- 
nents 

Proximity     switches,  plugs, 
valves,  cylinders,  and  other 
components  already  are  an 
integral    part    of  industrial 
conveyor  systems. 

Filtors     Inc.,  Port 
Washington, 

N.Y. 

High  environmental  reliabil- 
ity 

Improved    commercial  air- 
liner   equipment,    for  high 
reliability  of  operations. 

AVCO  Lycoming 
Div.,  Stratford, 
Conn. 

T-53  and  T-55  Gas  Turbines 
for  Army   and   Air  Force 

Engines  for  helicopter  field. 
Marine   and    industrial  ver- 
sions. 

COMPANY 

MILITARY  USE 

CIVILIAN  USE 

Frank   R.  Cook 
Co.,  Denver 

silver-zinc    batteries  devel- 
sped     for    guided  missile 
lower 

deal  for  portable  and  air- 
borne   applications  requir- 
ng    small    size    and  light 
weight. 

Rosemont  Engi- 
neering Co., 
Minneapolis 

Variety    of    precision  plati- 
num   resistance  temperature 
sensors   developed   for  mis- 
siles 

Any    industrial    or  commer- 
cial   applications    in  which 
tigher  accuracy  and  stabil- 
ty  is  needed  for  tempera- 
ture measurements. 

B4F  Instruments, 
Inc.,  Philadel- 
phia 

Accel  erometers    for  aircraft 
and     missile     flight  tests; 
torquemeters  to  test  missile 
components;     strain  gauge 
control    equipment   for  air- 
craft  and   missile  structural 
testing. 

Univ.    of    California  auto 
crash  tests  use  these  accel- 
erometers;  other  instruments 
are  in  use  in  motor  testing, 
shipbuilding      and  bridge 
construction. 

Fairchild  Engine 
and  Airplane 
Corp.,  Hagers- 
town,  Md.  . 

Armalite 

C-82 

Radar 

Armalite   principle  in  _  civil- 
ian  guns.   Cargo  carrier  in 
South     America.  Proximity 
warning  device  for  aircraft. 

Miles  Reproducer, 
Inc.,    New  York, 
N.Y. 

Recording  equipment 

Automatic    voice  recorded 
started     and     stopped  by 
sound    of    voice;  "Walkle- 
Recordall" — miniature  con- 
ference recorder-transcriber. 

Edgerton,  Germes- 
hausen  and 
Grier,  Boston 

Milli-mike     traveling  wave 
oscilloscope  for  Atomic  En- 
ergy Commission. 

Now    available   for  labora- 
tory   purposes,    to  measure 
high-speed     electrical  phe- 
nomena   occurring    in  less 
than   one  millimicrosecond. 

Southwestern  Indus- 
trial Electronics, 
Houston 

Miniatured    electronics  and 
bearings     (a     Division  of 
Dresser  Industries) 

For  portable  radio  and  TV; 
microminiature  roller, 
needle,    and    ball  bearings 
for  such  equipment  as  com- 
pressed    air-turbine  dental 
drills. 

Marblette  Corp. 

Epoxy     Resin  #617 — missile 
application 

Epoxy  Resin  #341  in  atomic 
submarine  construction 

For    plastic    tooling,  metal 
bonding  adhesive  plus  cast- 
ing and  laminating  applica- 
tions;   #  34  r  s    primary  dis- 
tinction is  protection  against 
radiation. 

B.  F.  Goodrich 
Aviation  Prod- 
ucts, Akron,  O. 

New    fabric-laminated  tire 
treads 

Nacimac  Product 
San  Diego,  Calif 

Film  resistance  thermometers 

For  animal  and  human  tem- 
perature measurements. 

AMP,  Inc., 

Harrisburg,  Pa. 

Solderless     wiring  connec 
tors 

Don-Lan  Electron- 
ics,  Inc.  Santa 
Monica,  Calif. 

Coaxial  switches,  waveguide 
switches,  antennas 

Most  microwave  components 

General  R.  F.  Fit 
ting,  Inc., 
Boston 

-  R  F  coaxial  connections 

G.    B.  Electronics 
Inc.,  Valley 
Stream,  L.I.. 
N.Y. 

,  Tracking     antenna  systems 
SVE  arrays,  infrared  device 

Scatter  communications  sys- 
s  terns  for  networks;  infrared 
detection    systems    for  air- 
craft and   other  testing. 

Corning  Glass 
Works,  Corning 
N.Y. 

Silicones  for  electric  moto 
,  insulation,  subzero  lubricants 
water-repellent  and  weather 

r  Better   glassmaking  technol- 
,  ogy  for  myriad  products. 

14 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


commercial  product  lines. 

General  Electric  also  is  reluctant  to 
speak  in  general  terms  of  the  poten- 
tialities of  its  space  work  assign- 
ments for  other  manufacturing  divi- 


sions. GE  regards  space  travel  as  an 
extension  of  terrestrial  travel.  GE  also 
points  to  benefits  in  the  development 
of  materials — metallic  and  otherwise — 
which  make  possible  recoverable  nose 


cones  capable  of  withstanding  the 
stresses  and  strains  of  re-entry. 

•  Sizing  up  markets — Volume  pro- 
curement of  lithium  has  brought  down 
the  price,  sparking  producers'  thinking 


COMPANY 

MILITARY  USE 

CIVILIAN  USE 

Corning  Glass 
Works,  Corning, 
N.Y. 

(Cont.) 

resisting     coatings;  resillenl 
rubberlike  plastic 

Fused  silica  in   radar  delay 
lines 

Optical     blanks    for  aerial 
camera     lenses     and  wind 
tunnel  windows 

Ribbon  glass  for  capacitors 
Radar  bulbs 
Dosimeter  lockets 

Ceramic  reactor  fuels 

Pyroceram — in     missile  ra- 
domes 

Wind  tunnel  windows,  cruci- 
bles  and    laboratory  instru- 
ments. 

Radiation  shielding  windows 

For     electronics  capacitors 
now  in  use. 

Air    traffic    control  equip- 
ment. 

For   nuclear   food  preserva- 
tion. 

Power  reactors. 

For  skillets,  pans  and  other 
utensils. 

Norfronics,  Inc., 
Hawthorne, 
Calif. 

Voice    interruption  priority 
system 

Process     control  warnings; 
verbal    assembly    line  pro- 
duction control 

William    Brand  & 
Co.,  Willimantic, 
Conn. 

Turbo     Ribbon     cable  for 
missiles 

For  communications  systems 
and    electronic  components 
generally 

Fairchi  Id  Camera 
and  Instrument 
Corp.,  Syosett, 
N.Y. 

Airborne  radio  compass 
Automatic  gun  cameras 

T-II      Cartographic  Aerial 
Mapping  Camera 

35mm  and   16mm  mini-rapid 
film  processor 

Commercial  aircraft 
Surveillance   cameras  in 
banks,  toll  booths,  etc. 

Commercial    mapping  firms 

For  television  newsfilms  and 
commercials,  industrial 
films 

SKF  Industries, 
Philadelphia 

Quiet  running   bearings  for 
underwater  craft 

For  electric  motors;  all  pre- 
cision, special  tolerance  and 
unique  design  bearings  orig- 
inally    made     for  military 
are  now  in   industrial  use. 

Douglas  Aircraft 
Santa  Monica, 
Calif. 

Data    reduction  techniques, 
camera  equipment  and  films, 
miniaturization  of  electronic 
components. 

Essex  Mfg.  Co., 

Cryogenic  disconnects,  pres- 
sure switches    check  valves 
pyrotechnic  components; 

Liquid  nitrogen  missile  dis- 
connects; liquid  propane  re- 
frigerant disconnects. 

All  are  in  industrial  use 

Aeroquip  Corp., 
Jackson,  Mich. 

Hoses  of  Teflon  for  Jet  air- 
craft,   missiles    and  launch- 
ers. 

Extensive    industrial  steam- 
carrying  and  chemical  uses. 

Chemalloy  Elec- 
tronics Corp., 
Santee,  Calif. 

Fluxless   aluminum  soldering 

For  kitchen  utensiles  repair, 
gutters,    flashings,    TV  an- 
tennas, electrical  Joints,  auto 
repairs,   fencing,   milk  cans, 
silos. 

American  Brake 
Shoe  Co., 
New  York,  N.Y. 

Machinable  manganese  steel 
for  use  as  fittings  in  mine- 
sweepers 

Ultra-high      strength  steel 
castings  for  missiles  and  air- 
frames 

For    structural  components 
for    electric    power  equip- 
ment  and    heavy  electronic 
gear. 

For     lightweight,  complex 
shapes    In    structural  com- 
ponents requiring 
High   dimensional  accuracy, 
exceptional     strength  and 
complete  reliability. 

COMPANY 

MILITARY  USE 

CIVILIAN  USE 

American  Brake 
Shoe  Co., 
New  York,  N.Y. 

(Cont.) 

Lightweight  hydraulic  pumps 
for  missiles  and  aircraft 

Industrial  hydraulics,  auto- 
mated machinery,  electro- 
hydraulic  and  hydraulic- 
pneumatic    control  systems. 

Cannon  Electric 
Co.,  Los  Angeles 

Solenoid-a  ctuated  Jock 
mechanism    on    Atlas  Thor 
(as  umbilical  disconnect) 

In  wing  flap  brake  mechan- 

Sanders  Associates, 
Inc.,  Nashua 
N.H. 

Flexible  printed  circuitry 

DeHavilland  Air- 
craft of  Canada, 
Downsview, 
Ontario 

Transistor  inverter  electrical 
power  supply 

Infrared  devices 

Turbo-alternator  electrical 
power  supplies 

Instrument  inverters,  power 
Inverters,  de-icers  for  wind- 
shields. 

Cell  coolers,  detecting  de- 
vices,  tracking  devices. 

Standby  units  for  emergency 
air  and  ground  electrical 
power 

Hart  Mfg.  Co., 
Hartford,  Conn. 

Sensitive  relays  and  small 
switches  for  high  shock  and 
temperature  applications 

Computors  and  sensitive  in- 
dustrial instruments  and  con- 
trols. 

Rocketdyne  Div., 
North  American 
Aviation, 
Canoga  Park, 
Calif. 

Hydrazine  liquid  storable 
propellant 

Drugs  based  on  hydrazine 
derivatives  for  mental  ill- 
ness, tuberculosis 

Propellex  Chem- 
ical   Div.,  Chro- 
maloy  Corp., 
buwarasviiie,  ill. 

Landing    gear   actuator  for 
aircraft  cartridge-actuated 
emergency   truck  brake 
Technique    of    explosive  or 
blast  forming  of  difficult-to- 
mold    metals   into  intricate 
shapes. 

Westinghouse  Elec- 
tric,   East  Pitts- 

Thermoelectric  power  gen- 
erators 

Thermoelectric  appliances 

General  Electric 
Co.,  Philadelphia 

Improved  materials,  propul- 
sion for  space  travel 

Curtiss-Wrlght 
Corp.,  Wood- 
ridge.  N.J. 

Control  concepts  and  other 
research  for  advanced  air 
vehicles 

Various  applications  in  in- 
dustry 

Raytheon  Mfg.  Co., 
Boston 

Microwave  systems,  radar 
equipments 

Market  planning  for  indus- 
trial  and   commercial  sales. 

Chrysler  Corp., 
Detroit,  Mich. 

Propulsion  for  space  ve- 
hicles 

Possible  application  in  auto- 
motive industry. 

Navan  Products, 
Inc.,  Los  Angeles 

Subsidiary  of  North  Amer- 
ican Aviation ,  newly  estab- 
lished for  marketing  parent 
company's  (aircraft,  missile, 
nuclear,  rocket  engine  and 
electronic  designs)  and 
other  inventions  commer- 
cially. 

Specializing    In  marketing, 
financing ,    and  manufactur- 
ing of  inventions,  with  em- 
phasis on  national  sales. 

Food  Machinery  & 
Chemical  Corp., 
San   Jose,  Calif. 

Techniques  for  m/r  space 
and  allied  fields  by  com- 
pany's ordnance  division. 

New  technique  for  continu- 
ous welding  process  on 
aluminum. 

Convair  Div.,  Gen- 
eral Dynamics, 
Pomona,  Calif. 

Hyge  machines  for  shock 
test  facilities  of  Lockheed, 
Martin,  Avco,  Minneapolis^ 
Honeywell,  Sandia  Corp., 
and  other  firms. 

Actuator    for  shock-testing, 
simulates  shock  for  precision 
test    needs    of    large  and 
small  industries. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


15 


some  unlikely  diversifications  .  .  . 


about  commercial  markets.  The  sole 
commercial  use  that  immediately  comes 
to  mind  is  in  nickel-oxide  storage  bat- 
teries. Firestone  and  Shell  Chemical  are 
reported  to  be  employing  a  lithium  cat- 
alyst in  synthetic  rubber  production. 
Frank  R.  Cook  Co.,  Denver,  suppliers 
of  silver-zinc  batteries  for  guided  mis- 
sile power,  look  to  civilian  customers 
in  need  of  lightweight  and  small  (one- 
sixth  to  one-fourth  the  dimensions  of 
conventional  batteries)  for  portable  and 
airborne  applications. 

Rosemont  Engineering  Co.,  Minne- 
apolis, has  only  begun  exploiting  the 
market  for  a  variety  of  precision  plati- 
num i  esistance  temperature  sensors  de- 
veloped for  missiles.  The  company 
stresses  the  high  accuracy  and  stability 
of  its  product  for  temperature  measure- 
ments, in  selling  for  all  industrial  or 
commercial  applications. 

•  Cases  in  point — Raytheon  Manu- 
facturing Co.  uses  the  term  "fallout" 
for  products  originally  designed  for 
military  needs.  In  World  War  II,  Ray- 
theon supplied  three  of  four  Allied 
warships  with  surface  search  radars. 
Today  Raytheon  claims  to  be  the 
largest  single  producer  of  such  equip- 
ment for  the  world's  merchant  shipping 
and  passenger  liners. 

In  little  more  than  three  years, 
Raytheon's  payroll  has  increased  from 
18,000  to  39,000.  Where  its  ratio  of 
government  to  non-governmental  ac- 
tivity was  60-40%  in  1956,  company 
responsibilities  for  the  Falcon  and 
Sparrow  HI,  among  other  systems,  have 
increased  the  ratio  to  85-15%. 

With  an  eye  to  the  future,  Ray- 
theon's market  planners  are  concentrat- 
ing on  resources  which,  combined  with 
capabilities  of  companies  Raytheon  has 
been  acquiring,  will  make  the  company 
name  as  familiar  in  commercial  marts 
as  it  was  before  its  radio-TV  operations 
were  sold  to  Admiral  Corp. 

A  major  rubber  company,  whose 
identity  is  withheld  by  request,  reports 
that  a  high-speed,  fabric-laminated 
tread  tire  used  on  recoverable  test  mis- 
siles is  also  being  sold  now  for  com- 
mercial jet  aircraft.  Marblette  Corp., 
producer  of  resins  for  missile  and 
rocket  applications  and  atomic  subma- 
rine construction,  cites  civilian  uses  for 
each  type.  One  is  already  popular  in 
plastic  tooling,  metal-bonding,  adhesive 
and  casting,  and  laminating  operations; 
the  other,  in  high-density  casting  com- 
pounds. The  latter  type  resin  is  lead- 
filled  for  barriers  against  radiation. 

SKF  Industries  is  now  producing 
for  non-Government  users  all  precision, 
special  tolerance  bearings  for  electric 

16 


motors,  including  those  of  unique  de- 
sign, that  the  military  had  to  have. 
Both  Air  Force  and  Navy  needs  have 
contributed  greatly  to  such  advances. 
A  major  Air  Force  contribution  in  re- 
cent years  was  the  technique  for  plat- 
ing nickel  and  tin-indium  without  elec- 
trical current  to  prolong  the  life  of 
friction  bearings  and  similar  parts. 

•  Peace-to-war-to-peace — The  inter- 
relationship of  peaceful  industrial  re- 
search and  that  for  defense  is  graphic- 
ally illustrated  in  the  case  of  Westing- 
house  Electric's  interest  in  thermoelec- 
trical  developments. 

The  company  began  to  study  the 
possibility  of  converting  electricity  di- 
rectly to  heat  in  1937.  By  1939,  the 
Westinghouse  Exhibit  at  the  New  York 
World's  Fair  was  showing  thermo- 
couples demonstrating  this  principle. 

Early  in  the  1950's,  management's 
imagination  was  fired  by  the  possibility 
of  thermoelectric  household  appliances 
which  would  be  highly  efficient,  have 
no  turning  parts,  nothing  to  wear  out. 
The  intensive  laboratory  activity  for 
the  next  three  years  centered  on  a 
small  but  highly  dependable  prime 
source  of  electricity,  a  generator  that 
would  be  gas-fueled  at  first  but  even- 
tually nuclear-fueled. 

The  Navy  happened  to  be  in  the 
market  for  such  a  power  generator. 
Since  Westinghouse  had  acquired  con- 
siderable experience  and  knowledge  in 
this  field,  the  company  was  put  to 
work.  The  objective:  to  build  a  light- 
weight, highly  efficient  generator  cap- 
able of  performing  the  selective  cooling 
required  for  electronic  gear  in  aircraft 
and  in  equipments  such  as  those  used 
in  the  Arctic  for  communications 
networks. 

The  advent  of  the  Space  Age 
heightened  the  need  for  power  genera- 
tors for  satellite  vehicles.  Westinghouse 
is  subcontractor  in  this  connection  for 
projects  on  which  The  Martin  Co.  and 
Minnesota  Mining  and  Manufacturing 
have  prime  responsibility.  Westinghouse 
also  has  an  Air  Force  order  for  a 
TAP- 100  (Terrestrial  Auxiliary  Power 
— 100  watts)  generator  for  remote  lo- 
cations such  as  the  Arctic.  Ultimately, 
such  equipment,  relying  on  nuclear 
fuel,  can  power  relay  stations  for 
round-the-world  communications. 

A  Navy  contract  calls  for  a  500- 
watt  generator  and  a  thermoelectric  air 
conditioner  for  shipboard  use,  with  a 
capacity  of  one  ton.  This  unit  is  a 
parallel  development  of  the  baby  bottle 
warmer-cooler,  dehumidifier,  and  re- 
frigerator prototypes  already  being  pic- 
tured in  ad  copy  as  part  of  Westing- 


house's  projected  line  of  thermoelectric 
home  appliances. 

•  Improbable  diversification — Most 
Americans  are  not  only  startled  by  the 
fact  that  billions  in  Government  sci- 
entific and  engineering  research  and 
technological  development  pay  off  in 
terms  of  new  jobs,  new  products,  new 
industries  and  the  resulting  increase  in 
economic  wealth;  they  are  also  sur- 
prised to  see  that  companies  engaged 
in  one  line  of  manufacturing  diversify 
into  remote  fields  as  a  result  of  their 
defense  activities. 

The  public  thinks  of  Food  Ma- 
chinery and  Chemical  Corp.  as  a  pack- 
aging business,  with  some  ordnance 
work.  Not  generally  realized  is  the 
new  technique  Food  Machinery  has 
for  continuous  welding  of  various  types 
of  aluminum,  including  those  of  con- 
siderable thickness. 

Another  example  is  the  case  of 
Rocketdyne  Division  of  North  Ameri- 
can Aviation,  a  division  created  be- 
cause of  the  Space  Age.  Rocketdyne 
produces  hydrazine  liquid  storable  pro- 
pellants.  Rocketdyne  officials  say  drugs 
based  on  hydrazine  derivatives  have 
been  tested  in  terms  of  treatment  for 
mental  illnesses  and  tuberculosis.  The 
company  gives  no  indication  that  it 
contemplates  entering  the  pharmaceu- 
tical industry.  But  it  is  significant  that 
most  of  the  10,000  compounds  that 
have  been  introduced  in  medical  prac- 
tice since  1939 — the  outbreak  of  World 
War  II — were  available  much  sooner 
than  might  otherwise  be  the  case  be- 
cause of  mobilization  requirements  and 
wartime  demands. 

General  Bronze  Corp.,  a  leading 
manufacturer  of  metal  windows  and 
other  construction  items,  is  preparing 
to  spill  over  into  the  industrial  and 
commercial  electronics  fields.  A  sub- 
sidiary devoted  to  space  science  and 
engineering  requirements,  G.B.  Elec- 
tronics, Inc.,  was  established  less  than 
two  years  ago,  to  develop  tracking  an- 
tenna systems  for  missile  support  equip- 
ment supplied  by  prime  contractors. 
The  company  has  now  gone  in  for 
infrared  research,  with  prospects  of 
turning  out  highly  sensitive  devices  for 
such  industrial  uses  as  the  detection  of 
flaws  in  the  welding  of  aircraft. 

•  Moving  into  aeronautics — The 

aeronautics  industry  is  eyed  by  numer- 
ous companies — even  though  some  of 
the  best-known  aircraft  manufacturers, 
such  as  Douglas  and  Northrop,  are 
turning  to  such  fields  as  data  process- 
ing and  reduction  techniques,  and  sys- 
tems for  production  control  in  highly 
automated  plants,  respectively. 

Summers  Gyroscope's  inexpensive 
autopilot  for  target  drones  has  applica- 
bility in  light  aircraft  as  a  cheap  pilot 
assist/ safety  device.  Avco's  Lycoming 
Division  anticipates  that  within  a  year 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


it  will  be  selling  commercial  versions 
of  its  T-53  and  T-55  gas  turbines  for 
helicopters.  Marine  and  industrial  ver- 
sions also  will  be  offered.  General  Pre- 
cision Laboratory,  prime  contractor  for 
the  Federal  Aviation  Agency's  semi- 
automatic traffic  control  system,  cites 
its  radar  doppler  automatic  navigator 
(RADAN  500),  for  sale  to  business  and 
commercial  aircraft.  The  Stalker  Corp., 
Essexville,  Mich.,  mentions  jet  engines 
it  builds  for  the  military  under  GE 
subcontract  as  a  line  for  other  buyers. 

RCA  is  optimistic  as  to  the  civilian 
usefulness  of  its  radar  equipment  for 
Air  Force  and  Navy  weather  studies. 
Stavid  Engineering,  Inc.,  Plainfield, 
N.J.,  has  elaborate  apparatus  for  locat- 
ing lightning  flashes  over  a  2000-mile 
radius  and  for  instantaneous  transmis- 
sion, monitoring  and  plotting  of 
weather  front  locations  and  movements. 

•  Peaceful  electronics — A  vast  ar- 
ray of  precision  instruments,  refine- 
ments and  improvements  on  automatic 
production  control  components,  photo- 
graphic equipment,  and  infrared  appli- 
ances will  go  into  industrial  and  con- 
sumer marts.  Miskella  Infra-Red  Co., 
Cleveland,  is  transferring  capabilities 
and  know-how  that  go  into  its  tasks  for 
the  Atlas  satellite  to  new  types  of 
electronic  lamps,  hot  dog  roasters, 
switches  and  ovens.  ECO  Engineering 
Co.,  a  Newark,  N.J.,  supplier  of  Red- 


stone Arsenal,  had  to  develop  an  inert 
thread  sealing  compound  for  that  key 
customer.  Now  ECO  counts  on  such 
sealing  and  anti-seize  compounds  to 
appeal  to  pump  manufacturers  in  the 
process  industries. 

The  tremendous  impetus  which  de- 
fense research  gave  to  the  miniaturiza- 
tion of  electronic  components  con- 
tinues. Dresser  Industries'  Southwestern 
Industrial  Electronic  Co.,  Houston,  is 
"transistorizing  and  minifying"  for  por- 
table radio  and  television  sets.  In  addi- 
tion, Southwestern  makes  micro-minia- 
ture roller,  needle  and  ball  bearings 
for  compressed  air-turbine  dental  drills. 
Another  missile  electronics  supplier. 
Miles  Reproducer,  Inc.,  New  York 
City,  is  promoting  an  automatic  voice 
recorder  which  starts  and  stops  at  the 
sound  of  a  voice,  and  a  "Walkie-Re- 
cordall"  which  is  a  miniature  confer- 
ence recorder-transcriber. 

•  Long-range  jobs — An  eloquent 
indication  of  the  benefits  to  industry  of 
current  programs  is  the  spate  of  large 
Engineers  Wanted  ads  in  metropolitan 
Sunday  newspapers;  most  of  the  adver- 
tisers are  Space  Age  research  and 
development  organizations. 

In  the  hectic  competition  for  the 
most  desirable  mechanical  and  elec- 
tronic engineers,  companies  emphasize 
the  long-range  attractions  of  careers  in 
their  laboratories.  The  Propeller  Di- 


vision of  Curtiss-Wright  Corp.,  for  ex- 
ample, specifically  mentions  that  the 
design,  development  and  testing  work 
available  on  "advanced  air  vehicles" 
and  the  control  concepts  under  develop- 
ment have  "application  in  industry  as 
well  as  many  other  areas  yet  to  be 
fully  explored." 

A  few  winters  back,  after  the  So- 
viets had  orbited  their  second  satellite, 
a  group  of  U.S.  Congressmen  landed 
in  Sydney,  Australia,  on  a  transpolar 
Antarctic  flight.  One  of  them.  Rep. 
Torbert  H.  Macdonald  of  Boston,  was 
properly  respectful  in  reading  of  the 
accomplishment  in  a  Down  Under 
newspaper.  The  hotel  elevator  operator 
was  reassuring  and  consoling.  "You 
Yanks  needn't  worry,"  he  said.  "You'll 
do  all  right.  And  when  you  get  your 
satellites  going  round  the  earth,  they'll 
be  much  better.  They'll  be  air-condi- 
tioned!" 

The  lawmaker  from  an  area 
abounding  in  electronics  production 
and  research  activities  for  the  Space 
Agency  and  ARPA  thinks  this  point 
was  well  taken.  Experience  has  proven 
that  every  military  undertaking  in  nu- 
clear fission  and  fusion,  astronautics, 
electronic  computation  and  new  aero- 
dynamic and  hydrodynamic  R&D  is 
from  the  outset  destined  to  pay  off  in 
new  skills,  technologies,  industries  and 
related    forms    of    economic  wealth. 


LEFT:  Premier  Khrushchev  on  his  visit  here  may  follow  the  same  path  as  his  deputy,  Frol  Koslov,  shown  here  visiting  Westing- 
house's  peaceful  atomic  power  plant  at  Shippingport,  Pa.  With  Koslov  at  the  main  control  console  is  Viee  Admiral  H.  G.  Rickover, 
father  of  the  atomic  sub.  RIGHT:  This  the  world's  first  industrial  atom  smasher  at  Shippingport,  a  direct  industrial  outgrowth  of 
the  atom  bomb. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


17 


astrionics 


Microminiaturization— 
A  Revolution  Under  Way 

M/R  reports  on  a  fast-developing  concept  that 
will  save  millions  and  boost  reliability 


by  Charles  D.  LaFond 
and  James  Baar 

Washington — Yellowish  smoke 
rolls  across  the  meadow  and  shrouds 
the  Lacrosse  fire  direction  truck. 

Inside  the  truck  the  red  fire  button 
on  the  console  flashes.  The  sergeant 
moves  his  hand  to  push  it.  Then  he 
stops.  The  light  has  gone  out.  In  its 
place,  a  trouble  indicator  light  is  flash- 
ing: A  bank  of  binary  flip-flops  in  the 
guidance  computer  has  failed. 

A  private  quickly  removes  the 
micro-modular  bank,  throws  it  away 
and  inserts  another.  The  fire  button 
flashes  again.  The  sergeant  pushes  it. 
Only  seconds  have  been  lost  .  .  . 

This  is  the  micro-module  concept 
in  action. 

Microminiaturization — The  manu- 
facture of  highly  reliable  and  highly 
standardized  electronic  equipment  one- 
tenth  the  size  of  existing  miniaturized 
equipment — is  a  billion-dollar  technical 
revolution  that  already  is  beginning  to 
sweep  the  electronics  industry. 


It  is  not  something  that  is  coming 
in  the  next  10  or  20  years.  It  will  be 
here  in  full  force  about  two  years 
from  now. 

It  means: 

•  Swift,  simple  "throw-away"  main- 
tenance of  military  electronic  equip- 
ment both  in  combat  and  behind  the 
lines. 

•  Saving  of  millions  of  dollars  a 
year  in  military  maintenance  costs. 

•  The  cramming  of  a  maximum  of 
600,000  components  per  cubic  foot 
into  a  missile,  space  vehicle  or  com- 
puter, instead  of  the  present  maximum 
of  50,000  or  60,000. 

•  Improvement  of  reliability  by  up 
to  50%. 

The  effect  of  this  on  the  develop- 
ment of  missiles  and  space  vehicles  as 
well  as  all  other  military  and  com- 
mercial equipment  employing  elec- 
tronic components  is  obviously  going 
to  be  tremendous. 

Moreover,  the  effect  on  the  multi- 
billion-dollar  electronics  industry  will 


obviously  be  equally  great.  Nearly  100 
firms  have  taken  part  in  the  R&D  pro- 
gram. Nearly  all  others  have  watched 
it  closely. 

The  dramatic  story  of  how  this 
revolution  has  come  about  starts  only 
about  1 8  months  ago  in  the  laboratories 
of  the  U.S.  Army  Signal  R&D  lab 
at  Ft.  Monmouth  and  Radio  Corpora- 
tion of  America  at  Camden,  N.J. 

The  Signal  Corps  and  RCA  set  out 
to  radically  improve  the  present  level 
of  miniaturization  using  only  proven 
components  available  today. 

They  wanted  components  that  are 
smaller,  cheaper,  standardized  and 
easier  to  maintain.  At  the  same  time, 
they  wanted  a  design  so  flexible  that 
radically  new  components  now  under 
development  could  be  absorbed  into 
the  system  in  the  future. 

The  result  was  the  micro-module 
concept. 

•  Program  grows — RCA  began  the 
initial  design  program  April  1,  1958, 
after  receiving  a  two-year,  $5-million 
contract  from  the  Signal  Corps.  The 
contract  recently  was  increased  by  $2.4 
million  and  extended  another  year. 

The  total  program  probably  will 
run  to  about  $15  million  in  Federal 
money — a  bargain  basement  figure 
made  possible  by  sizeable  industry  con- 
tributions. 

However,  a  fourth  year  and  more 
funds  may  be  added  to  the  program 
depending  on  how  quickly  industry  as- 
similates the  program's  results. 

The  first  year  was  directed  to  the 
development  of  the  basic  module-ele- 
ment configuration  and  the  prototype 
production  of  various  components. 
This  year  more  prototype  elements  are 
being  developed. 

Approximately  half  of  the  total 
number  of  different  micro-elements  to 
be  built  are  already  available  and  are 
undergoing  comprehensive  performance 
tests  and  evaluations.  In  all,  the  pro- 
gram calls  for  nearly  5  x10s  unit  hours 
of  life  testing. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


But  if  you  want  to  try,  do  this : 

■  Spend  20  years  applying  advanced  metallurgy 
to  production. 

■  Shake  down  35  high-temperature  alloys  in  the 
laboratory. 

■  Fabricate  these  super-alloys  into  critical  hot-part 
components  for  prototype  power  plants. 

■  Swing  into  volume  production  of  proved  designs. 


■  Prove,  over  and  over  again,  that  you  know  what 
you're  doing— with  jet,  propjet  and  piston  engine 
components  and  afterburners,  ramjets  and  rocket 
motors. 

■  Make  your  name  a  byword  for  high-temperature 
research  and  development . . .  for  precision-made 
components  and  complete  power  packages. 

Better  still  — take  a  20-year  stride  by  putting  Ryan 
to  work  on  your  heat  problems. 


O'er  the  ramparts... 


U.  S.  Army's 

NIKE  HERCULES... 

Solid  rocket  motor 
1  built  by  Thiokol  for 
Nike  Zeus,  has  pro- 
duced greatest  mass 
discharge  rate  and 
thrust  of  any  single 

Through  the  combined  efforts  of  the  U.S.  Army, 
Western  Electric,  Douglas  Aircraft,  Thiokol 
Chemical  and  other  key  members  of  the  missile 
industry,  America  is  moving  toward  the  realiza 
tion  of  a  critically  needed  anti  missile  missile 
The  Nike-Zeus  system  —  big  brother  to  the 
Army's  Nike  Hercules  which  now  stands  guarc 
over  major  population  centers  —  is  being  de1: 
signed  to  detect,  charge  and  destroy  attacking)! 
ICBMs  many  miles  from  their  targets. 

Assigned  development  of  the  boost  for  the 
Zeus,  Thiokol  has  already  designed,  built  ana 
successfully  test-fired  a  motor  achieving  oven* 


CHEMICAL  CORPORATION 

Bristol,  Penna. 


1 

20 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


NIKE  ZEUS 

solid  propellant 
motor  ever  test-fired 
in  the  free  world  .  . . 
unleashes  more  than 
400,000  lbs,  of  thrust 
in  static  firing! 

400,000  pounds  of  thrust — power  enough  to  de- 
liver the  instant  reach  of  high  altitudes  needed 
for  effective  defense. 

While  the  Zeus  booster  stands  as  the  most 
powerful  solid  propellant  motor  now  on  record, 
it  in  no  way  represents  the  ultimate  capability 
of  present  Thiokol  facilities.  Current  capacity 
includes  motors  still  larger — of  ICBM  and  even 
satellite  size. 

Under  Army  direction,  and  in  cooperation 
with  Douglas  Aircraft,  Thiokol  development  in 
the  Nike  program  has  advanced  the  science  of 
rocket  propulsion. 


4 


The  Nation's  Partner  in  Defense 


Nike  Z 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


MOB  I  LIT  V 

outstanding  attribute  of  storable  missiles  fueled  with 

DIMA2INE 

u  n  sy  m-Di  m  et  h  y  I  h  y  d  razin  e  ,  UDMH 

the:  stq'rab  \jel  fuel 


DIMAZINE  helps  to  expand  the  orbit  of  stor- 
age and  launching  sites  for  both  tactical  and 
mobile  strategic  weapons  because  it  is  easy  to 
ship  and  handle  safely. 

Missiles  powered  by  DIMAZINE  may  be 
transported  fully  fueled  with  only  the  normal 
safety  precautions  applicable  to  flammable, 
moderately  toxic  industrial  chemicals.  In  large 
missiles,  transportation  and  erection  problems 
can  be  greatly  simplified  by  shipping  the  mis- 
sile "empty"  and  fueling  at  the  launching  site 
for  either  instant  use  or  ready  storage.  Both 
DIMAZINE  and  its  storable  oxidizers  are 
readily  transported  to  the  site  in  standard 
tank  cars  or  trucks. 


DIMAZINE  is  stable  and  non-corrosive  dur- 
ing storage  ...  is  not  shock  sensitive  .  .  .  has 
high  thermal  stability,  low  freezing  point, 
minimum  susceptibility  to  contamination  and 
high  compatibility  with  most  metals  and  ap- 
propriate sealing  materials. 

Additionally,  DIMAZINE,  is  a  highly  relir 
able,  high  performance  fuel  that  gives  fast 
hvpergolic  starts,  smooth,  stable  combustion 
and  easily-controlled  shutdowns. 

DIMAZINE  is  amply  available.  We  will  be 
pleased  to  furnish  trustworthy  data  on  its  sup- 
ply logistics,  properties  and  handling. 


Putting     Ideas     to  Work 

FOOD  MACHINERY  AND  CHEMICAL  CORPORATION 
Westvaco  Chlor-Alkali  Division 

General  Sales  Offices: 
®   „  161  E.  42nd  STREET.  NEW  YORK  17 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  1 4,  1 959 


industrial  sources  are  established  .  .  . 


COMPRESSED  into  size  no  larger  than  a  sugar  lump,  this  military  radio  illustrates 
the  progress  achieved  in  the  Army  micro-module  program.  Receiver  is  made  of  micro- 
modules, circuit  building  blocks  1/3"  square  promising  reduction  of  at  least  10:1. 


Beginning  this  year  and  through 
the  third  year  of  the  developmental 
program,  somewhat  more  than  $3  mil- 
lion also  will  be  required  for  con- 
struction of  two  equipments  employ- 
ing micromodules.  Finally,  in  the  third 
year,  a  mechanization  phase  will  be 
entered  during  which  approximately  $5 
million  will  be  needed  to  develop  pilot 
production.  This  includes  necessary 
equipment  for  automation  and  the 
overall  evaluation  of  the  completed 
modules  and  the  two  equipments. 

•  The  concept — Essentially,  the 
micromodule  system  is  based  on  the 
use  of  very  thin  wafers  connected  in 
a  building-block  fashion  to  make  mini- 
ature cubes  of  functional  circuits. 

To  lend  itself  to  automatic  manu- 
facture, a  notched  wafer  design  em- 
ploying round  riser  wires  was  first 
selected.  Internal  wafers  were  specified 
to  be  0.310"  x  0.310"  x  0.010".  End 
wafers  were  limited  to  0.350"  x  0.350" 
x  0.020".  Riser  wires  were  set  at  0.013" 


diameter  and  when  coated  with  solder 
were  limited  to  a  maximum  overall 
diameter  of  0.014". 

In  the  assembly  of  micro-elements 
to  form  a  micro-module,  a  0.01"  space 
is  allowed  between  each  element  to 
provide  electrical  decoupling.  This  also 
provides  an  allowance  for  joints  and 
tolerances. 

Two  types  of  micro-wafers  current- 
ly are  being  evaluated.  The  original 
notched  design  and  a  notchless  design 
connected  by  means  of  flat  ribbon 
conductors. 

The  micro-elements  made  from  the 
wafers  may  be  single-  or  double-sided 
and  other  variations  provide  for  adapt- 
ability of  all  the  basic  components  to 
the  micro-element  form. 

In  all,  14  elements  have  been  com- 
pleted so  far.  Seventeen  types  will  be 
made  available  during  the  latter  half 
of  this  year. 

After  assembling  the  micro-ele- 
ments and  after  completing  all  of  the 


internal  interconnections,  modules  axe 

then  sealed  by  molding  or  encapsulat- 
ing to  form  a  solid  body.  Encapsulation 
provides  standardization,  structural 
strength,  easy  handling  and  environ- 
mental protection. 

STYCAST  2651  epoxy  resin  is  used 
as  the  encapsulant.  Dow  Corning  271 
element  silicone  adhesive  resin  is  used 
as  the  inter-face  coating.  The  uniform 
shape  which  results  from  this  type  of 
assembly  provides  a  unique  standard- 
ization. 

•  Future  assured — Circuit  areas  in 
which  microminiaturization  capability 
has  been  proved  include  RF,  IF,  audio 
and  digital.  But  most  important  of  all, 
microminiaturization  as  a  concept  is 
an  integration  vehicle  no  matter  what 
new  components  evolve  in  the  future. 

Service  test  models  of  the  first  mi- 
crominiaturized equipments  should  be 
completed  by  April,  1962.  One  will  be 
a  typical  tactical  radio  communication 
set;  the  other,  a  typical  tactical  com- 
puter. 

Semi-conductor  devices  were  se- 
lected for  the  active  circuit  elements 
in  all  of  the  micro-modules.  The  in- 
herent small  size  of  transistors  and 
other  semi-conductor  devices  lends  it- 
self well  to  the  microminiaturization 
program  and  a  great  majority  of  all 
electronic  circuits  employed  today  are 
capable  of  being  transistorized. 

In  the  future,  it  is  possible  that 
almost  all  circuits  operating  at  low  and 
at  medium  power  levels  will  employ 
transistors  and  other  semi-conductor 
devices.  Of  course,  the  reduced  power 
consumption  also  makes  semi-conduc- 
tors well  suited  for  micro-module  ap- 
plications. 

A  great  deal  of  progress  has  been 
made  in  the  fabrication  of  the  micro- 
elements themselves  and,  in  line  with 
this,  industrial  sources  for  these  ele- 
ments have  been  established. 

•  Setting  sights — With  transistors 
and  semi-conductor  diodes  certain  limits 
necessarily  had  to  be  established.  For 


ACCEPTANCE  TESTING  SUMMARY 


Put  wings  on  your 
future,  too. 

DOUGLAS  AIRCRAFT  COMPANY 
MISSILES  AND  SPACE  SYSTEMS 

has  immediate  openings 
in  the  following  fields — 

Electrical  and  Electronics: 

Control  System  Analysis  &  Design 

Antenna  &  Radome  Design 

Radar  System  Analysis  and  Design 

Instrumentation 

Equipment  Installation 

Test  Procedures 

Logic  Design 

Power  System  Design 

Mechanical  Engineering  — 
Analysis  and  Design  of  the  following: 

Servo  Units 

Hydraulic  Power  Systems 
Air  Conditioning  Systems 
Missile  Launcher  Systems 
Propulsion  Units  and  Systems 
Auxiliary  Power  Supplies 

Aeronautical  Engineering: 

Aerodynamic  Design 
Advanced  Aerodynamic  Study 
Aerodynamic  Heating 
Structural  Analysis 
Strength  Testing 
Dynamic  Analysis  of  Flutter 

and  Vibration 
Aeroelasticity 

Design  of  Complex  Structure 
Trajectory  Analysis 
Space  Mechanics 
Welding 
Metallurgy 

Physics  and  Mathematics: 

Experimental  Thermodynamics 
General  Advanced  Analysis  in 

all  fields 
Computer  Application  Analysis 
Computer  Programming  and 

Analysis 
Mathematical  Analysis 

For  full  information 
write  to: 

Mr.  C.  C.  LaVene 
Box  620-  R 

Douglas  Aircraft  Company,  Inc. 
Santa  Monica,  Calif. 


instance,  in  the  preliminary  module  de- 
sign work,  four  equivalent  type  transis- 
tors were  designated.  Semi-conductor 
diodes  were  limited  to  three  types. 

As  indicated  earlier,  the  primary 
consideration  in  the  development  of 
micro-modules  has  been  a  vastly  im- 
proved reliability.  The  initial  goal  was 
to  achieve  an  average  part  failure  rate 
of  0.1%  per  thousand  hours  of  opera- 
tion. Another  goal  was  the  establish- 
ment of  a  50-part  complexity  level 
capable  of  operating  in  a  temperature 
range  of  from  -55 °C  to  +85°C  for 
more  than  15,000  hours.  It  is  believed 
with  the  goals  established  for  micro- 
module reliability  an  increase  of  at 
least  50%  will  be  obtained  over  the 
best  equipments  now  in  use. 

•  Varied  benefits — The  future  of 
microminiaturization  both  militarily  and 
commercially  is  as  broad  as  the  field  of 
electronics. 

Army  experts  feel  that  wherever 
size  is  a  factor,  micro-modules  will  be 
used.  Moreover,  there  are  the  large 
economies  possible  through  the  cutting 
of  maintenance  costs  and  the  possibility 
of  large-scale  production. 

Space  exploration  will  be  one  of  the 
first  areas  to  benefit  from  microminia- 
turization. Ten  times  as  much  electronic 
equipment  will  be  jammed  in  satellites 
of  the  near  future.  U.S.  astronauts  will 
go  into  orbit  with  far  more  electronic 
equipment  including  much  larger  com- 
puters than  were  previously  possible. 

The  "throw-away"  maintenance  pro- 
vided by  microminiaturization  is  pre- 
cisely what  is  needed  for  Missile  Age 
nuclear  battlefields. 

The  rapid  massing  and  dispersal  of 
troops  called  for  by  the  tactics  of  nuc- 
lear warfare  eliminate  any  possibility  of 
lengthy  maintenance  work  on  equip- 
ment. The  chances  of  operating  large 
maintenance  depots  behind  the  lines 
are  non-existent. 

As  for  other  applications,  the  Army 
already  is  reviewing  all  future  equip- 
ment designs  for  possible  use  of  micro- 
modules. Industry  is  certain  to  do  the 
same  thing  for  many  commercial  items 
such  as  radios  and  TV  sets. 

Meantime,  the  Air  Force  and  Navy 
are  kept  informed  of  developments  in 
the  micro-module  program  and  can  be 
expected  to  adapt  the  results  to  their 
uses. 

•  Ultimate  uses — The  great  promise 
of  the  microminiaturization  concept  be- 
yond the  immediate  future  is  its  ex- 
pected ability  to  encompass  many  of 
the  revolutionary  developments  seen  on 
the  horizon. 

Ultimately,  active  and  passive  cir- 
cuit elements  probably  will  lose  their 
identities  completely.  It  is  believed  that 
they  will  be  replaced  by  active  volume 
elements — those  emitting  an  energy  flux 


at  a  desired  frequency — and  by  passive 
volume  elements — those  storing  or  dis- 
sipating such  energy. 

In  the  interim  period,  functional 
design  modules  will  be  categorized  by 
performance,  but  identity  as  distinct  cir- 
cuit elements,  no  matter  how  complex, 
will  be  retained. 

As  parts  densities  and  functions  in- 
crease per  unit  volume,  new  nomen- 
clature may  evolve.  It  has  been  sug- 
gested that  the  next  step  will  probably 
be  tagged  with  the  unwieldy  "milli- 
micro-miniaturization."  Finally,  "Ang- 
stronics"  may  be  the  most  descriptive 
word  for  more  advanced  programs. 

We  are  now  feeling  our  way  toward 
an  outer  understanding  of  the  solid-state 
era  into  which  we  have  gained  entry. 
So-called  molecular  electronics  has  pro- 
vided a  whole  new  concept  in  utilizing 
semiconductors. 

New  components  employing  equiva- 
lent or  functional  circuits  are  being 
born  daily: 

•  Silicon  Trigistors,  by  Solid  State 
Products,  Inc.,  has  a  triggered  bistable 
transistor  with  characteristics  compar- 
able to  a  flip-flop  or  bistable  multivi- 
brator. 

•  Texas  Instruments  with  its  Semi- 
conductor Solid  Circuits  has  developed 
single-crystal  functional  circuits  provid- 
ing equivalent  components  densities  of 
more  than  3  x  lOVcu.  ft. 

•  Westinghouse,  with  its  Moletron- 
ics,  is  achieving  similar  results  by  con- 
trolling crystalline  structural  arrange- 
ments in  "growing"  solid  state  ribbons. 
Many  complex  circuits  have  evolved. 
Currently  it  is  applying  Peltier-effect 
techniques  for  heat  stabilization  in  more 
advanced  circuits. 

•  General  Electric's  tunnel  diode 
shows  great  promise  for  the  future. 

These  are  but  a  few  of  the  future 
"components."  In  time,  all  can  be  uti- 
lized in  microminiaturized  equipments 
without  changing  today's  concepts  of 
the  program. 

Micro-Module  Program 


RCA, 

prime  contractor 

PRINCIPAL 

COMPONENTS 

SUBCONTRACTORS 

Resistors 

Weston  Instrument  Div., 

Daystrom  Inc. 

Capacitors 

Sprague   Electric  Co. 

P.  R.  Mallory  &  Co.,  Inc. 

Transistors 

Philco  Corp.,  Lansdale 

Tube  Co.  Div. 

Semiconductor 

Pacific  Semiconductors  Inc. 

Diodes 

General  Instrument  Corp. 

Quartz 

Midland  Manufacturing  Co. 

Crystals 

Substrates 

American  Lava  Co. 

Coors  Porcelain  Co. 

24 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


Giving  overseas  air  bases  what  amounts  to  local  warehouse  service  on 
important  parts  is  an  Air  Force  objective.  Its  present  system  has  slashed 
delivery  schedules  up  to  20  times... saved  taxpayers  several  billion  dollars 
over  the  past  decade.  To  improve  it  further,  Douglas  has  been  selected  to 
develop  specifications  for  a  comprehensive  Material  Handling  Support 
System  involving  better  communications,  control,  cargo  handling  and 
loading,  packaging  and  air  terminal  design.  Douglas  is  well  qualified  for 
this  program  by  its  more  than  20  years  in  all  phases  of  cargo  transport.  Air 
logistics  is  only  one  area  of  extensive  Douglas  operations  in  aircraft,  missile 
and  space  fields  in  which  outstanding  openings  exist  for  qualified  scientists 
and  engineers.  Some  are  listed  on  the  facing  page. 
Schuyler  Kleinhans  and  Charles  Glasgow,  Chief  Engineers  of  the  Santa 
Monica  and  Long  Beach  Divisions,  go  over  air  transport  needs  relating 
to  advanced  cargo  loading  techniques  with  f^AII/M  A  Q 
Donald  W.  Douglas,  Jr.,  President  of  L/UUULMd 

"""■"LINERS  H  MILITARY  AIRCRAFT  □  CARGO  TRANSPORTS  ■  MISSILE  SYSTEMS  ■  SPACE  SYSTEMS  ■  AIRCOMB  ■  GROUND-HANDLING  EQUIPMENT 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


25 


New  Concepts  for  the  Space  Age 
Mark  15  Years  of  Progress  by  MARQUARDT 


When  founded  in  1944,  Marquardt  was  an  organization 
devoted  exclusively  to  research  and  development  of  the 
ramjet  propulsion  principle.  Today,  in  its  fifteenth  year, 
the  Corporation  employs  more  than  5,000  in  the  crea- 


tion and  exploration  of  new  concepts  for  the  space  age. 
Marquardt  is  now  diversified,  operating  in  five  basic 
areas— all  primarily  related  to  the  search  for  earlier  and 
ever  more  effective  solutions  to  space-age  problems. 


NEW  CONCEPTS  IN  AIR-SPACE  RESEARCH  spring  from 
ASTRO  —  Marquardt's  Air-Space  Travel  Research  Or- 
ganization— where  studies  of  an  ionic  rocket  capable  of 
powering  future  space  vehicles  are  in  progress.  Other 
imaginative  ASTRO  studies  span  a  broad  spectrum  in- 
cluding high-energy  fuels,  exotic  materials,  nuclear  power- 
plants,  advanced  optics,  cryogenics,  space  medicine, 
communications  and  guidance. 

NEW  CONCEPTS  IN  POWER  SYSTEMS  are  in  the  making  at 
Marquardt's  Power  Systems  G  roup.  Within  the  Group, 
Propulsion  Division  is  engaged  in  continuing  studies  of 
a  Hyperjet  (rocket-ramjet)  configuration  capable  of  lift- 
ing future  satellites  from  launch  pad  to  upper  atmosphere. 
Controls  and  Accessories  Division  is  currently  developing 
attitude  controls  for  reconnaissance  satellites,  while  Test 
Division  is  capable  of  ground-testing  space-age  hardware. 


NEW  CONCEPTS  IN  MANUFACTURING  are  typified  by  the 
first-of-its-kind  Hufford  Spin-Forge  at  Marquardt's 
Ogden  Division.  This  250-ton  machine  will  contribute 
advances  in  space-age  metal  working  state-of-the-art, 
'  while  augmenting  the  Division's  production  of  supersonic 
ramjet  engines  for  the  Boeing  Bomarc  IM-99. 
NEW  CONCEPTS  IN  SPACE-AGE  TRAINING  are  an  important 
product  of  Marquardt's  Pomona  Division — creators  of  a 
unique  system  which  realistically  simulates  a  4,000  mile 
mission  on  an  8-foot  map.  The  system  will  ground-train 
air  and  spacemen  without  risk  and  at  great  savings  in  cost. 
NEW  CONCEPTS  IN  RESEARCH  ROCKETRY  and  instrumenta- 
tion come  from  Cooper  Development  Corporation,  a 
Marquardt  subsidiary.  Cooper  has  contributed  to  pro- 
grams including  Explorer  and  Sunflare  projects,  and 
Falling  Sphere — is  now  at  work  on  Project  Mercury. 


missile  support 

Rocket  Reliability  Drive 
Gains  Fresh  Momentum 


Services  plan  to  increase  use  of  off-shelf 
components;  NASA  stretches  out  firing  schedules 


RELIABLE  ROCKETS:  Air  Force  Thor, 
above,  lifts  off  from   Cape  Canaveral. 

Below,  modified  Army  Redstone  awaits 
launch  of  Explorer  I. 


For  want  of  a  nail,  the  shoe  is  lost; 
For  want  of  a  shoe,  the  horse  is  lost; 
For  want  of  a  horse,  the  rider  is  lost; 
For  want  of  a  rider,  the  battle  is  lost; 
For  want  of  the  battle,  the  kingdom  is 
lost — 

Anil  all  for  the  want  of  a  horseshoe  nail. 

—Old  Saw 

by  Jay  Holmes 

Washington — Last  June  23,  a 
three-stage  Vanguard  rocket  blasted 
off  from  Cape  Canaveral.  The  first 
stage  operated  well.  But  in  the  second 
stage  a  small  valve  for  regulating 
helium  pressure  failed  to  operate  on 
radio  command. 

The  vehicle  came  apart,  and 
plunged  into  the  Atlantic.  For  want  of 
a  $150  pressure  regulator,  a  $3-million 
satellite  was  lost. 

Failures  in  Vanguard  launchings  are 
merely  the  most  publicized  feature  of 
a  problem  that  strikes  at  every  side  of 
our  space  program:  how  do  we  make 
our  rockets  more  reliable? 

There  is  no  reason  to  believe  the 
problem  is  confined  to  this  side  of  the 
Iron  Curtain.  The  Soviets  announce 
only  successes.  They  haven't  announced 
many  recently.  It  is  only  logical  to 
reason  that  there  must  have  been 
failures. 

Simple  arithmetic  sets  out  the  situa- 
tion. If  a  missile  has  1000  parts  and  it 
must  operate  for  an  hour  without  fail- 
ure, the  probability  of  failure  for  each 
part  operating  an  hour  must  be  less 
than  1  in  1000.  Each  part  must  be 
good  for  1000  hours. 

Thousand-hour  performance,  stand- 
ard for  many  aircraft  parts  and  com- 
ponents, is  not  too  difficult  to  achieve. 
But  as  the  missile  and  space  vehicle 
systems  grew  more  complex,  the  num- 
ber of  parts  increased.  A  navigation 
system  alone  can  have  10,000  critical 
components.  An  advanced  vehicle  may 
carry  a  small  computer — whose  parts 
number  hundreds  of  thousands. 


•  Cost  prohibitive — Testing  for  this 
kind  of  reliability  is  out  of  the  ques- 
tion. No  one  is  willing  to  spend  the 
time  and  money  involved  in  testing  a 
part  for  10.000  hours  or  more.  And 
even  if  we  do  this,  what  assurance  is 
there  that  the  part  will  not  fail  in  the 
first  second  of  use  after  the  test? 

The  predicament  is  even  more  seri- 
ous when  we  begin  designing  vehicles 
for  lengthy  voyages  in  space.  J.  M. 
Wuerth,  chief  reliability  adviser  to 
Autonetics  Division,  North  American 
Aviation,  points  out  that  if  we  want 
to  keep  failures  on  a  Mars  trip  below 
1  in  1000,  each  item  in  a  10,000-part 
system  must  be  designed  to  last  7,000,- 
000  years. 

Will  such  reliability  ever  be 
achieved?  Certainly  not  in  the  fore- 
seeable future.  Other  approaches  must 
be  taken  if  space  travel  is  to  be  any- 
thing but  a  very  dangerous  business. 

Is  there  another  approach?  Some 
industry  spokesmen  have  suggested  re- 
liability might  be  improved  if  each  part 
and  component  is  designed  specifically 
for  its  task  in  space. 

Spokesmen  for  the  military  serv- 
ices and  the  National  Aeronautics  and 
Space  Administration  are  cold  to  this 
idea. 

"Don't  design  a  new  part  unless 
you  have  to,"  says  R.  W.  Cuthill,  re- 
liability engineer  for  the  Army  Ord- 
nance Missile  Command,  Redstone  Ar- 
senal, Ala. 

"If  an  off-the-shelf  item  will  do 
the  job,  we  use  it,"  says  an  Air  Force 
materiel  officer.  "However,  if  there  is 
a  reasonable  doubt  the  item  will  per- 
form, then  we  must  design  something 
new." 

"We  are  now  in  a  state  of  transi- 
tion," reports  Dr.  Homer  J.  Stewart, 
director  of  NASA's  office  of  program 
planning  and  evaluation.  "Ten  years 
ago,  almost  no  components  were  taken 
off  the  shelf  except  vacuum  tubes  and 


73 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


transistors.  Now  we  have  experience 
and  can  use  components  in  existence 
or  modifications  of  them." 

E.  F.  Sweetser,  director  of  the  De- 
fense Department's  Office  of  Guided 
Missiles,  recalls  that  there  used  to  be 
criticism  of  the  military  for  having  too 
much  special  designing  of  parts.  The 
complaint  hasn't  been  heard  very  much 
recently,  he  added. 

•  Exchanging  data — The  services 
are  moving  in  a  direction  opposite 
from  that  suggested  by  industry  sources. 
Army,  Navy,  and  Air  Force  are  estab- 
lishing a  data-exchange  system  aimed 
at  promoting  even  greater  use  of  off- 
the-shelf  parts  and  components  in  the 
major  missile  systems. 

Here  is  how  it  will  work:  Each 
service  will  code  the  results  of  its  tests 
of  components  on  punched  cards.  Data 
not  subject  to  coding — such  as  per- 
formance graphs — will  be  microfilmed 
and  slipped  into  envelopes  in  the  cards. 
Cards  will  be  made  in  triplicate. 
Central  files  will  be  kept  for  the  Army 
at  Huntsville,  for  the  Navy  at  the 
Pomona,  Calif.,  Ordnance  Laboratory, 
and  for  the  Air  Force  at  Ballistic 
Missile  Division,  Los  Angeles. 

The  files  will  enable  each  service  to 
pick  the  part  most  suited  to  any  given 
need.  They  will  cut  down  on  costly, 
lengthy    searches — which  sometimes 


have  to  be  cut  short  and  produce  a 
second-best  selection.  Civilian  con- 
tractors and  NASA  officials  with 
"need  to  know"  will,  of  course,  have 
access  to  the  data. 

Although  they'll  be  an  improve- 
ment over  present  practices,  these  files 
won't  provide  the  final  answer  to  cen- 
tralizing reliability  information.  They 
will  merely  report  test  results  in  the 
ballistic  missile  systems.  No  informa- 
tion will  be  included  on  reliability  of 
parts  in  use,  or  on  parts  tested  for 
other  satellite  and  space  vehicle  pro- 
grams. 

•  Parts  that  fail — Some  service  or- 
ganizations have  information  at  lower 
levels  on  failures  in  use.  The  Army  has 
failed-parts  data  centrally  filed  at  pro- 
gram levels — such  as  for  Redstone, 
Jupiter  and  Pershing.  The  next  logical 
step,  Cuthill  said,  would  be  to  set  up 
a  central  file  for  all  the  services  on 
failures  in  use. 

Still  another  approach  to  reliability 
was  suggested  by  a  House  Appropria- 
tions Committee  study  last  spring — 
write  reliability  specifications  into  ven- 
dor's contracts.  At  about  the  same 
time,  the  Air  Force  directed  com- 
mands to  review  weapon  systems  on 
contract  and  determine  whether  their 
reliability  systems  were  adequate.  Al- 
though contracts  may  not  mention  re- 


liability, Lt.  Gen.  C.  S.  Irvine,  then 
a  deputy  chief  of  the  Air  Staff,  de- 
clared that  contractors  nevertheless 
have  an  obligation  to  build  adequate 
reliability  into  weapon  systems. 

Navy  spokesmen  say  reliability  is 
implied  in  their  contracts,  too.  George 
S.  Peratino,  reliability  engineer  in  the 
Bureau  of  Weapons,  says  reliability  re- 
quirements are  a  part  of  weapon  sys- 
tem specifications,  which  become  a 
part  of  the  contract  even  though  the 
requirements  are  not  written  into  the 
actual  documents. 

The  Army  has  tried  to  establish  re- 
liability as  a  separate  effort,  Cuthill 
says.  The  reliability  organization  asks 
contractors  to  say  in  advance  what 
tests  they  will  run.  Huntsville  now  is 
reviewing  a  three-year  Pershing  test 
program  submitted  by  The  Martin  Co. 

"We  try  to  have  reliability  people 
looking  over  the  shoulder  of  the  de- 
sign engineer,"  Cuthill  said.  "Some  de- 
signers don't  like  it.  They  think  they 
know  how  to  do  it  all  themselves. 
They're  right.  But  we're  all  human." 

•  In-house  or  out? — Cuthill's  com- 
ment points  up  fundamental  differences 
in  the  ways  the  services  build  missiles. 
The  Army  prefers  to  have  in-house  ex- 
perts who  can  supervise  contractors  in 
great  detail.  Cuthill  contends  this  super- 
vision makes  Army  weapons  more  re- 


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missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


29 


The  APS-67  Airborne  Radar  .  .  .  designed  and 
developed  by  The  Magnavox  Company  in  con- 
junction with  the  Navy  Department,  gives 
eyes  that  see  by  both  day  and  night  to  the 
Crusader. 

The  APS-67  delivers  the  utmost  in  performance 
and  reliability  for  this  Navy  Fighter  . . .  clearly 
demonstrating  The  Magnavox  Company' s 
ability  to  produce  and  work  as  prime  con- 
tractor on  a  complex  electronics  project. 

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30 


°ept.  106  •   Government  and  Industrial  Division   •   FORT  WAYNE,  ind. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


liable  than  otherwise. 

The  Air  Force  has  delegated  many 
of  its  supervisory  functions  to  Space 
Technology  Laboratories  and  prime 
system  contractors.  "You  don't  have  to 
be  a  qualified  pilot  to  run  an  airline,  or 
a  bus  driver  to  run  a  bus  system,"  an 
AF  spokesman  said. 

The  Navy  steers  a  middle  course. 
Some  Navy  missiles  are  manufactured 
at  service  arsenals;  other  by  civilian 
contractors. 

The  Defense  Department  considers 
reliability  primarily  a  question  of  edu- 
cation. "We  must  impress  on  all  eche- 
lons— the  services  and  industry — the 
consequences  of  poor  reliability/' 
Sweetser  declared.  "Like  advertising, 
it's  valuable  only  if  you  pound  the 
point  home." 

Both  the  military  and  industry  are 
working  on  schemes  to  improve  re- 
liability. Next  winter,  the  services  will 
sponsor  a  joint  military-industry  sym- 
posium on  reliability.  The  Army  called 
all  its  contractors  to  Huntsville  for  a 
day-long  briefing  last  December. 

Engineering  organizations  are  busy 
too.  Four  leading  groups — the  Institute 
of  Radio  Engineers,  the  American  So- 
ciety for  Quality  Control,  the  Elec- 
tronic Industries  Assn.  and  the  Amer- 
ican Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers — 
will  hold  a  national  symposium  on  re- 
liability and  quality  control  in  Wash- 
ington next  January. 

•  Corrective  action — Douglas  Air- 
craft Co.,  prime  Air  Force  Contractor 
for  the  Thor  IRBM,  invited  150  rep- 
resentatives of  sub-contractors  to  its  El 
Segundo,  Calif.,  plant  for  a  seminar 
on  reliability.  One  announcement:  re- 
ports on  all  rejected  parts  will  be  made 
on  punched  cards.  Monthly  cumulative 
reports  by  part  and  vendor  will  provide 
a  basis  for  corrective  action  in  cases 
of  excessive  repetitive  rejections. 

This  type  of  approach — standard  in- 
dustrial quality  control — will  eliminate 
the  worst  offenders.  Random  inspection 
of  one  or  two  parts  in  every  batch  will 
give  an  indication  of  reliability.  More 
thorough  testing  of  larger  parts  and 
components  will  help,  too. 

"But  you  can't  inspect  reliability 
into  an  item,"  says  Louis  Schlesinger, 
Navy  components  engineer.  "You  can't 
make  an  unreliable  item  reliable.  In- 
spection will  prevent  the  use  of  de- 
fective items,  not  unreliable." 

The  stickiest  question  in  developing 
reliability  is  the  conflict  with  perform- 
ance. If  we  design  a  rocket  case  so 
that  99  of  every  100  will  withstand  a 
pressure  of  1235  pounds  per  square 
inch,  we  may  need  to  use  twice  as 
much  metal  for  a  case  good  to  1500 
psi.  This  reduces  either  the  payload  or 
the  range  of  the  missile. 

(continued  on  page  34) 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


100* f0$TEEL'S DOING 

^"-TUNGSTEN  — 


Tungsten  cup  being  drawn  preliminary  to 
shaping  into  missile  hardware. 


BIGGER  TUNGSTEN 
NOZZLE  THROAT  INSERTS 

Now  made  up  to  4"  flange  diameter,  3" 
long,  with  wall  thicknesses  of  0.060"! 
Incredible  six  months  ago . . .  possible  today 
.  .  .  routine  tomorrow  at  Fansteel! 


AND...  THESE  TUNGSTEN  CUPS  NOW 
AVAILABLE  FROM  EXISTING  DIES: 


Fansteel  will  help  you  investigate 

the  possibility  of 
adapting  Tungsten  in  your  product. 
Call  in  the  Fansteel  man. 


%" 
1%" 

VA" 

m" 
iw 

VA" 
2"  I 

2%" 
3%" 
4Vi" 


I.  D.  x  .060"  wall  x  VA"  deep 

I.  D.  x  .060"  wall  x  %"  deep 

I.  D.  x  .060"  wall  x  %"  deep 

I.  D.  x  .125"  wall  x  %"  deep 

I.  D.  x  .125"  wall  x  %"  deep 

I.  D.  x  .040"  to  .060"  wall  x  2%"  deep 

D.  x  .060"  to  .080"  wall  x  5"  deep 

I.  D.  x  .125"  wall  x  2%  deep 

I.  D.  x  .125"  wall  x  VA"  deep 

I.  D.  x  .125"  wall  x  VA"  deep 


HIGH  TEMPERATURE 
METALS 


FANSTEEL  METALLURGICAL  CORPORATION  North  Chicago,  ml,  u.s.a. 


Thiokol 
Expands 
in  Utah 


Brigham  City,  Utah — Less  than 
two  years  old,  Utah  Division  of 
Thiokol  Chemical  Corp.  now  has  2500 
employes  working  in  85  buildings  on 
a  site  that  spreads  over  11,000  square 
miles. 

The  solid-propellant  plant,  valued 
at  $16  million,  is  owned  60%  by 
Thiokol  and  40%  by  the  Air  Force. 
Its  features  include  a  mile-long  mono- 
rail system  to  facilitate  assembly  of  the 
largest  rocket  motors  and  thrust  stands 
capable  of  measuring  up  to  2  million 
pounds. 


RIGHT:  Thiokol  workers  man  grinder 
and  gyratory  sifting  machine,  which  re- 
duce oxidizer  to  size  before  JATO  pro- 
pellant  is  mixed  for  Matador  fuel  grain. 
BELOW:  Engine  case  is  checked  before 
it  is  loaded  with  cast  propellant. 


32 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


TOP  LEFT:  Cables  hoist  metal  mandrils  used  in  production  of 
Matador  booster  motor.  These  are  put  into  the  mold  until  the 
grain  solidifies. 

TOP  RIGHT:  The  Matador  motor  case  is  lowered  into  a  de- 
greaser,  which  removes  rust  preventive,  lubricants  and  cutting 
oils.  Now  the  propellant  grain  may  be  slipped  into  position. 
BOTTOM  LEFT:  Besides  the  Matador,  many  smaller  rockets 
are  produced  at  Thiokol's  Utah  Division.  Inspectors  here  check 
on  an  8"  case. 

BOTTOM  RIGHT:  Matador  booster  motor  moves  along  a 
monorail  connecting  manufacturing  and  propellant  curing  build- 
ing. The  motor  has  been  loaded  and  the  propellant  has  been 
cured.  It  will  undergo  conditioning  before  going  to  static  area 
for  firing. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


33 


Continental's  TC-106  turbine  air  com- 
pressor, developed  in  conjunction  with 
the  United  States  Air  Force,  is  now 
available  for  ground  support  of  jet  age 
aircraft.  The  unit,  supplying  low  pressure 
air,  is  especially  suited  to  engine  starting, 
cabin  air  conditioning  and  actuation  of 
electrical  generating  equipment  for 
-=>rund  operations  of  the  aircraft. 


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12700  KERCHEVAL  AVENUE,  DETROIT  15,  MICHIGAN 


SUBSIDIARY  OF  CONTINENTAL  MOTORS  CORPORATION 


RELIABILITY  

(continued  from  page  31) 
Which  way  do  we  go?  A  missile  is 
not  designed  like  a  bridge.  Twice  as 
much  steel  framework  as  necessary 
may  be  put  into  the  bridge  or  a  build- 
ing structure  for  safety.  On  this  type 
of  structure,  you  can't  afford  to  take 
even  minimal  chances.  But  a  missile  is 
built  for  performance.  Reliability  re- 
quirements may  be  less  than  90%  — 
something  that  wouldn't  be  tolerated 
where  human  safety  is  involved. 

The  Air  Force  had  to  sacrifice  reli- 
ability for  performance  in  early  Atlas 
designs.  The  nation  wanted  an  ICBM 
right  away.  As  testing  progressed,  the 
missile  became  more  reliable.  Now  it 
is  an  operational  weapon. 

•  Speed  sacrifice — Peratino  reports 
the  Navy  was  able  to  take  another 
tack  in  one  weapon  system  (identity 
classified).  "We  found  we  could  in- 
crease reliability  if  we  sacrificed  speed 
and  range,"  he  said.  "We  did  so  be- 
cause the  weapon  carries  an  atomic 
warhead.  The  decision,  incidentally, 
also  led  to  the  elimination  of  several 
parts  and  the  saving  of  a  half-million 
dollars." 

Stewart  said  the  reliability  difficul- 
ties of  the  Vanguard  satellite  program 
stemmed  at  least  in  part  from  the  rigid 
time  schedule  set  by  the  International 
Geophysical  Year.  Programs  under  less 
priority  pressure,  he  said,  have  de- 
veloped higher  degrees  of  reliability. 
As  an  example,  he  mentioned  the 
Army's  solid-propelled  Sergeant. 

"But  it  isn't  necessarily  true  that 
all  solid-propelled  rockets  are  more  re- 
liable," he  declared.  "First,  some  solid 
fuels  are  unreliable.  Second,  the  only 
reason  some  solids  are  reliable  is  that 
they  have  gone  through  development 
testing  to  make  them  reliable.  The 
important  question  is  not  whether  the 
fuel  is  liquid  or  solid  but  whether  the 
system  has  had  development  testing." 

In  future  NASA  programs,  Stewart 
said,  there  will  be  more  on-the-ground 
development  testing  and  fewer  test 
firings  in  an  effort  to  improve  the 
reliability  score  on  the  shots  we  take. 

We  are  going  to  make  haste  a  little 
more  slowly  in  our  space  program. 
American  leaders  have  quietly  dropped 
the  talk  about  immediate  trips  to  Mars 
and  Venus.  The  major  concern  of  our 
space  program  in  the  near  future  will 
be  the  moon — near  misses,  moon  orbits 
and  hard  and  soft  landings  of  rocket 
payloads  on  the  earth's  nearest  neigh- 
bor. NASA  Administrator  T.  Keith 
Glennan  outlined  the  policy  change 
in  a  recent  Los  Angeles  speech.  He 
added: 

"Some  of  the  firing  schedules  we 
developed  nine  months  ago  lacked  .  .  . 
realism." 


34 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


IAF 


Papers  Cover  Space 


Field 


Here  are  abstracts  from  some  of  the 
most  significant  documents  offered  at  the  recent 

London  Congress  by  delegates  from  many  nations 


by  Donald  E.  Perry 
and  Anthony  Vandyk 

London — Space  medicine  and  mag- 
netohydrodynamics  dominated  the  tech- 
nical sessions  of  the  Tenth  Annual 
Congress  of  the  International  Astronau- 
tical  Federation  which  convened  here 
recently. 

But  the  Congress  was  by  no  means 
limited  to  these  subjects;  papers  were 
delivered  on  practically  every  field  of 
astronautics  interest.  As  a  service  to 
readers.  M/R  has  prepared  brief  tech- 
nical abstracts  (readers  wanting  more 
information  may  contact  the  author  or 
the  editorial  office  of  Missiles  and 
Rockets)  : 

Accuracy  Limits  in  Electronic  Tracking  of 
Space  Vehicles,  Paul  F.  von  Handel  and 
Fritz  Hoehndorf,  AFMDC  of  ARDC, 
Holloman  AFB,  N.W. 

The  authors  predicted  that  the  general 
trend  of  further  developments  In  tracking 
space  vehicles  will  shift  toward  electronic 
procedures  which  promise  to  achieve  the 
same  accuracy  without  restrictions  on 
weather  conditions  and  time  of  the  day. 

Pointing  out  that  electronic  tracking  of 
objects  moving  in  the  atmosphere  Is  Umited 
by  propagation  anomalies — limiting  use  of 
high  precision  systems — they  recommended 
frequencies  in  the  kilo  megacycle  range. 

The  Technical  Realization  of  Subgravity 
and  Weightlessness,  O.  Wolczek,  Institute 
for  Nuclear  Research  of  the  Polish  Acad- 
emy of  Science,  Warsaw. 

The  author  suggests  that  an  effective 
way  of  obtaining  smaller  gravitation  and 
weightlessness  on  earth  for  hours  and  more 
could  be  by  centrifuges  or  devices  operat- 
ing on  the  same  basis.  Such  devices  would 
be  stationed  in  a  vertical  position  so  that 
their  axis  of  rotation  would  be  paralleled 
to  the  earth's  surface.  Equipment  would 
first  serve  to  Investigate  force  effects  on 
small  objects — construction  materials,  mini- 
aturised measuring  apparatus  and  smaller 
experimental  animals  such  as  mice. 

Interplanetary  Homing,  E.  V.  Stearns, 
Lockheed  Missiles  and  Space  Division, 
Sunnyvale,  Calif. 

A  closed  loop  system  of  Instrumentation 
was  proposed  for  control  of  vehicle  trajec- 
tory In  order  to  give  necessary  thrust  con- 
trol to  place  space  vehicles  In  a  suitable  or- 
bit for  final  approach.  Mldcourse  trajectory 
based  on  knowledge  of  probable  guidance 
and  control  accuracies — will  have  a  probable 
error  of  about  100,000  miles.  As  such  it  must 
be  brought  into  a  landing  corridor  that  Is 


about  10  miles  wide  at  periapsis.  Taking 
into  account  the  strong  influence  of  the 
destination  planet's  gravity  field.  An  inter- 
planetary sextant  was  proposed  for  the 
homing  task. 

Prediction  of  Man's  Performance  in  Space 
Using  Flight  Simulators  and  Balloon- 
borne  Systems,  J.  Gordon  Vaeth,  Techni- 
cal Staff  Member  for  Man-in-Space,  Ad- 
vanced Research  Projects  Agency,  Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Vaeth  proposed  development  of  advanced 
forms  of  ground-based  flight  simulators  and 
use  of  long-endurance  high-altitude  manned 
balloon  flights  to  determine  capability  of 
men  to  perform  in  space.  By  comparing 
measurements  with  corresponding  data  on 
the  ability  of  automatic  equipment  to  do 
the  same,  he  said  It  would  be  possible  to 
specify  and  predict  those  tasks  which  can 
be  achieved  better  by  manned  than  un- 
manned space  systems. 

'Green'  Areas  of  Mars  and  Color  Vision, 

Ingeborg  Schmidt,  Division  of  Optometry, 
Indiana  University,  Bloom  in  gton,  Ind. 

To  determine  whether  the  dark  areas  on 
the  planet  are  real  or  not,  production  of 
contrasts  was  studied  experimentally  by  us- 
ing colored  papers  simulating  the  bright 
and  dark  areas.  It  Is  deduced  that  a  con- 
trast induction  is  possible  on  the  surface 
of  Mars,  depending  on  hue,  brightness  and 
saturation  of  contrast  inducing  and  con- 
trasting area.  He  recommended  an  insula- 
tion observation  of  dark  areas  as  a  means 
which  may  be  helpful  In  deciding  about  the 
real  nature  of  the  "green"  areas  of  the 
planet. 

Results  of  Experiments  on  the  Biological 
Effects  of  Cosmic  Radiation  on  Seeds  of 
Hordenm  (Gold  Barley)  Bonus  01518/ 
B19  (Gustafsson),  with  Special  Considera- 
tion of  Heavy  Primaries  Effects,  J. 
Eugster,  University  of  Zurich,  Switzer- 
land, and  Lt.  Col.  David  G.  Simons, 
USAF,  HoUoman  AFB,  New  Mexico. 

Of  special  interest,  Is  that  offspring  of 
three  seeds  which  suffered  central  hits  by 
heavy  primaries  (F  m/1,  F  IV/6  and  G 
m/2,  exposed  in  the  summer  of  1955  at 
Sault  Ste.  Marie,  developed  a  color  mutation. 
Grains  derived  from  F  IV/6  and  G  m/2 
show  a  dark  brown-dark  grey.  Those  derived 
from  F  m/1  have  a  strikingly  light  yellow 
color. 

Magnetohydrodynamics  and  its  Applica- 
tion to  Propulsion  and  Re-entry,  Rudolf 
X.  Meyer,  Space  Technology  Laborator- 
ies, Inc.,  Los  Angeles. 

First  part  of  this  paper  is  largely  a  re- 
view of  some  of  the  basic  concepts  of  mag- 
netohydrodynamics in  continuum  fluid  me- 
chanics. The  theory  of  the  Newtonian  ap- 


proximation to  flow  is  developed,  however, 
in  the  second  part  of  the  paper.  Results  are 
presented  concerning  flow  in  the  Bhock 
layer  of  a  re-entry  body,  and  a  similarity 
solution  of  equations  is  given  for  a  circular 
cone  in  the  case  of  finite  and  variable  elec- 
tric conductivity. 

Re-entry  Paths  for  Manned  Satellites,  Dr. 

W.  F.  Hilton,  Hawker  Siddeley  Aviation 
Advanced  Projects  Group,  Great  Britain. 

Of  interest  is  that  the  author  considers 
that  "high  drag  plus  high  lift"  vehicles  will 
be  used  for  manned  re-entry,  and  that 
"high  drag  with  zero  lift"  will  be  reserved 
for  simple  unmanned  re-entry,  or  very  early 
manned  flights. 

A  design  study  is  being  carried  out  at 
Sir  W.  G.  Armstrong  Whitworth  Aircraft 
Ltd.  (part  of  Hawker  Siddeley)  for  a  com- 
plete project  to  put  two  men  into  orbit 
(apogee  680  miles,  perigee,  80  mUes)  and 
for  them  to  land  safely  back  on  earth.  Cal- 
culations were  made  on  the  most  economical 
method  of  achieving  a  given  change  of  or- 
bit. A  report  showed  by  accelerating  towards 
the  earth  at  perigee  does  not  bring  the 
sateUite  any  nearer  to  the  earth,  but  results 
in  rotation  of  the  axis  of  the  ellipse.  It  was 
determined  that  a  small  rocket  producing 
lg  for  1  second  at  apogee  will  lower  perigee 
height  by  about  20  miles. 

Rocket  Postal  Service,  Glauco  Partel, 
Missile  Systems  Consulting  Co.,  Rome, 
Italy,  and  Antonio  Angeloni,  SISPRE, 
Rome. 

Without  entering  details  about  vehicles, 
propulsion  units,  auxiliary  equipment,  the 
authors  discuss  dimension,  weights,  ener- 
gies required  and  the  magnitude  of  relative 
costs  of  international  rocket  mail  service. 
Postage  for  a  letter  mailed  to  the  U.S.  from 
Europe  in  2  hours  and  40  minutes  would 
not — if  a  certain  number  of  daily  flights 
and  letters  were  shipped — exceed  $2  per 
letter. 

Motion  of  An  Orbiting  Vehicle  Subject  to 
Continuous  Radial  Thrust,  Including  a 
Study  of  Planetary  Encounters,  Bernard 
Paiewonsky,  Department  of  Aeronautical 
Engineering,  Princeton  University. 

Use  of  such  thrust  for  braking  space- 
ships in  planetary  encounters  is  investi- 
gated, using  one-dimensional  potentials.  It 
is  pointed  out  that  use  of  radial  braking 
will  produce  an  increase  in  the  perigee  alti- 
tude compared  with  the  perigee  of  the 
coasting  path,  a  generaUy  desired  result. 
However,  due  to  the  extreme  sensitivity  of 
predicted  perigee  distance  in  close  ap- 
proaches to  planets,  en  route  measurements 
of  the  navigation  and  guidance  equipment 
for  both  a  radial  braking  system  and  the 
impulsive  thrust  correction  system,  will  re- 
quire the  same  high  degree  of  accuracy.  It 
is  concluded  that  one  system  does  not  seem 
to  have  any  overwhelming  advantage  over 
the  other. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


37 


Some  New  Methods  of  Satellite  Orbit 
Calculations  and  Stability  Problems,  Her- 
bert Knothe,  AFMDC,  Holloman  AFB, 
N.M. 

Equations  of  motion  for  a  satellite  in  a 
rotatlonally  symmetric  gravity  field  are  re- 
duced to  systems  of  ordinary  first  order  dif- 
ferential equations.  A  rapidly  convergent 
process  of  iteration  for  solving  these  equa- 
tions Is  explained  and  examples  are  given. 
The  author  supplies  a  differential  geometri- 
cal approach  giving  formulae  for  the  cal- 
culation of  regression. 

Design  Study  of  An  Earth  Satellite  Evolv- 
ing from  a  Four-Step  Solid  Propellant 
Rocket  Vehicle,  S.  K.  Kumar  and  B.  R. 
Rau,  Indian  Astronautical  Society,  My- 
sore, India. 

The  authors  point  out  that  countries  like 
India  cannot  afford  large  scale  liquid  pro- 
pellant rocket  research  and  any  progress  or 
contributions  from  such  countries  in  space 
exploration  will  have  to  be  through  solid 
propellant  rockets.  But  this  isn't  keeping 
the  nation  from  a  novel  space  exploration 
approach. 

While  planning  for  launching  a  50  Kg 
satellite,  they  also  want  to  place  a  solid 
propellant  rocket  on  top  of  the  satellite  sec- 
tion which  would  be  intended  to  escape  the 
earth  after  the  satellite  has  gone  into  orbit. 
The  experiment  would  show  the  possibility 
of  orbital  launching. 

Launching  Conditions  and  the  Geometry 
of  Orbits  in  a  Central  Gravity  Field, 

Fang-Toh  Sun,  Taiwan  Provincial  Cheng 
Kung  University,  Tainan,  Taiwan. 

Formulas  relating  the  principal  geometri- 
cal parameters  of  the  orbit  to  the  launch- 
ing parameters  at  final  burnout  are  devel- 
oped. Treatment  is  given  to  the  elliptic,  the 
parabolic  and  the  hyperbolic  types  of  un- 
perturbed orbit.  Problem  of  burnout  pre- 
cision is  briefly  discussed,  and  an  energy- 
momentum  diagram  shows  the  essential 
geometrical  aspects  of  possible  orbits  In  a 
single  chart. 

Theory  of  the  N-Step  Relativistic  Rocket, 

M.  Subotowicz,  Polish  Astronautical  So- 
ciety, Warsaw. 

This  gives  the  theory  of  the  relativistic 
multistage  rocket  necessary  for  the  far 
future  flights  to  the  stars.  A  differential 
equation  describing  mass  and  velocity 
changes  Is  defined  along  with  its  optimiza- 
tion possibilities.  The  author  accepts  that 
all  stages  would  be  analogous  and  all  en- 
gines would  use  the  same  jet  mass.  Such  a 
stage  rocket  would  have  only  one  reaction 
chamber,  used  in  turn  by  all  steps. 

Problems  of  Magnetic  Propulsion  of 
Plasma,  Ralph  W.  Waniek,  Giannini  Plas- 
madyne  Corp.,  Santa  Ana,  Calif. 

The  paper  deals  with  theoretical  prob- 
lems and  experimental  results  obtained  dur- 
ing a  study  aimed  at  accelerating  ionized 
gases  by  strong  transient  magnetic  fields. 
Techniques  of  these  fields  are  discussed 
with  their  possible  application  to  high  field 
plasma  thrustors.  The  author  shows  special 
air-core  magnet  configurations  and  outlines 
their  characteristics  as  intermittent  plasma 
propulsors.  He  contends  that  such  thrusts 
might  likely  have  a  useful  place  In  future 
space  vehicles. 

Application  of  Solid  Propellants  to  Space 
Flight  Vehicles,  H.  L.  Thackwell,  Jr., 
Grand  Central  Rocket  Co.,  Redlands, 
Calif. 

The  author  gives  preliminary  design  cal- 
culations for  a  three-stage,  all  propellant 
vehicle  called  the  Envoy  which,  when 
ground-launched,  could  send  a  50-pound 
payload  to  the  moon  or  place  a  230-pound 


payload  into  a  300-mile  high  orbit.  The 
vehicle  would  weigh  17.000  pounds  and 
would  be  37.8  feet  in  height.  He  anticipates 
that  Envoy  would  cost  considerably  less  than 
the  $500,000  figure  for  the  Scout  or  $1  mil- 
lion for  a  single  Thor  liquid  booster. 

Minimum  Energy  Requirements  for  Space 

Travel,  Harry  O.  Ruppe,  ABMA,  Hunts- 

ville,  Ala. 

By  calculating  minimum  energy  require- 
ments for  many  space  missions  and  ex- 
pressing them  as  velocity  requirements  of 
a  rocket  vehicle,  the  author  comes  up  with 
a  preliminary  outline  of  an  optimum  ve- 
hicle, or  for  approximation  of  the  payload 
capability  of  a  given  vehicle. 

Measurement  of  Jupiter  Re-entry  Radia- 
ation,  David  D.  Woodbridge,  and  Warren 
N.  Arnquist,  ABMA,  Huntsville,  Ala. 

This  is  a  detailed  report  on  the  Army's 
Operation  Gaslight,  the  name  given  to  the 
re-entry  radiation  measurement  program  of 
ABMA.  Through  industry  participation,  pre- 
liminary radiometric  and  photographic  meas- 
urements have  been  made  from  the  PbS 
infrared  limit  to  the  near  ultraviolet.  Ex- 
tensions to  cover  the  3-5  micron  band  are 
In  progress.  Re-entry  velocities  begin  at 
about  Mach  14,  which  corresponds  to  an 
adlabatic  shock  front  temperature  of  nearly 
4000°K.  Difficulties  of  operations  are  men- 
tioned and  the  coordination  of  instruments 
at  several  locations  with  timing  circuits  is 
described. 

Unsteady  Compressible  Magnetic  Laminar 
Boundary   Layers  in   Hypersonic  Flow, 

Paul  S.  Lykoudis  and  John  P.  Schmidtt, 
Allison  Division,  General  Motors  Corp., 
Indianapolis.  Ind. 

This  considers  the  unsteady  hypersonic 
flow  of  a  compressible,  viscous,  thermally 
and  electrically  conducting  fluid  In  the 
presence  of  a  magnetic  field.  The  authors 
show  that  under  reasonable  restrictions  the 
equations  of  conservation  of  total  mass,  en- 
ergy, and  momentum  may  be  brought  into 
similar  form. 

Determinatiou  of  Air  Density  and  the 
Earth's  Gravitation  Field  from  the  Orbits 
of  Artificial  Satellites,  D.  G.  King-Hele, 
Royal  Aircraft  Establishment,  Farnbor- 
ough,  England. 

Taking  Into  account  the  oblateness  of 
the  earth  and  atmosphere,  the  tumbling  of 
satellites  and  rotation  of  the  atmosphere, 
the  author  gives  methods  for  evaluating 
density  at  heights  between  200  and  400  Km. 
Variation  of  density  Is  traced  with  time. 

On  the  Apparent  Motion  of  An  Earth's 
Artificial  Satellite,  J,  J.  de  Orus,  Fabra 
Observatory,  Barcelona,  Spain. 

The  author  points  out  that  a  primary 
problem  in  radio  observations  of  an  artifi- 
cial satellite  of  determining  the  time  when 
the  satellite  is  at  Its  minimum  distance 
from  a  determined  earth  station.  He  points 
out  that  this  time  calculation  is  simplified 
owing  to  the  feeble  flattening  of  the  terres- 
trial globe  and  the  little  relation  between 
the  periods  of  revolution  of  the  satellite  and 
the  earth's  rotation. 

Nuclear  Rocket  Missions  and  Associated 
Powerplants,  lohn  J.  Newgard  and  My- 
ron M.  Levoy,  Reaction  Motors  Division, 
Thiokol  Chemical  Corp.,  Denville,  N.J. 

Requirements  of  open  cycle  nuclear 
power  plants  for  a  number  of  terrestrial 
escape  to  orbit  and  space  missions  are 
given.  Missions  analyzed  Include  single- 
stage,  large  payload,  nuclear  boosted  escape 
vehicles;  chemically  boosted  second-stage 
nuclear  rockets  escaping  with  large  pay- 


PILOT  PERFORMANCE 
A  SPECIALTY  AT  VOUGHT 

Ten  miles  high,  at  1,000-plus  mph, 
pilots  will  fly  "in  their  shirt  sleeves." 

A  protective  capsule  will  take  over  the 
job  of  providing  environmental  protec- 
tion of  the  flier.  No  longer  will  he  need 
to  encumber  himself  with  oxygen  mask, 
pressure  suit,  personal  parachute,  bail- 
out oxygen  bottle,  life  jacket  and  raft 
and  other  survival  gear.  Sealed  off  in 
his  protecting  "thermos  bottle,"  the  pilot 
also  is  provided  a  highly  advanced 
emergency  escape  method:  the  entire 
capsule  can  be  detached  from  the 
airframe  and  gently  parachuted  to  the 
ground. 

Chance  Vought  conceived  this  system 
and  now  is  developing  it  under  con- 
tract. The  advanced  capsule  is  typical 
of  the  human  factors  progress  Vought 
stands  for. 

This  company  has  won  its  reputation 
largely  through  its  own  aircraft.  As 
speeds  vaulted  above  1,500  mph, 
Vought  learned  to  design  cockpits  of 
very  high  density.  Meeting  stringent 
carrier  requirements  in  the  design  of 
Crusader  series  fighters,  company  engi- 
neers developed  an  exceptional  feel  for 
balancing  high  and  low  speeds  in  a 
single  vehicle. 

This  experience  is  ideally  suited  for 
human  factors  work  in  spacecraft,  as 
Vought  has  already  proved  in  specific 
applications  on  projects  under  contract. 

Today,  in  a  space-oriented  Cockpit 
Laboratory,  Vought  is  working  out  the 
details  of  pilot  seating,  instrument  dis- 
plays and  manual  controls  to  make  man 
not  only  a  passenger,  but  an  operator, 
of  spacecraft. 

Piloted  aircraft,  along  with  atmospheric 
missiles  and  antisubmarine  warfare,  are 
specialties  in  Chance  Vought's  Aero- 
nautics Division.  Other  major  interests 
are  being  aggressively  advanced  in  the 
company's  Astronautics,  Electronics, 
Research,  and  Range  Systems  Divisions. 

C  MA  N  C  EM   " 


38 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


STILL  A  PILOT'S  AIR  FORCE 


His  plane  looks  like  a  missile.  It  carries  missiles. 
It  is  an  automatic  machine  itself  —  almost  to  the 
point  of  push-button  control.  But  the  Air  Force 
pilot  gives  his  aircraft  discretionanj  guidance  —  a 
generalship  that  pilotless  weapons  can't  match. 
Along  sensitive  borders  today,  we  depend  on  pilot 


judgment  and  reason  to  keep  our  guard  up  with- 
out overstepping.  The  pilot's  combat  reliability  is 
the  foundation  of  our  "mixed  forces"  concept  of 
deterrent  strength  through  missiles  and  manned  wea- 
pons. And  getting  this  keen  observer  out  into  space 
is  the  immediate  goal  of  U.  S.  space-science  efforts. 


iERONMICS    ( ASTRONAUTICS  ELECTRONICS 


FGs«i 


C  H  A  N  O  £. 


OWMGJFIT 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


39 


Jbrtke  conquest  of  space  tA 


WHAT  KIND  OF  ENGINE  FOR  A  SPACE-TAXI? 


Using  fuel  from  the  airplane's  tanks 
—which  automatically  ignites  with 
hydrogen  peroxide  —  these  engines 
have  full  stop  and  restart  capability. 

More  value  for  taxpayers'  money 

The  auxiliary  rocket  engine  gives 
present  aircraft  superperformance 
capabilities  at  a  relatively  low  cost.  It 
provides  the  increased  speed  and  ma- 
neuverability that  could  spell  the  dif- 
ference between  the  success  or  failure 
of  an  intercept  mission.  Almost  any 
existing  jet  aircraft,  as  well  as  those 
now  on  the  drawing  board,  can  be 
adapted  readily  for  AR  engines. 

Looking  forward  to  tomorrow 

Beyond  a  doubt,  rocket  power  has  a 
leading  role  in  the  Free  World's 
future.  Rocket-propelled  airplanes, 
such  as  the  X-15,  will  pave  the  way 
for  man's  entry  into  Outer  Space. 
The  multi-million-pound-thrust  sys- 
tems that  are  now  under  development 
at  Rocketdyne  will  be  man's  means 
to  explore  interplanetary  Space.  But 
meanwhile,  these  rapid  advances  in 
rocketry  can  add  great  strength  to 
America's  present  deterrent  arsenal. 


It  takes  a  unique  engine  to  jockey  a 
space-taxi  in  for  a  landing  on  an 
orbiting  space  station  — one  that  will 
give  a  space  pilot  instant  control  and 
precise  maneuverability. 

Such  an  engine  is  the  fully  control- 
lable rocket  engine— ideal  for  space 
travel  yet  as  easy  to  operate  as  an 
automobile  engine. 

The  rocket  engines  are  ready  now 

Although  the  space-taxi  is  still  a 
gleam  in  an  engineer's  eye,  the  con- 
trollable rocket  engine  is  available 
now. ..and  has  immediate  application 
for  existing  aircraft.  The  pilot  of  a 
plane  with  auxiliary  rocket  power  can 
switch  it  on  for  sudden,  swift  accel- 
eration at  high  altitudes  .  .  .  the 
aircraft's  air-breathing  turbojets 
supplying  power  for  ordinary  flight 
operations.  This  is  the  mixed-power 
theory.  Since  World  War  II  several 


mixed-power  concepts  have  been  de- 
veloped in  foreign  countries,  includ- 
ing Russia,  France  and  England. 

Extra  power  for  today's  aircraft 

Rocketdyne  already  has  designed, 
tested,  and  manufactured  rocket  en- 
gines for  mixed  power  applications. 
The  AR-1  rocket  engine  is  a  liquid- 
propellant  system,  as  are  the  large 
power  plants  for  the  Atlas,  Thor, 
Jupiter,  and  Redstone  ballistic  mis- 
siles. The  AR-1  passed  stringent  flight 
tests  as  a  supplementary  power  plant 
on  modern  jet  aircraft.  Substantial 
improvements  over  normal  near-sonic 
speed  and  50,000-foot  altitude  capa- 
bilities were  demonstrated  in  more 
than  100  test  flights. 

The  AR-2,  second  in  a  series  of  four 
rocket-engine  models  developed  by 
Rocketdyne,  is  a  fully-throttleable 
engine  that  provides  varied  thrust. 


THE  MEASURE  OF  ROCKET  POWER 

The  liquid-propellant  AR  rocket 
engines  are  "static  tested"  at 
Rocketdyne' s  field  laboratory  to 
measure  thrust  and  performance. 


FIRST  WITH  POWER 

FOR  OUTER  SPACE 


ROCKETDYNE  II 

A  DIVISION  OF  NORTH  AMERICAN  AVIATION,  INC. 


40 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


oads,  and  terrestrial  orbiting  nuclear  ve- 
llcles  capable  of  moving  into  far  space.  Im- 
>ortant  is  the  analyzation  of  a  "family"  of 
lydrogen  cooled,  solid-fuel  graphic  element, 
traphite  core  moderated,  BeO  reflector  mod- 
rated  reactor  power  plants. 

V  Practical  Investigation  of  Spaceship 
Control  Problems,  C.  A.  Cross,  284  Lon- 
lon  Road,  Northwich,  Cheshire,  United 
iingdom. 

The  author  describes  equipment  that  has 
ieen  used  to  investigate  manned  spaceflight 
echnlques.  The  spaceship  flight  simulator 
onslsts  of  a  control  panel,  an  electro-me- 
iianical  computer,  and  a  planetarium  type 
irojector.  A  pen  in  the  computer  duplicates 
he  motion  of  the  spaceship  on  a  scale  of 
me  inch  to  70  miles.  The  pen  controls  a 
eference  sphere  projector  which  simultane- 
lusly  plots  the  position  on  a  chart  10  Inches 
quare.  The  ship  can  be  turned  at  rates  of 
ip  to  2  BPM  by  firing  torque  Jets,  and  alm- 
ng  trials  have  shown  that  the  standard 
leviatlon  of  the  main  propulsion  rocket 
ootor  is  1.65°.  Some  20  flights  have  been 
oade  to  determine  a  pilot's  ability  to  carry 
iut  a  simple  circumnavigation  of  a  luminous 
eference  sphere  22  miles  in  diameter  in  the 
diddle  of  a  700  mile  square  navigable  area. 
?rials  show  that  the  ship  cannot  be  flown 
uccessfully  by  direct  instinctive  Interpre- 
ation  of  the  projected  display  and  it  must 
ie  navigated  from  start  to  finishing  by  de- 
lucing  its  position  in  space  from  the  ob- 
ervatlons,  plotting  this  on  a  chart,  and 
aking  the  control  action  needed. 

die  Biological  Satellite,  R.  P.  Haviland, 
Jeneral  Electric  Co.,  Philadelphia. 

This  is  a  proposal  for  a  biological  satel- 
Ite  to  investigate  problems  of  weightless- 
less  and  radiation  exposure.  The  author 
Aves  conceptions  of  three  different  vehicles 
,nd  outlines  the  experiments  possible.  Spe- 
ific  research  areas  would  include  adaption 
o  zero-G;  learning  of  locomotion  under 
iero-G  condition;  free  maneuvering  In 
pace;  effect  of  exposure  to  energetic  par- 
lciples,  and  effect  of  photon  radiation. 
?hree  classes  of  living  subjects  would  be 
itilized:  fruit  fly  (long  term  exposure  to 
adiatlon) ;  mice  and  rats  (radltion  effects 
>n  the  organisms  and  future  generations) ; 
ailless  type  primates  (probably  Rhesus 
aonkey  and  Chimpanzee)  radiation  effects 
iut  mostly  adaptability  to  zero-G) . 

k.  Rocket  for  Manned  Lunar  Exploration, 

A.  W.  Rosen  and  F.  C.  Schwenk,  NASA, 
Vashington,  D.C. 

The  authors  recommend  that  a  "bold" 
pproach  be  taken  to  lunar  exploration  by 
itllizing  the  capabilities  of  man  In  the 
lova.  vehicle  and  keeping  instrumentation 
,t  a  minimum.  (See  M/R  Aug.  31,  p.  24). 

.unar  Exploration  by  Photography  from 
Space  Vehicle,  Merton  E.  Davies,  RAND 
?orp.,  Santa  Monica,  Calif. 

A  panoramic  camera  which  should  get 
ilctures  superior  to  those  obtained  by  tele- 
cope  or  TV,  Is  advocated.  The  camera 
rould  utilize  the  lunar  vehicle's  spin  stabll- 
zatlon  to  perform  scanning.  However,  the 
ehicle  would  have  to  sense  its  spin  rate 
nd  the  approximate  direction  of  the 
round. 

laboratory  Experimental  Studies  in  Re- 
entry Aerothermodynamics,  Walter  R. 
Varren,  General  Electric  Co.,  Philadel- 
ihia,  Pa. 

A  criticism  of  the  capability  of  present 
aboratory  test  facilities  to  undertake  future 
nvestlgatlons  of  re-entry  problems  is  made. 
Ie  postulates  that  the  arc-heated  wind 
•unnel,  because  of  desirable  characteristics, 
rtll  have  a  higher  potential  than  other 
aclllties  in  the  study  of  re-entry  aero- 
ihermodynamics. 


Space  Power,  William  W.  T.  Crane,  Mar- 
tin Co.,  Baltimore,  Md. 

Safety  packaged  isotoplc  power  supplies 
can  be  built — the  author  maintains — during 
the  next  few  years  to  produce  eight  watts 
per  pound  and  at  significantly  higher  effi- 
ciencies than  5  or  6%.  The  author  contends 
that  only  four  Isotopes — Curium-242,  Polo- 
nlum-210,  Curium-244  and  Plutonium-238 
have  merit  as  heat  sources. 

Sterilization  of  Space  Vehicles  to  Prevent 
Extraterrestrial  Biological  Contamination, 

Richard  W.  Davies,  Marcus  G.  Comuntzis, 
Jet  Propulsion  Laboratory,  CalTech,  Pas- 
adena, Calif, 

The  authors  maintain  the  introduction 
of  terrestrial  organisms  and  contaminants 
might  so  distort  the  biology  of  plants  as  to 
constitute  a  scientific  catastrophe.  They  be- 
lieve it  Is  feasible  to  sterilize  probes  so  that 
loss  of  Information  to  future  Investigators 
is  minimized.  Recommended  methods  are 
use  of  ethylene  oxide,  heat  and  radiation, 
accompanied  by  the  sterile  assembly  of  spe- 
cial components.  They  recommend  that  pol- 
lution tolerance  be  kept  to  10-8  dead  bac- 
teria per  missile,  and  that  infection  toler- 
ance be  less  than  10-6  per  missile  for  the 
planets  and  10— 1  for  the  moon. 

Differential  Expressions  for  Low-Eccen- 
tricity Geocentric  Orbits,  Samuel  Herrick, 
L.  G.  Walters  and  C.  Geoffrey  Hilton, 
Aeronutronic  Systems,  Inc.,  Glendale, 
Calif. 

The  authors  derive  differential  expres- 
sions that  are  applicable  to  correction  of 
low-eccentricity  orbits  and  the  evaluation 
of  uncertainty  in  the  knowledge  of  the 
orbits. 

Some  Remarks  on  the  Optimum  Opera- 
tion of  a  Nuclear  Rocket,  G.  Leitmann, 
University  of  California,  Berkeley,  Calif. 

Nuclear  rockets  In  which  energy  source 
and  working  fluid  are  separated  come  In 
for  modification  by  the  author.  He  Includes 
the  constraint  arising  from  their  energy- 
limited  nature  and  derives  an  exhaust  speed 
program  which  is  shown  to  be  independent 
of  mass  flow  rate.  He  finds  that  the  charac- 
teristic speed  corresponding  to  the  optimum 
exhaust  is  a  function  of  total  working  fluid 
mass  only  and  that  It  increases  as  the 
working  fluid  mass  Increases. 

Secular  Variation  in  the  Inclination  of 
the  Orbit  of  Earth  Satellites  (1957)  and 
Air  Drag,  L.  N.  Rowell  and  M.  C.  Smith, 
RAND  Corp.,  Santa  Monica,  Calif. 

A  plausible  explanation  of  this  phenom- 
enon, according  to  the  authors,  is  the  com- 
ponent of  drag  acceleration  normal  to  the 
orbital  plane  arising  from  the  rotation  of 
the  earth's  atmosphere  In  the  same  sense 
as  the  satellite.  This  component  causes  the 
Inclination  of  the  orbital  plane  to  decrease. 
Rate  Is  found  by  equations. 

Effects  of  a  Meteoroid  Impact  on  Steel 
and  Aluminum  in  Space,  R.  L.  Bjork, 
RAND  Corp.,  Santa  Monica,  Calif. 

This  paper  is  largely  confined  to  estimat- 
ing the  effects  of  a  collision  between  an 
individual  meteoroid  and  some  component 
of  the  vehicle.  He  attempts  to  calculate  the 
phenomenology  of  an  Impact  of  meteoric 
velocities  from  fundamental  principles  and 
makes  only  simple  assumptions  which  may 
be  Justified. 

Impulsive  Midcourse  Correction  of  an 
Interplanetary  Transfer,  R.  J.  Gunkel, 
D.  N.  Lascody  and  D.  S.  Merrilees,  Doug- 
las Aircraft  Co.,  Inc.,  Santa  Monica,  Calif. 


By  surveying  possible  ballistic  trajector- 
ies from  earth  to  another  planet  and  pay- 
ing attention  to  sensitivity  to  initial  con- 
dition errors,  the  authors  indicate  that  In- 
itial condition  tolerances  can  be  maximized 
by  careful  choice  of  trajectory.  They  con- 
sider the  possibility  of  midcourse  correction 
to  compensate,  and  give  the  relationship  be- 
tween correction  impulse  requirements  and 
sensitivity  to  initial  conditions.  They  con- 
clude that  approximate  methods  can  be 
suitable  for  determining  basic  trends  but 
there  Is  a  necessity  for  using  more  accur- 
ate solutions  for  design  purposes. 

Ionospheric  Scintillations  of  Satellite  Sig- 
nals, H.  P.  Hutchinson  and  P.  R.  Arendt, 
U.S.  Army  Signal  Research  &  Develop- 
ment Laboratory,  Fort  Monmouth,  N.J. 

Techniques  using  doppler  shift  and  direc- 
tion-finding may  prove  to  be  most  useful 
tools  in  further  studies  in  the  ionosphere 
and  space,  the  authors  believe.  They  point 
out  that  short-time  variations  of  satel- 
lite-emitted radio  signals  can  give  a  good 
measure  of  the  roughness  or  lnhomogenity 
of  the  ionosphere.  Variations  are  more 
noticeable,  they  point  out,  at  the  low  fre- 
quencies— 20  and  40  mc's  than  at  the  higher 
ones,  but  the  scintillations  are  not  negli- 
gible at  10  mc's,  the  frequency  most  com- 
monly used  for  determining  position  of 
previous  U.S.  satellites. 

On  the  Corridor  and  Associated  Trajec- 
tory Accuracy  for  Entry  of  Manned  Space- 
craft Into  Planetary  Atmospheres,  Dean 
R.  Chapman,  NASA,  Moffett  Field,  Calif. 

An  analysis  Is  developed  that  determines 
the  corridor  through  which  manned  space- 
craft must  be  guided  in  order  to  avoid  ex- 
cessive deceleration  for  human  occupants 
and  yet  to  encounter  sufficient  deceleration 
for  completing  entry.  Introduced  is  a  dl- 
mensionless  parameter  coupling  the  aerody- 
namic characteristics  of  the  vehicle  with 
certain  planetary  characteristics  evaluated 
at  the  perigee  altitude  corresponding  to  the 
approach  conic  trajectory. 

Methods  of  Analyzing  Observations  on 
Satellites,  G.  V.  Groves  and  M.  J.  Davies, 
Department  of  Physics,  University  Col- 
lege, London. 

The  authors  develop  a  theory  for  the 
precise  determination  of  the  elements  of  a 
satellite  orbit  from  observational  data.  Ac- 
count is  taken  of  the  effects  of  atmospheric 
refraction,  aberration,  the  finite  speed  of 
light  and  the  difference  between  geocentric 
and  geographic  latitude. 

The  Three-body  Problem,  Earth,  Moon, 
Spaceship,  W.  Grobner  and  F.  Cap,  Inns- 
bruck University,  Austria. 

The  solution  of  the  astronomical  m-body 
problem  using  Lie  series  Is  discussed  and 
the  known  algebraic  Integrals — conservation 
of  momentum,  angular  momentum  and  en- 
ergy— are  reproduced.  There  is  a  thorough 
discussion  of  the  Initial  data,  the  closed 
solution  of  the  three-body  problem  Is  given, 
and  two  different  methods  for  numerical 
computation  are  furnished. 

On  the  Flight  Path  of  a  Hypervelocity 
Glider  Booster  by  Rockets,  Angelo  Miele, 
Purdue  University,  Lafayette,  Ind. 

This  article  Investigates  the  flight  of  a 
vehicle  operating  along  an  equilibrium  tra- 
jectory— where  weight  Is  balanced  by  lift 
plus  the  centrifugal  force  due  to  the  earth's 
curvature.  It  Is  shown  that  the  path  which 
maximizes  the  range  includes:  an  Initial 
sub-arc  in  which  alL  the  propellant  mass  Is 
expended  at  the  engine's  maximum  burning 
rate,  and  a  final  sub-arc  in  which  the 
glider  coasts  at  variable  altitude  In  such  a 
way  that  aerodynamic  drag  is  a  minimum. 


nissiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


4! 


Sedov  Elected  as  IAF  Head 


Tracking  Objects  Within  the  Solar  System 
Using  Only  Doppler  Measurements,  Rob- 
ert R.  Newton,  Applied  Physics  Labora- 
tory, Silver  Spring,  Md. 

It  is  assumed  that  an  artificial  planetoid 
emits  radiation  of  reasonably  stable  fre- 
quency which  can  be  received  by  an  earth 
tracking  station.  He  finds  that  without  us- 
ing any  Information  except  the  time  de- 
pendence of  the  Doppler  shift,  that  orbital 
elements  can  be  completely  determined  with 
a  precision  of  about  five  significant  figures, 
during  one-half  day's  tracking  from  one 
station.  He  believes  that  the  effective  range 
for  Doppler  tracking  should  be  at  least  50 
million  kilometers. 

Recent  Developments  and  Designs  of  the 
Ion  Rocket  Engine,  R.  H.  Boden,  Rocket- 
dyne,  Canoga  Park,  Calif. 

The  author  reveals  that  an  ion  thrust 
device  directed  toward  a  prototype  engine 
configuration  has  been  in  operation  at  his 
company  for  several  months,  producing 
quantitative  measurements  of  thrust.  He  be- 
lieves a  flyable  ion  engine,  delivering  less 
than  one  pound  of  thrust,  could  be  avail- 
able In  five  years,  utilizing  a  propellant 
such  as  cesium. 

Personnel  Selection  and  Training  for 
Space  Flight,  Brig.  Gen.  Don  Flickinger, 
ARDC,  Andrews  AFB,  Washington,  D.C. 

The  author  discusses  recruitment  and 
training  of  crews  for  manned  orbital  flight, 
pointing  out  that  the  determination  of  an 
Individual's  psycho-physiologic  fitness  com- 
prises a  major  task  for  the  behavlorlsts,  the 
physiologist  and  the  flight  surgeon.  Medical 
evaluation,  stress  tolerance  testing  and  in- 
doctrination would  require  18  months  for 
a  candidate. 


ARMY  RESEARCH  OFFICE 


AERONAUTICAL 
ENGINEER 

.  .  .  interested  in  basic 
and  theoretical  research 


You  will  join  a  small  group  of 
technical  men  in  the  various 
disciplines  responsible  for  the 
over-all  planning,  coordination 
and  supervision  of  the  Army's 
dynamic  research  program. 

ARO  serves  as  focal  point  for  the 
Army's  relationship  with  the 
scientific  community  and  monitors 
research  at  universities  and 
other  outside  contractors. 

M.S.  or  Ph.D.  and  a  minimum  of 
three  years  intensive  experience 
required.  For  details  write: 

Dr.  R.  A.  Weiss 

Scientific  Director 

ARMY  RESEARCH  OFFICE 

Office,  Chief  of  Research  and  Development 
Washington  25,  D.  C 


ARMY  RESEARCH  OFFICE 
42 


by  an  M/R  Correspondent 

London — The  United  States,  which 
dominated  the  International  Astronau- 
tical  Federation  for  10  years,  has  lost 
all  but  two  of  the  principal  offices  of 
the  organization — probably  on  purpose 
in  a  bid  to  encourage  world  astronautics 
cooperation. 

At  the  closing  sessions  of  the  IAF 
Congress  here,  Soviet  Academician 
Leonid  Sedov  was  elected  president  of 
the  federation.  He  is  the  first  Russian 
to  win  that  honor. 

Sedov,  who  headed  the  U.S.S.R. 
delegation  to  the  Congress,  is  the  son 
of  a  mining  engineer.  After  becoming 
a  theoretical  mathematician,  he  won  the 
Stalin  Prize  in  1952.  He  is  also  presi- 
dent of  the  Interplanetary  Commission 
of  the  Soviet  Academy  of  Sciences. 


At  Farnborough 

U.  K.  Reported  Testing 
AAM  Similar  to  Eagle 

by  an  M/R  Correspondent 

Farnborough,  England — Britain  is 
flight  testing  an  air-to-air  missile  which 
should  provide  valuable  information  for 
the  U.S.  Navy's  Bendix  Eagle  program, 
U.S.  sources  disclosed  here  during  the 
twentieth  annual  Farnborough  air 
show. 

De  Havilland  Propellers  is  re- 
portedly doing  the  development  on  the 
AAM,  which  carries  the  code  name 
"Red  Top."  It  is  said  to  have  infrared 
guidance,  using  a  cooled  lead  telluride 
cell  receiving  in  a  4  to  5  micro  range; 
the  U.S.  Navy's  Sidewinder,  by  com- 
parison, uses  lead  sulphide  with  a 
2  to  4  micro  range. 

According  to  reports,  the  bird  car- 
ries a  68-pound  non-nuclear  warhead, 
has  a  14,000-yard  range,  and  is  de- 
signed to  be  carried  aboard  the  de 
Havilland  Sea  Vixen.  It  probably  is  an 
advanced  version  of  the  Firestreak. 

American  military  observers  said 
technological  exchange  resulting  from 
the  tests  should  lead  to  earlier  availabil- 
ity of  the  Eagle.  De  Havilland  would 
not  comment. 

Neither  would  English  Electric 
comment  on  a  report  that  it  was  work- 
ing on  an  all-solid,  surface-to-surface, 
fully  transistorized  tactical  Army  mis- 
sile in  range  between  the  Lacrosse  and 
the  Sergeant. 


Elected  as  IAF  vice  presidents  were 
Medicin-General  J.  P.  Bergeron  of 
France,  Dr.  Leslie  Shepherd  of  Brit- 
ain, Col.  John  Stapp  of  the  United 
States,  Eugen  Sanger  of  Germany,  and 
A.  M.  Hjertstrand  of  Sweden. 

Andrew  Haley  of  the  United  States 
was  selected  as  chairman  of  the  group's 
new  General  Council. 

Dr.  Theodore  von  Karman  was 
chosen  chairman  of  the  committee  to 
form  the  first  IAF  International  Acad- 
emy of  Astronautics,  which  will  have 
about  nine  members.  Among  those 
mentioned  for  early  election  to  the 
academy  were  Dr.  Wernher  von  Braun, 
Dr.  James  Van  Allen  and  Dr.  Hubertus 
Strughold. 

The  next  meeting  will  be  held  in 
Stockholm,  and  the  following  one  in 
Denver.  Buenos  Aires  was  suggested 
for  the  1962  meeting. 


This  year's  Farnborough  show  in- 
cluded a  40%  larger  missile  display 
than  last  year.  The  Black  Knight  and 
the  Australian-built  Malkara  SSM  were 
put  on  public  exhibition  for  the  first 
time  and  a  25-foot  model  of  the  de 
Havilland  Blue  Streak  was  shown. 
English  Electric,  in  cooperation  with 
i  Minneapolis-Honeywell  Regulator, 
!  showed  a  27-pound  miniature  stabil- 
ized platform  less  than  a  cubic  foot  in 
volume,  with  a  life  of  1000  hours, 
:  storage  capability  up  to  five  years,  and 
ability  to  withstand  40  G's  of  shock 
and  linear  acceleration  of  30  G's  at 
temperature  of  minus  65°  to  180°  F. 

A  cutaway  of  Bristol  Siddeley  En- 
gines,   Thor    BT-1    Ramjet    for  the 
I     Bloodhound  was  also  shown  for  th( 
first  time. 

Avro  Weapon  Division  of  the 
Hawker  Siddeley  Group  announcec 
full-scale  test  of  Bluesteel,  counterpar 
of  the  U.S.  Hound  Dog. 

Congress  Approves  Medal 
Honoring  Robert  Goddard 

Washington — President  Eisenhowe 
is  expected  to  sign  soon  a  bill  to  pro 
vide  a  gold  medal  in  honor  of  the  latt 
Prof.  Robert  H.  Goddard,  known  a 
'     the  "father  of  modern  rocketry." 

The  Senate  passed  the  legislatioi 
and  sent  it  to  the  White  House  las 
week.  The  bill  authorizes  $2500  fo 
the  medal. 

Goddard,  who  died  in  1945,  dii 
'     pioneer  work  in  experimental  rocketr 
in  the  early  part  of  this  century. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  195? 


' MkJ  SOME  POINT  IN  HIS  CAREER,  every  engineer  critically  evaluates  himself  in  terms  of  his  professional  growth 
and  progress.  If  your  evaluation  indicates  that  you  have  developed  a  depth  of  appreciation  for  the  major  problem 
areas  in  large  complex  electronic  systems  and  the  technical  competence  to  contribute  to  the  solution  of  such  problems, 
you  should  seriously  consider  the  next  step  in  your  professional  career  and  explore  the  challenging  opportunities  the 
System  Development  Corporation  has  to  offer. 

"SDC  has  assumed  major  responsibilities  for  development  and  sustaining  engineering  and  the  implementation  of  engi- 
neering advances  in  the  state  of  the  art  associated  with  the  SAGE  Air  Defense  System,  the  world-wide  SAC  Control 
System,  and  other  major  system  development  projects.  Therefore,  at  SDC  engineering  is  system-oriented  and  requires 
personnel  with  broad  backgrounds  and  extensive  experience  in  design,  development  and  system  engineering. 

"The  experience  gained  through  intimate  association  with  all  of  the  elements  of  these  large-scale  systems  and  subsystems 
they  control  provides  a  most  unusual  opportunity  for  engineers  to  grow  in  technical  competence  and  professional  stature. 

"I  invite  you  to  explore  the  opportunities  offered  by  SDC  at  Santa  Monica,  California  and  Lodi,  New  Jersey,  by  writing 
or  telephoning  Mr.  R.  A.  Frank,  2414  Colorado  Avenue,  Santa  Monica,  California,  EXbrook  3-9411,  or  Mr.  R.  L.  Obrey, 
Box  2651,  Grand  Central  Station,  New  York  17,  N.Y.,  ELdorado  5-2686,  regarding  our  division  at  Lodi,  New  Jersey.  Your 
correspondence  will  receive  preferential  treatment  and  its  content  will  be  handled  in  strict  confidence." 


more  about  the  missile  week 


•  Vanderberg  AFB,  Calif. — A  SAC  crew  for  the 
first  time  fired  a  Convair  Atlas  at  1:49.5  P.M.,  EDT, 
Sept.  9  giving  the  United  States  its  first  operational 
ICBM.  The  big  missile  roared  4300  miles  westward 
across  the  Pacific  Missile  Range  and  landed  near  Wake 
Island. 

•  Downey,  Calif. — The  Navy  announced  successful 
completion  of  laboratory  tests  on  the  vitally-important 
inertial  navigation  system  for  Polaris  submarines.  It  said 
a  prototype  engineering  model  will  now  be  tested 
aboard  the  USS  Compass  Island,  the  Polaris  program's 
surface  test  ship. 

•  Washington — The  Army  Quartermaster  Corps  plans 
to  buy  more  than  1000  more  German  Shepherd  dogs 
during  the  next  10  months  for  sentry  duty  at  Nike  and 
other  missile  sites  throughout  the  nation. 

•  McGuire  AFB,  N.J. — The  first  operational  Bomarc 
a  missile  squadron  joined  the  nation's  anti-aircraft  de- 
fense forces.  The  60-odd  nuclear-tipped  Boeing  missiles 
have  a  200-mile  range. 


•  Eglin  AFB,  Fla. — Air  Force  officials  said  the  400- 
mile  range  Bomarc  B  is  expected  to  be  operational  in 
about  15  months.  Tests  are  being  conducted  at  both 
Eglin  and  Cape  Canaveral. 

•  Edwards  AFB,  Calif. — Stoppage  in  the  LOX  lines 
forced  cancellation  of  the  first  powered  flight  of  the 
X-15  rocket  plane.  Trouble  occurred  Sept.  4  after  the 
plane  was  aloft  and  about  to  be  released  from  a  B-52  at 
38,000  feet  for  a  low  altitude,  low-speed  run. 

•  Washington — One  of  the  Navy's  new  Terrier  guided 
missile  frigates  authorized  in  the  FY  1960  budget  will 
be  named  after  the  late  fleet  Admiral  William  F.  (Bull) 

Halsey. 

•  Washington — Construction  funds  for  hardened  Mace 
sites  were  excluded  from  the  compromise  House-Senate 
$  1 .3-billion  military  construction  program  for  FY  1960. 
Air  Force  was  directed  to  draw  on  prior  funds  if  a 
decision  is  made  to  go  ahead  with  Mace.  Under  the 
measure  AF  gets  $777  million;  Army — $263  million 
and  Navy — $204  million.  So-called  "no-year"  funds  of 
$57  million  were  provided  to  cover  outstanding  Bomarc 
and  Nike-Hercules  construction  projects. 


'Mobot'  Developed  To 
Handle  'Hot'  Materials 

Albuquerque,  N.M. — Even  Tom 
Swift  would  probably  be  amazed  at  the 
new  "Mobot  Mark  II"  just  developed 
by  Hughes  Aircraft  Co.  The  mobile 
robot  with  hydraulic  muscles  and 
closed-circuit  TV  eyes,  will  be  used  at 
Sandia  Laboratories  here  to  handle 
dangerous  materials  in  radioactive  en- 
vironments. It  will  be  remotely  con- 
trolled by  an  operator  safely  out  of  the 
"hot"  area  behind  dense  concrete  walls. 

Mobot  can  pick  up  and  move  large 
heavy  objects  in  and  out  of  radioactive 
test  rooms.  It  can  handle  hand  tools 
for  assembly  and  dismantling  of  equip- 
ment under  test,  and  operate  machine 
tools. 

Constructed  on  a  powered  chassis 
resembling  a  fork  truck,  Mobot  has  a 
vertical  reach  of  ten  feet  and  a  hori- 
zontal reach  of  three  feet.  The  hy- 
draulic handling  arms  can  lift  150 
pounds  and  the  lift  platform  1500 
pounds.  It  weighs  4500  pounds  and  is 
controlled  through  a  200-foot  cable. 
This  first  model  is  designed  for  indoor 
use  but  outdoor  types  are  deemed 
practical. 

Mobot's  designers  predict  great 
potential  for  the  mechanical  marvel  in 
the  space  age.  One  suggested  possibility 
is  in  lunar  exploration.  Such  a  unit,  re- 


motely controlled  from  earth,  could 
collect  samples,  run  tests,  and  explore 
on  command. 

Other  possibilities  include  under- 
water exploration  and  all  manner  of 
reactor  refueling,  waste  disposal,  and 
decontamination  operations. 

New  Strides  Made  in 
Liquid  Hydrogen  Handling 

Boulder,  Colo. — Several  new  de- 
velopments in  liquid  hydrogen  storage 
and  transportation  facilities  were  dis- 
closed last  week  by  Dr.  R.  H. 
Kropschot  of  the  National  Bureau  of 
Standards'  Cryogenic  Laboratory  here. 

An  evacuated  powder,  silica  aero- 
gel-aluminum, having  twice  the  heat 
conductive  resistance  of  powders  pre- 
viously analyzed,  would  provide  a 
relatively  cheap  and  convenient  insula- 
tion for  liquid  hydrogen  transportation 
trucks. 

Another  development  reported  is 
a  multiple-layer  insulation  system  with 
four  times  the  heat-flow  resistance  of 
the  best  evacuated  powders.  This 
method,  more  expensive  than  the 
powder  technique,  consists  of  alter- 
nating layers  of  poor  conductors  and 
good  reflectors. 

Combination  of  the  multiple-layer 
concept   with   an    intermittent,  high- 


vacuum  system  would  result  in  low 
heat-leak  transfer  lines  of  long  service 
duration.  Carbon  dioxide  inserted  in 
an  annular  space  around  the  line  would 
condense  when  cryogenic  fluids  were 
introduced,  producing  the  vacuum. 

Engineer  D.  A.  Van  Gundy  pointed 
out  that  any  hydrogen  gas  leakage 
would  be  adsorbed  by  the  carbon 
dioxide  and  that  the  highrvacuum 
insulation  occurs  only  when  the  line 
is  in  use. 

Screen  Show  Missiles 
Small  as  .22  Bullets 

Wilmington,  Mass. — A  new  cata- 
dioptric  light  screen  sensitive  to  hyper- 
velocity  projectiles  as  small  as  .22  cali- 
ber has  been  developed  by  Avco's 
RAD  Division  here.  Used  in  ballistic 
range  hypervelocity  instrumentation, 
the  screen  is  part  of  shadowgraph 
equipment  for  recording  missile  at- 
titudes and  aerodynamic  flow.  The 
system  allows  exposure  times  in  the 
order  of  10-7  and  10-8  seconds. 

•  Dayton,  Ohio — Scientists  at  Wright 
Air  Development  Center  are  testing 
the  reactions  of  airmen  who  spend 
two-day  periods  in  a  broomcloset-size 
land-based  space  capsule.  Some  40  air- 
men are  expected  to  take  part. 


44 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


Have  sidearms,  will  travel 

When  SAC  slings  a  pair  of  GAM-77  Hound  Dog  air-to-ground 
missiles  under  the  wings  of  the  new  B-52G  bomber,  it  has  what 
amounts  to  a  brand-new  manned  weapon  system. 

For  the  Hound  Dog's  jet  engine  drives  it  at  supersonic 

speed  to  a  target  hundreds  of  miles  away.  Its  self-contained 
inertial  autonavigator,  set  before  launch  by  the  B-52's  crew, 
can't  be  jammed,  can't  be  decoyed. 

The  GAM-77  Hound  Dog  program  got  underway  in  August, 
1957.  The  missile  is  already  in  its  flight  test  phase.  Thanks 

to  accelerated  development,  it  will  be  deployed  by  1960. 

SAC's  and  ARDC's  "blue-suit"  integration  programs  further 
speed  the  Hound  Dog's  operational  status.  As  every  other 
test  missile  comes  off  the  production  line,  half  the  crew 
assigned  to  it  is  from  the  Air  Force. 

The  Missile  Division  of  North  American  Aviation  is  weapon 
system  contractor  for  the  GAM-77  Hound  Dog. 

MISSILE  DIVISION  ^ 

NORTH  AMERICAN  AVIATION,  INC.,  DOWNEY,  CALIFORNIA 


Expanding  the  Frontiers 
of  Space  Technology  in 

FLIGHT 
CONTROLS 


B  Flight  controls  offers  one 
of  the  most  interesting  and 
challenging  areas  of  work  at 
Lockheed's  Missiles  and 
Space  Division.  From  concept 
to  operation,  the  Division  is 
capable  of  performing  each 
step  in  research,  develop- 
ment, engineering  and  manu- 
facture of  complex  systems. 

Flight  control  programs  at 
Lockheed  include:  analysis  of 
flight  data  and  sub-systems 
performance,  design  and 
packaging  of  flight  control 
components,  development  of 
transistorized  circuits,  opera- 
tion of  specialized  flight 
control  test  equipment  and 
fabrication  of  flight  control 
prototypes.  Other  work  deals 
with  the  design,  development 
and  testing  of  rate  and  free 
gyros;  accelerometers;  pro- 
grammers; computer  assem- 
blies; guidance  control  sys- 
tems; circuitry;  and  hydraulic 
systems  and  components. 

In  the  flight  controls  simu- 
lation laboratory,  mathe- 
matical representations  of 
elements  in  a  control  system 
are  replaced  one  by  one  with 
actual  hardware  to  determine 
acceptability  of  specific  de- 
signs. From  these  studies, 
Lockheed  obtains  informa- 
tion which  is  used  in  further 
refinement  and  improvement 
of  final  control  systems 
design. 

ENGINEERS  AND 
SCIENTISTS 

If  you  are  experienced  in  one 
of  the  above  areas  or  in  re- 
lated work,  we  invite  you  to 
share  in  the  future  of  a  com- 
pany that  has  a  continual 
record  of  achievement  and  to 
make  an  important  individual 
contribution  to  your  nation's 
progress  in  space  technology. 
Write:  Research  and  Devel- 
opment Staff,  Dept.  1-2-29, 
962  W.  El  Camino  Real,  Sun- 
nyvale, California.  U.S.  citi- 
zenship required. 

Lockheed 

MISSILES  AND  SPACE 
DIVISION 

Systems  Manager  for  the 
Navy  POLARIS  FBM; 
DISCOVERER,  SENTRY 
and  MIDAS:  Army  KINGFISHER: 
Air  Force  Q-5  and  X-7 

SUNNYVALE.   PALO  ALTO.  VAN  NUYS. 
SANTA  CRUZ.  SANTA  MARIA,  CALIFORNIA 
CAPE  CANAVERAL,  FLORIDA 
ALAMOGORDO,  NEW  MEXICO  •  HAWAII 


soviet  affairs  .  .  . 


By  DR.  ALBERT  PARRY 

If  Lunik  for  Mikoyan,  what  for  Khrushchev?  .  .  . 

It  would  be  just  like  Khrushchev  to  prepare  a  "first"  in  rocketry 
before  he  leaves  for  the  States,  so  as  to  make  news  at  the  exact  time 
of  his  meeting  with  President  Eisenhower  in  Washington.  Be  it  the 
first  successful  Soviet  hit  on  the  moon,  or  the  first  Russian  man  in 
space,  the  headlines  would  be  vastly  more  effective  if  Nikita  hap- 
pened to  be  on  U.S.  soil  at  the  moment.  Remembering  that  Lunik 
was  launched  last  January  while  Mikoyan  was  visiting  here,  one  may 
guess  that  Khrushchev's  scientists  may  have  orders  to  try,  anyway. 

Why  has  he  vetoed  a  rocket-base  visit  exchange?  .  .  . 

The  likeliest  explanation  is  Khrushchev's  fear  that  Ike,  being  a 
general,  would  learn  more  from  a  look  at  a  Soviet  rocket  establish- 
ment than  Khrushchev,  a  civilian,  could  gather  from  an  inspection 
of  a  similar  U.S.  installation. 

Of  course.  Khrushchev's  24-year-old  son  Sergei,  who  is  accom- 
panying him  to  America,  has  a  job  in  the  Soviet  missiles  and  rockets 
effort.  Unlike  Nikita,  he  speaks  some  English.  Conceivably  he  could 
be  of  some  use  to  his  dad  on  a  tour  of  one  of  our  rocket  bases. 
But,  from  what  we  hear,  Sergei  is  too  new  at  his  rocketry  to  be 
much  help. 

As  propaganda,  Nikita's  'peaceful'  refusal  .  .  . 

to  see  U.S.  rockets  may  be  more  valuable  to  Khrushchev  than  any 
satisfaction  of  his  curiosity  about  our  plants  and  bases.  Here  are 
quotes  from  his  "explanation"  to  some  questioning  Americans  of 
why  he  would  neither  visit  a  U.S.  rocket  base  nor  invite  President 
Eisenhower  to  view  a  similar  Soviet  base: 

"You  (Americans)  want  to  add  a  bad  taste  to  our  meetings.  If 
we  would  go  journeying  to  each  other  in  order  to  sneak  a  look  at 
who  has  what  sort  of  rockets  and  just  where  they  are  located,  then 
it  all  comes  down  not  to  peace  but  to  war  preparations.  But  our 
aims  are  different.  I  am  going  to  the  U.S.A.  with  full  knowledge 
that  they  have  pretty  strong  military  means.  And  even  if  I  am 
offered  a  view  of,  say,  rocket-paunching  pads,  I  will  decline." 

The  Soviet  premier  continued:  "I  think  that  were  we  to  include, 
in  the  sojourn  of  the  President  of  the  U.S.A.  in  our  country,  visits 
to  the  points  where  we  make  our  rockets  and  where  these  rockets 
are  located,  the  President  could  have  said:  'For  what  did  you  invite 
me?  To  frighten  me?  .  .  . '  On  our  part  this  would  not  have  been 
hospitable.  Therefore  we  will  not  permit  ourselves  to  offer  to  the 
President  anything  of  the  kind." 

No  'rockets  in  the  pockets'  .  .  . 

is  Khrushchev's  cry.  He  declared  that  "all  of  us — Russians,  Ukrain- 
ians, Belorussians,  Kazakhs,  all  the  peoples  of  the  Soviet  Union — are 
very  hospitable."  He  recited  a  list  of  national  dishes,  from  various 
Soviet  regions,  that  he  could  offer  to  such  an  honored  guest  as  Ike. 
"We  have  many  tasty  dishes,  please — we  won't  refuse  anything  to 
our  guests.  But  the  main  thing,  in  our  sincere  and  hearty  conversa- 
tions we  must  convince  (Americans)  that  we  do  not  plot  anything 
bad  against  the  United  States  and  other  countries.  But  if,  during  my 
talk  with  the  President,  a  rocket  would  peep  out  of  one  of  my 
pockets,  and  another  rocket  from  another  pocket,  what  kind  of 
hospitality  would  that  be,  what  kind  of  talk?" 

Check  'em  in  the  vestibule  .  .  . 

Khrushchev  concluded:  "Time  was  when  on  coming  to  negotiations 
people  left  their  weapons  in  the  vestibule.  Talks  were  weaponless. 
But  here  you  want  us,  after  we  have  invited  the  President  of  the 
U.S.A.  for  a  conversation  about  peace,  to  show  to  him  the  places 
where  we  make  our  rockets  and  where  we  launch  them."  This, 
said  Nikita,  would  be  "absolutely  inadmissible." 


46 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


House  Group  Urges  More  R&D 


Washington — The  House  Space 
Committee  has  charged  that  the  Ad- 
ninistration  isn't  spending  enough 
noney  on  military  research  and  de- 
velopment. 

The  committee  also  is  hitting  out 
it  pressures  within  the  Pentagon  and 
\dministration  to  narrow  the  participa- 
ion  of  the  Army  in  space  (M/R  Aug. 
SI). 

The  committee  made  its  position 
:lear  on  both  issues  in  a  newly  issued 
eport  called  "Basic  Scientific  and  As- 
ronautic  Research  in  the  Department 
)f  Defense." 

The  report  called  on  the  Admin- 
stration  to  review  its  military  R&D 
>udgetary  policies  "at  the  earliest  prac- 
ical  time." 

"In  view  of  the  swift  scientific  pace 
;oing  forward  today,  research  and  de- 
velopment money  clearly  seems  inad- 
;quate,"  the  report  said.  "This  is  the 
:ase  apparently  at  all  levels  of  military 
;overnment." 

The  committee  specifically  hit  at 
he  amount  of  R&D  money  that  is 
>eing  made  available  to  the  Army  and 
^Javy. 

"The  amount  allocated  for  research 
vithin  the  total  Administration  budget 
ippears  inadequate,"  it  said.  "The 
imount  allocated  to  the  Army  within 
he  Defense  Department  budget  ap- 
jears  inadequate.  And  the  amount  al- 
ocated  by  the  Army  within  its  own 
)udget  may  also  be  inadequate  .  .  ." 

As  for  the  Navy,  the  committee 
laid  at  present  R&D  funds  make  up 
mly  8.5%  of  the  Navy  budget  for 
FY  1960  and  recommended  the 
imount  be  increased  to  "10%  or  so." 


rests  Show  Progress 
With  Mercury  Capsule 

Cape  Canaveral — Big  Joe  test  re- 
mits last  week  indicated  that  the  Atlas 
[CBM  has  developed  a  new  problem 
Jut  that  major  components  of  the  proj- 
:ct  Mercury  space  capsule  are  well  on 
•.heir  way  towards  becoming  opera- 
:ional. 

The  Atlas  booster's  two  outside  en- 
gines failed  to  separate,  considerably 
reducing  the  planned  range  and  alti- 
tude. Air  Force  officials  said  it  was  the 
first  time  this  malfunction  had  occur- 
red. 

The  boiler  plate  capsule's  retro- 
rockets  used  to  insure  clean  separation 
of  the  capsule  from  the  Atlas  booster 


The  price  tag — more  than  $150  million 
extra. 

The  1960  Navy  budget  provides 
$970,920,000  for  R&D— $522  million 
of  it  for  basic  and  supporting  research. 

The  committee  said  pointedly:  "Na- 
tional security  today  is  as  dependent 
upon  research  as  Elizabethan  England 
was  dependent  upon  the  fleet  of  Sir 
Francis  Drake." 

Turning  to  space,  the  committee 
noted  "the  actual  capability  of  all  serv- 
ices to  use  space  is  still  in  its  formative 
stages"  and  "many  scientific  answers  in 
relation  thereto  are  unknown." 

Therefore,  it  said  "a  duplication  of 
research  and  development  effort  in 
these  fields  is  by  no  means  unwarranted 
but  is,  in  fact,  essential  in  many  cases." 

It  specifically  said  the  Army  has 
"interests  in  space  which  warrant  vig- 
orous and  expeditious  research  in  such 
allied  areas  as  the  use  of  space  or  space 
vehicles  for  communications,  weather 
interpretation,  surveillance,  reconnais- 
sance and  the  like." 

The  committee  also  recommended 
that: 

•  The  Defense  and  State  Depart- 
ments "immediately  take  steps  to  speed 
up  effective  liaison  with  outstanding 
scientists  and  science  programs  in  other 
countries." 

•  The  United  States  seriously  con- 
sider strengthening  its  defences  against 
missile-launching  submarines  by  pro- 
hibiting foreign  submerged  submarines 
from  operating  within  200  miles  of 
U.S.  coasts. 

•  The  Air  Force  must  find  means 
to  increase  and  stabilize  its  pool  of  in- 
house  R&D  talent. 


fired  as  programmed,  and  the  nitrogen 
control  jets  pivoted  the  blunt  end  of 
the  capsule  down  into  proper  position 
for  descent. 

The  capsule  was  picked  up  by  a 
destroyer. 

Designated  the  Big  Joe  tests,  the 
capsule  was  to  have  been  hurled  to  an 
altitude  of  100  miles  and  a  speed  of 
17,250  mph  in  order  to  test  compo- 
nents against  maximum  heat  and  re- 
entry shock. 

Artificial  'Lightning' 
Used  To  Shape  Metals 

Farmingdale,  L.I. — M  a  n  -  m  a  d  e 
"lightning"  has  been  harnessed  by  Re- 
public Aviation  engineers  here  to  shape 


high-strength  metals.  The  "spark 
bomb,"  as  it  is  called,  converts  elec- 
trical energy  directly  into  mechanical 
power.  It  offers  the  possibility  of  a 
small  cheap  metal-forming  tool'  that 
could  replace  conventional  hydraulic 
presses  that  cost  a  half-million  dollars 
and  require  large  floor  space. 

In  operation,  electric  power  is 
stored  by  a  battery  of  capacitors.  This 
energy  is  released  in  40  millionths  of  a 
second  under  water,  creating  a  high- 
velocity  shock  wave  that  stretches  the 
metal  back  into  the  desired  shape.  Pres- 
ently, about  600  horsepower  has  been 
realized  with  the  technique;  hopes  are 
for  much  higher  power  levels. 

According  to  Republic  scientists, 
the  technique  is  particularly  valuable 
for  forming  newer  steel  and  titanium 
alloys  and  other  advanced  materials 
which  have  practically  no  stretchability. 
Such  materials  require  complicated 
equipment  of  tremendous  force  to 
shape  them  to  the  close  tolerances  and 
smoothness  required. 


Eagle  Is  Depicted 


THE  NAVY'S  Eagle,  seen  in  this  artist's 
conception,  is  a  nuclear-tipped  high-speed 
missile  designed  for  launch  against  air- 
craft from  relatively  low-speed  carrier 
planes.  The  Bendix  missile,  with  a  range 
of  about  100  miles,  is  under  research 
and  development. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


47 


A  Special  Memo 
from 

ROCKETDYNE 

to  a 

PHYSICIST 

Rocketdyne,  the  Nation's  leader  in 
Research  &  Development  of  high 
and  low  thrust  propulsion  systems 
has  a  position  demanding 

PROJECT  RESPONSIBILITY 

for  a  Senior  Research  Scientist  or 
Specialist  to  perform 

THEORETICAL-EXPERIMENTAL 
RESEARCH  in 
ELECTRICAL  PROPULSION 

including 

IONIZATION  OF  SPECIES 
ELECTRICAL  DISCHARGE 
PHENOMENA 
ION  ACCELERATION 

Desired  Qualifications:  PhD  de- 
gree and  five  years  of  applicable 
experience. 

Please  write : 

Mr.  D.  J.  Jamieson, 
Engineering 
Personnel  Department, 
6633  Canoga  Ave., 
Canoga  Park,  California 


ROCKETDYNE  II 

A  DIVISION  OF  NORTH  AMERICAN  AVIATION,  INC. 
First  with  Power  for  Outer  Space 


48 


missile  business . .  . 

 . —  

BY  WILLIAM  E.  HOWARD 

Quick  response  in  getting  industry  to  solve  some  of  its  tougher 
technical  problems  is  reported  by  the  Navy's  BuWeap  (formerly 
BuOrd  and  BuAer).  Back  in  April,  BuOrd  handed  representatives  of 
200  major  companies  a  book  detailing  about  200  of  the  most  pressing 
research  needs,  and  telling  why  they  were  roadblocks  to  the  develop- 
ment of  superior  weapons.  Much  to  the  Navy's  amazement  a  half- 
dozen  firms  have  already  come  in  with  tentative  solutions  to  about 
25  problems.  And  only  four  months  have  gone  by. 

Not  knowing  just  what  the  services  needed  most  .  .  . 

in  the  way  of  research  long  has  been  a  baffling  problem  to  industry. 
Companies  have  largely  had  to  depend  on  word  of  mouth  to  deter- 
mine the  long-range  interests  of  DOD.  Often  the  lack  of  proper 
information  has  sent  a  company  down  a  dead  end — at  its  own 
expense. 

The  Navy  realized  more  than  a  year  ago  that  a  lot  of  industrial 
research  was  being  misdirected  and  decided  upon  the  direct  approach: 
tell  what  was  needed  and  why.  It  took  a  year  of  snooping  around  the 
various  Navy  research  agencies  to  compile  the  "Research  Problem" 
book.  But  the  effort  looks  like  it  will  pay  off  handsomely. 

The  entire  book  is  classified,  but  many  individual  .  .  . 

problems  are  not.  They  cover  every  facet  of  naval  operations,  with 
particular  emphasis  upon  ASW,  air  defense  warfare,  offensive  warfare 
and  supporting  research.  The  Navy,  for  example,  wants  someone  to 
develop  an  electrically  and  acoustically  silent  battery-powered  motor 
to  cut  out  electrical  noise  that  degrades  electronic  circuitry.  This  one 
will  take  a  breakthrough  in  the  present  state-of-the-art. 

Take  missile  warheads.  The  Navy  requires  a  low-cost  method  of 
producing  high-quality  continuous  rod-type  warheads  with  a  minimum 
number  of  possible  variables  in  the  manufacturing  process.  The 
method  "should  eliminate  as  many  of  the  presently  used  individual 
parts  and  joints  as  possible  by  incorporating  new  rod  forming  and 
manufacturing  techniques."  The  reason:  aircraft  target  speeds  and 
skin  toughness  are  increasing  steadily  and  the  cutting  action  of  con- 
tinuous rod  warheads  is  expected  to  become  more  effective  than  blast 
or  fragmentation  types. 

On  the  other  hand,  Problem  61  in  the  book  .  .  . 

asks  development  of  a  more  effective  fragmentation  warhead — "pos- 
sibly by  increasing  the  duration  of  the  lethal  fragment  cloud."  Present 
anti-aircraft  bursts  last  but  5  milliseconds  and  cover  an  area  80  feet  in 
diameter.  Present  complex  arming  devices  for  solid  rocket  propellants 
also  are  a  problem  area.  The  Navy  wants  something  simpler — and 
more  reliable. 

Interestingly  enough,  the  Navy  has  use  for  a  less  accurate  gyro 
than  those  available  now.  It  would  be  put  in  short-range  missiles 
(for  one  minute  or  less).  The  idea  is  to  come  up  with  a  gyro  that  is 
cheaper;  the  very  precise  ones  in  production  today  are  too  expensive 
to  use  in  the  short-range  missiles. 

The  book  has  problems  for  everyone  .  .  . 

big  and  small  companies  alike.  Available  from  BuWeap,  it  should  be 
on  every  company  shelf.  For  most  of  the  solutions  will  lead  to  either 
research  or  production  contracts. 

Incidentally,  the  Army  has  picked  up  this  approach  from  the 
Navy  and  is  publishing  a  similar  classified  problem  book  for  industry 
in  about  a  year,  as  mentioned  in  this  column  Aug.  17.  The  Air  Force 
ARDC  also  has  a  similar  program  going.  So,  henceforth,  no  company- 
funded  research  need  go  to  waste. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


-  letters   

Solid  Coverage 

To  the  Editor: 

On  behalf  of  the  entire  company,  I 
take  this  opportunity  to  express  our  appre- 
ciation for  the  excellent  coverage  given 
us  in  Frank  McGuire's  review  of  "The 
Role  of  Solids"  in  the  July  27th  issue. 

He  handled  a  difficult  and  complex 
subject  with  remarkable  competence 
and  we  appreciate  his  earnestness,  cau- 
tion, intelligence  and  courtesy  .  .  .  He 
will  always  be  welcome  at  Grand  Central 
Rocket  Co.  .  .  . 

Cledo  Brunetti 
Vice  President  and 
General  Manager 
Grand  Central  Rocket  Co. 
Redlands,  Calif. 


Hits  the  Nail 

To  the  Editor: 

You  have  hit  the  nail  pretty  nearly 
on  the  head  in  your  recent  editorial, 
"Components  Reliability:  What's  Needed?" 

The  solution  is  by  no  means  direct 
since  the  big  men  in  the  field  are  pre- 
dominately either  speculative  scientists 
or  "weapon  system"  enthusiasts,  both 
somewhat  blinded  to  the  tedious  attention 
to  detail  which  is  required. 

R.  A.  Hawkins,  Manager 

Reliability  and  Quality  Dept. 

Avco  Research  and  Advanced 
Development  Div. 

Wilmington,  Mass. 


Pioneer  Chronology 

To  the  Editor: 

I  noted  with  interest  the  article  by 
Erica  Karr  in  your  Aug.  3  issue,  "BMD's 
Radical  Approach  to  ICBM  Pays  Off." 
Her  list  of  highlights  erred  once. 
"Deepest  probe  into  space  by  a  man- 
made  object  was  Pioneer  I's  71,300-mile 
journey  during  which  it  picked  up  data 
confirming  existence  of  the  Van  Allen 
radiation  belts  and  confirming  they  would 
not  be  insurmountable  obstacles  for  man 
in  space,  (October,  1958)." 

I  believe  your  magazine  reported  the 
flight  of  Pioneer  IV  in  March,  1959,  and 
the  fact  that  it  entered  orbit  in  the  solar 
system  far  beyond  the  range  of  previous 
U.S.  space  probes.  I  also  understand  that 
Dr.  James  Van  Allen  received  highly  use- 
ful radiation  measurements  from  Pioneers 
III  and  IV,  launched  for  NASA  by  the 
Army  Ballistic  Missile  Agency. 
Gordon  L.  Harris 
Public  Information  Officer 
Headquarters,  U.S.  Army  Ordnance 

Command 
Redstone  Arsenal,  Ala. 

The  article,  written  around  the  Air 
Force  Ballistic  Missile  Division's  fifth 
anniversary,  did  not  go  into  space  projects 
of  other  agencies.  BMD's  achievements 
were  listed  in  order  of  date  and  Pioneer 
I's  October  1958,  journey  did  set  a  record 
at  tlutt  time — Ed. 


EMPLOYMENT 

Interested  in  Systems  Engineering? 


There  are  systems 


. . .  and  systems 


and  TOTAL  systems 
in  which  the  big  bird  and  support 
equipment  may  rank  only 
as  a  component 


This  difference  between  systems  can  make 
a  big  difference  in  your  career 

If  YOU  ARE  qualified  and  interested  in  contributing  to  programs  of 
"total"  scope,  it  will  be  of  value  to  you  to  investigate  current  oppor- 
tunities with  General  Electric's  defense  systems  dept.,  whose 
work  lies  primarily  in  providing  total  solutions  to  large  scale  defense 
problems  of  the  next  5, 10  and  20  years. 

The  work  here  lies  almost  entirely  in  the  areas  of  systems  engi- 
neering and  systems  management. 

Inquire  about  these  positions: 


Guidance  Equation  Engineers 
Systems  Logistics  Engineers 
Electronic  Systems 

Management  Engineers 
Operations  Analysis  Engineers 
Systems  Program  Engineers 
Data  Processing  Engineers 


Systems  Test  Evaluation  Engineers 
Engineering  Psychologists 
Radar  Equipment  Engineers 
Weapons  Analysis  Engineers 
Weapons  Systems  Integration 

Engineers 
Engineering  Writers 


Forward  your  confidential  resume  at  an  early  date. 

Whereas  the  growth  potential  is  evident  —  both  for  DSD  and  the 
">>))))     engineers  who  join  us  —  the  positions  we  fill  during  these  early 
months  will  carry  significant  "ground- floor"  benefits. 
Write  fully  to  Mr.  E.  A.  Smith,  Room  9-G. 


Defense  Systems  Department 

i  A  Department  of  the  Defense  Electronics  Division 


GENERAL  ELECTRIC 

300  South  Geddes  Street,  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


EMPLOYMENT 


AEROSPACE 
ENGINEERS  — SCIENTISTS 

How  about 
YOUR  future? 

Here's  a  company  where  the  past  and 
the  present  PROVE  the  future  is  inter- 
esting and  worthwhile. 

*  Leadership  In  Engineering  Design 
ir  Leadership   In   Business  Airplanes 

*  leadership    in   Ground   Support  Equipment 
Diversified  Production  Contracts 

it  Winner  of  Mach  3  Alert  Pod  Design 

*  Diversity  of  Creative  Opportunities 

it  Winner  of  Mach  2  Missile-Target  Award 

*  Builder  of  Ma|or  Assemblies  for  Fighters 

*  Stability  of  Engineering  Employment 
it  Expansion  Programs  Now  In  Process 

BEECH  AIRCRAFT  has  responsible  positions 
open  now  for  specialists  in  LONG  RANGE 
programs  on  advanced  super-sonic  aircraft  and 
missile-target  projects  In  the  following  aero- 
space fields: 

Human  Factors 
Analogue  Computer 
Reliability  (Electrical) 
Stress 

Aero-Thermodynamicist  (Heat  Transfer) 
Structures  (Basic  Loads) 
Senior  Weight 
Dynamics  (Flutter) 
Systems  (Missiles) 

Electronic 
Electro-Mechanical 
Airframe  Design 

For  more  information  about  a  company  WITH 
A  LONG  RANGE  FUTURE  where  your  talents 
will  build  your  own  future — call  collect  or  write 
today  to  D.  E.  BURLEIGH.  Chief  Administra- 
tive Engineer,  or  C.  R.  JONES,  Employment 
Manager,  Beech  Aircraft  Corporation,  Wichita 
Kansas.  AM  expenses  paid  for  interview  trip. 


eecJacra: 


ft 


Wichita,  Kansas 


Boulder,  Colorado 


contracts 


MISCELLANEOUS 

$1,600,000— Talco  Engineering  Co.,  a  sub- 
sidiary of  The  Gabriel  Co.,  for  manufac- 
turing rocket  motors,  rotational  and  ver- 
tical thrusters  and  other  components. 

$100,000— The  Siegler  Corp.,  Olympic  Di- 
vision, for  development  of  five  rate  and 
reference  precision  frequency  generators 
to  be  used  as  part  of  the  Mark  II  Azusa 
missile  tracking  and  retrieving  system  for 
ICBM's.  (Sub-contract  from  Convair  Di- 
vision, General  Dynamics  Corp.) 

$60.000 — DynaMetric,  Inc.,  Pasadena.  Calif., 
for  special  purpose  camera  equipment. 
(Sub-contract  from  Eastman  Kodak  Co.) 


NAVY 

$360.000— ACF  Industries,  Inc.,  Avion  Divi- 
sion, Paramus,  N.J.,  for  production  of  ra- 
dar beacons  for  use  in  tesing  Corvus 
air-to-surface  missiles. 

$114.357 — Mincom  Division,  Minnesota  Min- 
ing &  Mfg.  Co.,  Los  Angeles,  for  seven 
track  record/reproduce  magnetic  record- 
ing system. 

$76,175 — Bendix  Computer  Division,  Bendix 
Aviation  Corp.,  Los  Angeles,  for  a  digital 
computer  with  associated  components. 

$25,680 — Raymond  Engineering  Laboratory, 
Inc.,  Middletown.  Conn.,  for  magnetic  tape 
recorder. 


ARMY 

$3,260.609 — Pacific  Construction,  Ltd.,  Hono- 
lulu, Reed  &  Martin  Co.,  Fairbanks,  Alas- 
ka and  H.  B.  Zachry,  Inc.,  San  Antonio, 
Tex.,  for  Nike-Zeus  facilities  on  Kwajalein 
Island  in  the  Pacific. 

$2.942.000 — Westinghouse  Electric  Corp., 
Washington.  D.C.,  for  rocket  and  guided 
missile   proximity  fuses. 

$1,858,211 — Beacon  Construction  Company  of 
Massachusetts,  Inc.,  Boston,  for  construc- 
tion of  Nike-Hercules  facilities  at  Offutt 
AFB. 

$1.809,209 — Beacon  Construction  Company  of 
Massachusetts,  Inc.,  Boston,  for  construc- 
tion of  Nike-Hercules  facilities  at  Lincoln, 
Neb. 

$1.676,814 — Douglas  Aircraft  Co.,  Santa  Mon- 
ica, Calif.,  for  missile  technical  services. 
(Two  contracts.) 

$590,766 — Wayne  Construction  Co.  and  Reed 
&  Martin,  Inc.,  Seattle,  for  construction  of 
Nike-Zeus  facilities  on  Johnston  Island  in 
the  Pacific. 

$539,100 — Benz  Construction  Co.,  Lubbock, 
Tex.,  for  construction  of  Nike-Zeus  facili- 
ties at  Point  Mugu,  Calif. 

$328,939— Western  Electric  Co.,  Inc.,  N.Y., 
for  Nike  spare  parts  and  components. 
(Seven  contracts.) 

$225,871— General  Electric  Co.,  TJtica,  NY., 
for  satellite  communications  study. 

$119,987— Gilfillan  Brothers,  Inc.,  Los  Ange- 
les, for  engineering  services  for  the 
Corporal  missile. 

$57,473 — Gulton  Industries,  Inc.,  Long 
Branch,  N.J.,  for  accelerometers. 

$40,000 — Douglas  Aircraft  Co.,  Santa  Monica. 
Calif.,  for  guided  missile  supplies  and 
services. 

$37,500— Aerojet  General  Corp.,  Azusa,  Calif., 
for  activation  and  operation  of  launch- 
ing equipment. 

$28,939 — Professional  Design  Co.,  Agawam, 
Mich.,  for  engineering,  design  and  draft- 
ing services  for  XM79  launcher. 

$27,550— Lansdale  Tube  Co.,  Lansdale,  Pa., 
for  transistors. 


AIR  FORCE 

International  Business  Machines,  Federal 
Systems  Division,  Oswego,  N.Y.  for  devel- 
opment of  a  lightweight  digital  computer 
for  the  achiever  all-lnertlal  guidance  for 
the  Titan  missile.  (Sub-contract  from  AC 
Spark  Plug  Division,  General  Motors). 
Amount  not  disclosed. 


Thiokol  Chemical  Corp.,  Reaction  Motors 
Division,  has  received  a  "significant"  con- 
tract for  the  advanced  development  of 
mechanical  features  in  pre-packaged  li- 
quid rocket  engines.  Amount  not  dis- 
closed. 

U.S.  Steel  Co.,  Consolidated  Western  Steel 
Division,  for  the  fabrication  of  14  Atlas 
ICBM  launchers.  (Sub-contract  from  Con- 
vair Astronautics  Division,  General  Dy- 
namics Corp.)  Amount  not  disclosed. 

The  Rucker  Co.,  Oakland,  Calif.,  for  hydrau- 
lic power  systems  for  Atlas  missile  launch- 
ing sites  at  Forbes  AFB,  Topeka,  Kan. 
Amount  not  disclosed. 

$36.655,000 — Avco  Corp.,  Research  and  Ad- 
vanced Development  Division,  Wilming- 
ton, Mass.,  for  basic  research  through 
prototype  development  of  the  re-entry 
vehicle  (nose  cone)  for  the  Minuteman 
ICBM. 

$29,209,851 — General  Electric  Co.,  Missile  and 
Space  Vehicle  Dept.,  Philadelphia,  for 
production  of  nose  cones  for  Thor  mis- 
siles. 

$5,000,000 — Martin  Co.,  Orlando,  for  con- 
tinued research  and  development  Work 
on  the  GAM-83B  air-to-surface  guided 
missile. 

$2,321.900 — Martin  Co.,  Baltimore,  for  repair 
and  modification  of  TM-S1  '76  missiles  and 
related  equipment. 

$415.926 — Telecomputing  Corp.,  Cook  Bat- 
teries Division,  Denver,  for  production  of 
specialized  batteries  to  be  used  as  electric 
power  sources  for  the  Atlas  and  Minute- 
man  missiles.  ($295,000  subcontract  from 
Convair  Division,  General  Dynamics  and 
$120,926  subcontract  from  Autonetics  Di- 
vision, North  American  Aviation,  Inc.) 

$398.452 — Martin  Co.,  Baltimore,  for  supplies 
and  services  for  maintenance  of  TM-61/76 
weapons  systems  components. 

$209,100 — Allen  B.  DuMont  Laboratories,  Inc., 
Clifton,  N.Y.,  for  various  electron  tubes. 

$207,147 — Radio  Corp.  of  America,  Harrison, 
N.J.,  for  various  electron  tubes. 

$206.630 — Sylvania    Electric    Products,  Inc., 

N.Y.,  for  various  electron  tubes.  (Three 
contracts.) 

$170.640 — General  Electric  Co.,  Owensboro, 
Ky.,  for  various  electron  tubes. 

$148.770— Sundstrand  Corp.,  Rockford,  111., 
for  transmission  assemblies,  spare  parts, 
maintenance  tools  and  test  equipment  for 
SM-62A  missiles. 

$145.651 — Martin  Co.,  Baltimore,  for  supplies 
and  services  for  maintenance  of  TM-61C 
weapon  system  components. 

$44,358 — Stanford  University,  for  continued 
study  of  fluid  dynamic  problems  in  dlf- 
fusers  and  ducts. 

$42,240— The  Dayton  Rubber  Co.,  Dayton, 
Ohio,  for  various  tube  assemblies. 

$28.470 — Flexonics  Corp.,  Maywood,  111.,  for 
various  tube  assemblies. 


BIDS 

Dayton  Air  Force  Depot,  Gentile  Air  Force 
Station,  Dayton,  Ohio.  Att:  Directorate  of 
Procurement  and  Production. — Tube  elec- 
tron type  6N7  in  a/w  MIL-E-1/633  dated 
4  Mar.  '54  S/N  5960-188-8519—27.000  ea. 
RFP  33-604-60-4066Q— Bid  opening  22 
Sept.  '59. 

U.S.  Army  Engineer  District,  Los  Angeles, 
Corps  of  Engineers,  751  S.  Figueroa  St., 
Los  Angeles  17,  Calif.  Construction  of 
radar  tower  and  utilities  at  Norad  Con- 
trol Center  (JMDC).  San  Pedro  Hill,  Los 
Angeles  County,  Calif.  .  .  .  Job  .  .  .  DPB 
ENG-04-353-60-11— Bid  opening  29  Sept.  '59. 


50 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


— when  and  where  

SEPTEMBER 

New  York  University's  College  of  En- 
gineering, Titanium  Metallurgy  Con- 
ference. For  Information:  Dr.  Harold 
Margolin,  New  York  University,  Uni- 
versity Heights,  New  York,  Sept. 
14-15. 

Society  of  Automotive  Engineering,  Dis- 
play of  USAF  Ground  Support  Equip- 
ment for  Manned  and  Unmanned 
Aerospace  Vehicles,  Milwaukee  Arena, 
Milwaukee,  Sept.  14-15. 

Institute  of  the  Aeronautical  Sciences, 
Western  Regional  Meeting  on  Fron- 
tiers on  Science  and  Engineering,  Los 
Angeles,  Sept.  16-17. 

Army  Signal  Corp.,  Conference  on  Effects 
of  Nuclear  Radiation  Semi-conductors, 
Western  Union  Auditorium,  New  York, 
Sept.  17-18. 

Standards  Engineering  Society,  8th  An- 
nual Meeting,  Investment  in  Survival, 


Somerset  Hotel,  Boston,  Sept.  21-22. 
Instrument  Society  of  America,  14th  An- 
nual Conference  and  Exhibit,  Inter- 
national Amphitheatre,  Chicago,  Sept. 
21-22. 

Industrial  Nuclear  Technology  Confer- 
ence, sponsored  by  Armour  Research 
Foundation  of  Illinois  Institute  of 
Technology,  Nucleonics  Magazine,  and 
Atomic  Energy  Commission,  Morri- 
son Hotel,  Chicago,  Sept.  22-24. 

Advisory  Group  for  Aeronautical  Re- 
search and  Developments  (AGARD) 
of  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty  Organi- 
zation, Aachen,  Germany,  Sept.  24-25. 

Institute  of  Radio  Engineers,  American 
Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers,  8th 
Annual  Industrial  Electronics  Sym- 
posium, Mellon  Institute,  Pittsburgh, 
Sept.  30-Oct.  1. 

OCTOBER 

Institute  of  the  Aeronautical  Sciences, 
Anglo-American  Aeronautical  Confer- 
ence, Hotel  Astor,  New  York,  Oct. 
5-7. 


Advertisers'  Index 


Army  Research  Office    42 

Agency — M.  Belmont  Ver  Standig,  Inc. 
Bendix  Aviation  Corp., 

Bendix  Systems  Div   53 

Scintilla  Div   29 

Agency — MacManus,  John  &  Adams,  Inc. 

Bristol  Aircraft  Limited    10,  II 

Agency — Young  &  Rubicam,  Ltd. 

Chance  Vought  Aircraft,  Inc  38,  39 

Agency — Tracy-Locke  Co.,  Inc. 

Continental  Aviation  &  Engineering  Corp., 

Sub.-Continental  Motors  Corp   34 

Agency — The  Hopkins  Agency 

Delavan  Mfg.  Co   4 

Agency — W.  D.  Lyon  Co. 

Douglas  Aircraft  Co.,  Inc.    24,  25 

Agency — J.  Walter  Thompson  Co. 

Fansteel  Metallurgical  Corp   31 

Agency — Symonds,   MacKeniie  &  Co. 

General  Electric  Co   3 

Agency — B.  K.  Davis  &  Bro. 
Leach  Corp.,  Relay  Div.  &  Inet  Div.  2 

Agency — Hixson   &   Jorgensen,  Inc. 
Lockheed  Aircraft  Corp., 

Missile  System  Div   46 

Agency — Hal  Stebbins,  Inc. 
Magnavox  Co.,  The,  Government  & 

Industrial  Div   30 

Agency — Rothbardt  &  Haas  Adv.,  Inc. 


Marquardt  Aircraft  Co  26,  27 

Agency — Grant  Adv.,  Inc. 

Mitchell  Camera  Corp   8 

Agency— Boulhart,   Lovett  &  Dean,  Inc. 

North  American  Aviation,  Inc., 

Autonetics  Div   6 

Missile  Development  Div   45 

Rocketdyne  Div  40,  48 

Agency — Batten,  Barton,   Durstine  & 
Osborn,  Inc. 

Nutt-Shel  Co   54 

Agency — Welsh-Hollander  Adv. 

Radio  Corp.  of  America    12 

Agency — Al  Paul  Lefton  Co.,  Inc. 

Ryan  Aeronautical  Co   19 

Agency — Batten,   Barton,   Durstine  & 
Osborn,  Inc. 

System  Development  Corp   43 

Agency — Stromberger,  LaVene,  McKenzie  Adv. 

Thioltol  Chemical  Corp  20,  21 

Agency — Brown  &  Butcher,  Inc. 

Westvaco  Chlor-Allcali  Div.,  Food 

Machinery  &  Chemical  Corp   22 

Agency — James  J.  McMahon,  Inc. 

EMPLOYMENT  SECTION 

Beech  Aircraft  Corp   50 

General  Electric  Co   49,  51 

Agency—  Deutsch  &  Shea,  Inc. 
University  of  Detroit    51 


Employment 


SCIENTISTS  AND  ENGINEERS 

Are  you  interested  in: 

•  Stimulating  young  minds? 

•  Developing  new  courses  and  curricula? 

•  Initiating   and   conducting   original  research? 

Major  openings  exist  in  the  fields  of  Aerodynamics,  Electronics,  Thermo- 
dynamics, Advanced  Structures  and  Applied  Mechanics  ...  for  men  who 
will  be  effective  stimulating  teachers  of  graduate  and  undergraduate  students, 
and  who  would  like  to  take  an  active  part  in  the  development  of  graduate 
courses  and  curricula.  MS.  degree  required,  Ph.D.  preferred. 

WRITE  with  particulars  Dean  J.  J.  Uicker, 
UNIVERSITY  OF   DETROIT,   Detroit  21,  Mich. 


EMPLOYMENT 

ENGINEERING 
SPECIALISTS 

IN  INERTIAL  SUB-SYSTEMS 
AND  DEVICES 

IS  THE  CLIMATE 
IN  WHICH  YOU  WORK 
IMPORTANT  TO  YOU? 
We  would  like  you  to  meet 
some  of  our  R&D  people  and 
assess  for  yourself  the  atmos- 
phere of  free  inquiry  created 
here  by  engineer-management. 
You'll  find  that  our  "Climate" 
is  exceptionally  designed  to 
promote  the  full  exercise  of 
your  professional  initiative  and 
inventive  capacities. 
We  know  that  our  assignments 
are  of  a  character  to  stimulate 
the  intellectual  and  creative 
enthusiasm  of  the  engineer  who 
has  participated  in  the  develop- 
ment of  inertial  navigation — to 
the  extent  that  his  colleagues 
consider  him  an  inertial  spe- 
cialist. 

YOUR  ASSIGNMENT? 

To  plan  and  create  new  and 
unique  inertial  sub-systems  and 
to  implement  the  MIT  co-or- 
dinated product  design  of  the 
Polaris  inertial  guidance  sys- 
tems. (Ordnance  Department 
has  contractual  responsibility 
for  providing  industrial  sup- 
port to  MIT  in  the  Polaris  in- 
ertial guidance  system,  and  is 
responsible  for  developing  the 
fire  control  system  for  this  ad- 
vanced missile.) 
ALSO,  a  few  positions  for  less 
experienced  engineers  with 
some  background  in  inertial 
component  design,  to  assist  in 
development  work  conducted 
both  at  MIT  and  GE  labora- 
tones. 

Located  in  the  heart  of  the 
beautiful  Berkshire  Hills,  Pitts- 
field  offers  unique  cultural  and 
recreational  advantages  to  the 
professional  man  and  his  fam- 
ily. 

If  you  are  ready  for  this  kind 
of  move — not  just  vaguely  dis- 
content with  what  you're  do- 
ing now — send  a  brief  resume 
to  R.  G.  O'Brien,  Manager — 
Professional  Relations.  Dept. 
73-WK. 

ORDNANCE  DEPARTMENT 

of  the  Defense  Electronics  Division 

GENERAL  0  ELECTRIC 

100  Plastics  Avenue 
Pittsfield,  Massachusetts 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


51 


editorial 


The  Warm  Side  of  the  Cold  War 


The  visit  to  this  country  of  Nikita  Khrushchev 
is  significant  in  several  ways.  Historically,  he  is  the 
first  Russian  chief  of  government  to  set  foot  on 
American  soil.  Historically,  also,  he  arrives  near  the 
second  anniversary  of  his  nation's  greatest  tech- 
nological triumph — the  orbiting  of  Sputnik  I. 
Politically,  he  is  linked  to  the  Administration's  hopes 
of  cutting  down  the  military  budget.  Morally,  he 
holds  the  hope  of  the  West  for  a  lessening  of  ten- 
sions, for  disarmament,  for  global  sanity. 

It  is  very  difficult  to  believe  that  the  Soviet 
Premier  will  really  change  any  of  his  communistic 
spots  during  his  visit  here,  or  immediately  there- 
after. However,  we  do  believe  it  is  far  better  for 
East-West  protagonists  to  meet  personally  on  almost 
any  terms  than  to  stand  glowering  at  each  other 
across  the  oceans  and  continents.  And  there  is  al- 
ways the  hope  that  the  visit  will  enlarge  the 
Premier's  outlook. 

With  this  in  mind  we  would  like  to  call  his  at- 
tention to  the  lead  story  in  this  issue  of  this  maga- 
zine— a  story  dealing  with  the  peaceful  uses  which 
American  industry  has  found  for  products  and  tech- 
niques developed  during  the  Cold  War  of  the  past 
decade. 

Khrushchev's  contempt  for  capitalism  is  well  and 
widely  known.  Alluding  to  America  on  Oct.  10, 
1957,  he  said:  "There  are  still  reactionary  militarist 
forces  in  the  world  which  are  preparing  for  war  and 
which  do  not  want  disarmament,  fearing  to  lose 
their  profits.  The  capitalists  are  worried  about  their 
profits." 

It  would  be  strange  indeed  if  capitalists  were 
not  concerned  to  some  extent  about  their  profits, 
profits  being  one  of  the  prime  bases  of  capitalism. 
But  it  might  surprise  the  Soviet  Premier  to  learn 
the  trend  this  concern  takes. 

As  detailed  in  this  week's  story,  an  M/R  survey 
revealed  that  during  the  past  decade  military,  mis- 
sile and  space  research  has  produced  countless  new 
products,  new  industrial  techniques  and  even  entire 
new  industries  for  peaceful,  civilian  usage.  While 
working  to  produce  better  defense  vehicles  and 
spacecraft,  American  industry  has  never  lost  sight 
of  the  fact  that  it  is  inherent  in  its  very  nature  to 
be  always  searching  for  ways  to  improve  the  every- 
day living  of  the  American  people.  Missile  optics 
produce  better  eyeglasses;  the  material  created  for 


a  radome  also  makes  more  durable  kitchenware; 
the  search  for  a  new  fuel  produces  a  new  medicine 
and  thus  on. 

No  democratic  society  has  ever  looked  favorably 
on  military  expenditures.  The  attitude  has  always 
been,  understandably,  that  military  spending  is  al- 
most literally  waste,  that  a  dollar  for  defense  could 
be  spent  for  some  worthwhile  purpose  if  defense 
weren't  necessary. 

Within  our  military  budget,  which  accounts  for 
from  10  to  15%  of  our  gross  national  income,  many 
items  have  been  produced  which  have  great  eco- 
nomic (as  well  as  military)  value.  They  have  les- 
sened man's  labors,  improved  his  health  and  well- 
being,  lengthened  his  life  span.  This  is  not  and 
never  will  be  an  argument  for  increasing  military 
budgets,  of  course;  but  it  does  demonstrate  that 
these  military  expenditures  have  brought  civilian 
benefits  which  otherwise  might  not  have  resulted — 
or  at  least  would  have  been  years  longer  in  arriving. 

The  point  which  we  hope  will  not  be  permitted 
to  escape  the  attention  of  Premier  Khrushchev  is 
this: 

Not  only  can  this  country  devote  its 
economy  to  building  one  of  the  greatest  de- 
fense machines  in  the  world,  aid  its  western 
allies  both  militarily  and  economically,  create 
and  carry  out  a  potentially  great  space  pro- 
gram— it  can  do  this  and  at  the  same  time 
give  its  citizens  the  highest  living  standard 
ever  known. 

Not  only  has  this  country  accepted  the 
challenge  of  the  Cold  War  which  the  Rus- 
sians have  forced  upon  us,  but  in  effect  we 
are  making  it  pay  for  itself  through  our  vast 
production  system  and  consumer  capacity. 
We  think  this  is  a  tribute  to  the  American  sys- 
tem and  to  American  industry.  We  doubt  that  the 
same  thing  is  even  remotely  true  in  Mr.  Khru- 
shchev's country;  his  own  technical  leadership  isn't 
geared  to  think  of  civilian  well-being,  either  indus- 
trially or  spiritually. 

If  this  one  fact  can  be  brought  home  to  the 
Soviet  Premier  it  may  both  enlighten  and  discour- 
age him  somewhat — enlighten  him  to  the  fact  that 
though  we  don't  try  to  force  our  way  of  life  on 
the  world,  we  like  it;  and  discourage  his  hopes  of 
changing  that  fact. 

CLARKE  NEWLON 


52 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  14,  1959 


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10  12  14  16 
VELOCITY,  V,  FPS  *  101 


20        22        24  26 


COMMUNICATION 

. . .  through  a  plasma  sheath 


When  man  goes  into  the  outer  atmosphere,  communica- 
tion with  ground  installations  will  be  a  major  problem. 
The  shock  wave  preceding  a  hypervelocity  vehicle  flying 
at  altitudes  between  70,000  and  350,000  feet  will  cause  the 
oncoming  air  to  be  heated  to  extremely  high  temperatures. 
Result:  a  sheath  of  ionized  particles  around  the  vehicle. 

Communication  through  this  plasma  cannot  be  achieved 
with  conventional  equipment.  That's  why  Bendix 
Systems  Division  is  engineering  a  communications  system 
in  frequency  bands  specifically  designed  to  penetrate  the 
hypersonic  shock  layer.  The  solutions  of  these  problems  are 
common  to  hypersonic  flight  and  ballistic  missile  re-entry. 


The  Bendix  Systems  Division,  using  the  nearby 
University  of  Michigan's  Ford  Nuclear  Reactor,  is  also 
developing  radiation-resistant  communication  equipment 
to  provide  extreme  reliability  over  long  operating  periods. 
These  techniques  are  applicable  to  both  nuclear-powered 
vehicles  and  space  programs. 

Bendix  communications  experience  is  also  being  applied 
to  other  programs  for  which  the  Systems  Division  has 
management  and  engineering  responsibility— the  Navy's 
EAGLE  System  and  the  Air  Force's  AN/AMQ-15 
Weather  Reconnaissance  System,  for  example. 

Better  engineers  and  scientists  are  invited  to  write  for 
further  information  on  Bendix  Systems  Division. 


Bendix  Systems  Division 


ANN  ARBOR,  MICHIGAN 


On  flight  lines  and  at  missile  launching  sites... in  production  plants  and  depot 
maintenance  centers. .  .wherever  speed  and  precision  are  vital,  SMI  test  equipment 
capability  meets  the  need  with  new  levels  of  utility,  repeatability. . .  resolution . . .  accuracy 

The  SMI  line  of  test  equipment  ranges  from  small,  portable  units  that  test  single 
functions  to  console  models  that  test  complex  airborne  and  missile  electro-mechanical 
and  electronic  systems.  Included  in  the  line  are  pressure  generation  devices 
capable  of  generating  static,  differential  and  total  pressures  to  simulate 
conditions  from  1000  feet  below  sea  level  to  80,000  feet  at  speeds  to  Mach  5. 

For  example,  SMI's  TS  539  Air  Data  Computer  Test  Set  is  used  for  checking 
out  elements  of  the  Hughes  Aircraft  Company  MA-1  aircraft  and  weapon 
control  system.  The  TS  539  provides  both  electrical  and  pneumatic  signals  to 
the  computer  under  test,  achieving  extremely  high  accuracy  by  means  of 
electronically  controlled  force  balance  sensors.  Mach  readings  are  accurate 
to  .7  millimachs  and  altitude  readings  within  15  feet  at  a  speed  of 
1.4  Mach  and  an  altitude  of  30,000  feet. 

Write  today  for  further  information  on  the  TS  539  Air  Data  Computer 
Test  Set  and  for  details  on  SMI  capability  in  test  equipment 

Engineers:  Investigate  the  opportunities  available  now  at  SMI  In  the 
fields  of  aircraft  and  missile  instrument-control  systems  development. 


1 

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O  O  " 
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•    •  • 

p.  .-.I 


SER 


AljsllSMS 

NC.  ^/ 


LOS  ANGELES  OPERATIONS:  12500  Aviation  Boulevard,  Hawthorne,  Californ\ 
MECHATROL  DIVISION:  Westbury,  L.I.,  New  York 
RESEARCH  AND  DEVELOPMENT  CENTER:  Goleta,  California 


The  products  of  SMI  are  available  in  Canada  and  throughout  the  world  through  Se-'v  'mechanisms  (Canada)  Limited,  Toronto  15,  Onta 


Ijt^r.^  ■■■  To 


YOU. 

strict  tomoncow 

y:. 

/      \  \_ 

Are  you  doing  your  share 
to  educate  your  favorite 
future  adults  about  the 
Missile  industry? 

...about  the  world  he  lives  in? 
...science  and  literature? 
...  history,  sports  and  pleasure? 

You  can  now,  by  filling  in  the  coupon  below. 
Upon  your  immediate  action  your  favorite  future 
adult  between  10  and  15  will  receive  YOUNG 
AMERICANS— the  only  magazine  edited  for  boys 
and  girls  in  their  vitally  important  formative 
years. 

No  other  magazine  offers  the  leaders  of  tomor- 
row such  high  quality  editorial:  timely,  exciting 
and  informative  Fact,  Fiction  and  Classic  Litera- 
ture so  important  to  educational  and  cultural 
growth. 

YOUNG  AMERICANS  .  .  .  now  entering  our  third  year  of  publication. 


YOUNG  AMERICANS  approved  by 
leading  educators  and  Children  and 
Youth  authorities.  YOUNG  AMERI- 
CANS is  available  only  by  mail  sub- 
scription. It  is  not  sold  on  newsstands. 


f 


YOUNG  AMERICANS,  Strong  Publications,  Inc.  " 
Post  Office  Box  1399,  Grand  Central  Station,  New  York  17,  N.  Y. 

Please  enter  my  subscription  to  YOUNG  AMERICANS. 
1  year-$4.00  □    2  years-$7.00  □    3  years-$10.00  Q  {check  offer  you  wish.) 
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Please  enclose  check  or  money  order.  Stamps  not  acceptable. 


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missiles  and  rockets.  September  21,  1959       iirtl«  no.  8  on  subscriber  service  Cord. 


3 


Jack  Lower,  Chief  of  Gyro  Design 
Honeywell  Aeronautical  Division 


I  need  creative  engineers  for 
advanced  gyro  and 
electrical  components  design  41  ^ 

"Way  back  in  1949,  my  team  at  Honeywell  developed  and  flight  tested 
the  floated  gyro  for  control  systems.  Since  then  we  have  become  the 
focal  point  for  a  multi-million  dollar  component  development  program, 
supporting  the  inertial  navigation  industry.  This  is,  perhaps,  the  most 
advanced  program  of  its  kind.  It  has  expanded  rapidly  and  is  now  in 
need  of  additional  top  level  engineers. 

"The  men  I  need  to  work  with  me  are  creative  men— able  to 
develop  advanced  concepts  for  gyros  and  to  follow  through  on  their 
projects.  The  work  includes  all  areas  of  gyro  design.  It  involves  pre- 
cision gyro  and  accelerometer  design,  hydro-dynamic  bearings,  vibratory 
mechanisms,  precision  electric  suspension  techniques,  gyro  magnetics, 
and  ferro-electric  motors. 

"The  people  I  want  have  a  minimum  of  two  years'  (and  up  to 
twenty  years')  experience  in  such  areas  as  precision  gyro  mechanics, 
servo  techniques,  digital  data  handling,  electronics  packaging,  advanced 
instrumentation,  or  magnetic  component  design. 

"If  you  are  such  a  person,  I'd  like  to  hear  from  you.  Just  drop 
a  line  to  my  technical  director,  Mr.  Bruce  D.  "Wood,  including  perti- 
nent information  on  your  background,  interests,  and  accomplishments. 
He'll  arrange  a  meeting— to  answer  your  questions— to  discuss  your 
plans  and  the  possibility  of  a  career  with  Honeywell." 
Write:  Bruce  D.  Wood,  Technical  Director,  Dept.  850B. 


w     m  i  n   n   eapolis    ~m  ~a   ' 

Honeywell  h 

—  .   ,  HONEYWELL 


AERONAUTICAL  DIVISION 

1433  Stinson  Blvd.,  N.  E.,  Minneapolis  13,  Minn. 

Fine  opportunities  also  exist  in  other  Honeywell  development  and  manufacturing 
facilities  in  Boston,  Philadelphia,  Los  Angeles,  Minneapolis,  Seattle,  St.  Peters- 
burg, Chicago  and  Freeport,  Illinois  and  Denver.  Send  resume  to  H.  T.  Eckstrom, 
Dept.  850b,  Director  of  Employment,  Minneapolis  Honeywell,  Minneapolis  8. 

Circle  No.  54  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


Executive  Editor   Clarke  Newloi 

Managing  Editor  ....Donald  E.  Perr 


NEWS  STAFF 

News  Editor   Reed  Bund 

Defense  and  Legislative   James  Baj 

Betty  Ostsvai 

West  Coast   Richard  van  Oste 

Editorial  Assistants   David  Newma 

Gwen  Cam  mac 
Heather  MacKinno 

ASTRIONICS 

Guidance  and  Control   Charles  D.  LaI^ 

Support  Equipment   Hal  Getttnc 

ASTRONAUTICS  ENGINEERING 

Chemistry  &  Propulsion   Jay  Holm 

John  F.  Jvm 

Astrodynamics   Paul  Meai 

MISSILE  SUPPORT 

Installations  and  Equipment 

East  Coast   William  E.  Howa 

West  Coast   Frank  McGui 

BUREAUS 

Los  Angeles   William  J.  Cotjghli 

Paris   Jean-Marie  Rici 

Geneva   Anthony  Vandy 

CONTRIBUTORS 

British  Astronautics   G.  V.  E.  Thompso 

Propulsion   Michael  Loren2 

Industry     James  J.  Haggerty,  J 

Soviet  Affairs   Dr.  Albert  Pari 

Space  Medicine   Dr.  Hubertus  Strugho 

Astrophysics   Dr.  I.  M.  Levi 

Research.   Hey  ward  Canney.  J 

ADVISORY  BOARD 

Dr.  Werner  von  Braun       Robert  P.  Havillai* 
Dr.  Peter  Castruccio     Dr.  Arthur  Kantrov 
Conrad  H.  Hoeppneh  Dr.  Eugen  Saeng 

R.  F.  Gompertz  Alexander  Sati 

PRODUCTION    AND  ART 

Art  Director   .". . .  .77. .  .William  Marti 

Assistant  Art  Director   Bacil  Guile 

Production  Manager   J.  F.  Wali 

Ass't  Production  Manager   Elsie  Gra 

BUSINESS  STAFF 

Publisher   E.  D.  Muhlf 

Advertising  Sales  Manager  W.  E.  Brow 

Eastern  Advtg.  Manager   P.  B.  Kinni 

Circulation  Manager   Eugene  WHr 

Promotion  Manager   J.  E.  Mulrc 

Advtg.  Service  Manager  ..Mrs.  Gladys 

ADVERTISING  OFFICES 

New  York  ..  (20  East  46th  St.)  P.  N.  Anderso 

A.  B.  SCHEFFL 

Detroit  ...  (201  Stephenson  Bldg.)  K.  J.  Weli 

Chicago    (139  N.  Clark  St.)  G.  E.  Yona 

Los  Angeles  ..(8929  Wllshlre  Blvd.)  J.  W.  Olaj 
C.  R.  Martz,  J 

Miami    (208  Almerla  Avenue)  R.  D.  Hag 

Toronto  (12  Richmond  St.  E.)  Allin  Assoctat 

London   (28  Bruton  St.)  Norall  &  . 

Paris   11  Rue  Condorc 

Geneva   10  Rue  Greni 

Missiles  and  Rockets  Volume  5  Number  39 

Published  each  Monday  by  American  Avlatlc 
Publications,  Inc..  1001  Vermont  Ave..  N.W 
Washington  5,  DC.  Wayne  W.  Parrish,  Pres 
dent;  Leonard  A.  Eiserer.  Executive  Vice  Pres 
dent  &  General  Manager;  Fred  Hunter,  VU 
President  &  Editorial  Director;  A.  H.  Stackpol 
Eric  Bramley,  Robert  R.  Parrish,  Vice  President 

Printed  at  the  Telegraph  Press,  Harrlsburg.  P 
Second  class  postage  paid  at  Washington,  D.C 
and  at  additional  mailing  offices.  Copyrigl 
1959.  American  Aviation  Publications,  Inc. 


Subscription  rates:  U.S.,  Canada  and  Postal 
Union  Nations— 1  year.  $5.00;  2  years,  $8.00; 
3  years,  $10.00.  Foreign— 1  year,  $10.00;  2 
years,  $18.00;  3  years,  $26.00.  Single  copy 
rate — $.50.  Subscriptions  are  solicited  only 
from  persons  with  Identifiable  commercial 
or  professional  interests  in  missiles  and 
rockets.  Subscription  orders  and  changes  of 
address  should  be  referred  to  Circulation 
Fulfillment  Mgr.,  M  R.  1001  Vermont  Ave., 
Washington  5,  D.C.  Please  allow  4  weeks 
for  change  to  become  effective  and  enclose 
recent  address  label  if  possible. 


co  in' 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


i 

i     missiles  and  rockets . 

MAGAZINE  OF  WORLD  ASTRONAUTICS 

^  SEPTEMBER  21  HEADLINES 

^SS^"^*     ''^tf^fll  Soviet  Moon  Hit  Demonstrates  Guidance  Prowess 

Achievement  on  eve  of  Khrushchev's  visit,  predicted  in  Aug.  17 
M/R,  indicates  high  degree  of  accuracy  in  delivering  ICBM's  .  .  1 08 

COVER:  seaborne  support  for  k 

Ta'os  is  shown  in  previously  un-  k  ANNUAL  MISSILE  SUPPORT  ISSUE 

published  picture  by  GE  artist.  r 

For  story  on  the  Navy's  triple-  Support  Market  May  Total  $40  Billion  by  1967 

threat  missile    see  p    "?4    For  Hardened  ICBM  bases  and  Polaris  submarines  are  setting  the  pace 

story  on  GE's 'la/or  hoist,  p.  26.  for  expansion.  A  complete  forecast  for  1960-61    21 

Triple-Threat  Ta/os  for  Anti-air,  Bombardment,  AICBM 

The  new  Talos  will  be  able  to  hit  planes  100  miles  away;  Super 

'Articulation'  Solves  Talos  Handling  Problems 

High-speed  movement  from  magazine  to  launching  deck  is  engi- 
.^M^H^S&jS^L_  neered  by  an  articulated  rack  driving  huge  hoist.  By  R.  A.  Burt, 

^gP^-M      H' *1Hh  Big  Rockets  Multiply  Engine  Support  Needs 

"  ;  B|;  H|r  m    «,.""*     -  Trend  is  toward  reducing  engine  sophistication;  but  man-in-space, 

READY  for  installation  at  Atlas  Pre-cooling  Cryogenics  to  Eliminate  Countdown? 

ICBM  bases  are  plastic-wrapped  of  cryogenics  support  includes  suggestion  for  retractable 

1600  KW  transformers,   sym-  C0{*n*  'acket  to  Prevent  boil-°ff-  ^  James        Snydcr'  ^r  or 

■   -i »  ■  .    ..  Products,  Inc   35 

bohzing  massive  missile  support 

needs.  A  summary  of  the  huge  Space  Support  Market  on  the  Rise    38 

market  starts  on  p.  21.  Who  Should  Design  and  Build  Test  Stands  &  Gantrys?  40 

Minuteman  Handling  Must  Be  Delicate   45 

ICBM  Facilities  Will  Cost  $550  Million  in  FY  '60 

,  ■  -   An  account  of  requirements  in  the  top  U.S.  design  and  construc- 

Jl^jyTj  1  tion  program.  By  Lt.  Col.  Charles  B.  Alexander,  Jr.,  AFBMD, 

_._   and  Fred  E.  Ressegieu,  Bechtel  Corp  :   46 

m     jBBUi      —  —  —  „  ,  „  ,.„_  _ 

BttjjSfMlfe-^^^  Packaging  Influences  MSE  Concepts 

"Packs,"  are  boosting  reliability  and  cutting  costs.  By  Edsel  F. 
K5^fcf|5wH,",-'t|" "  ~  «  ffj  Moffitt,  Goodyear  Aircraft  Corp   49 

Automatic  Test  Equipment  Solves  Logistic  Nightmare 
COMPLETELY  solid-state  and  Potential  market  is  nearly  one-half  billion  dollars.  By  George  A. 

modularly  constructed  is  Strom-  Peck,  vice  president,  Stromberg-Carlson    53 

berg-Carlson's  SCATE,  a  typi-  SAGE  Guides  Interceptor  Missiles 

cal  advanced  automatic  check-  An  exclusive  account  of  a  computer's  role  in  meeting  air  attack. 

out  system.  A  survey  of  this  By  Lawrence  R.  Jeffery,  MITRE  Corp   56 

rapidly  growing  market  starts  BMEWS— A  Billion-dollar  Investment  wifh  A  Single  Goal 

on  p.  53.  America's  electronics  giants  work  to  give  15-minute  warning  of 

ICBM  attack   67 

B     -•^Yt^ffKirMBi  ^  NEW  MISSILE  PRODUCTS 

J$P^         ^^Siife  Mobile  Missile  Cleaner  Available    91 

\  THE  MISSILE  WEEK 

Washington  Countdown    13 

Industry   Countdown    15 

More  About  the  Missile  Week    107 

M  SfflML.  W  DEPARTMENTS 

BMEWS  prototype  installation  f 

recently  completed  near  New  Reviews    82         West  Coast  Industry    110 

Jersey  Turnpike.  Two  BMEWS  Letters    87         Contracts    113 

sites  have  been  established  in  People    89         Moscow  Briefs    115 

Alaska  and  Greenland.  Turn  to  Propulsion  Engineering  ...  104         When  and  Where    119 

the  report  beginning  on  p.  67.  Editorial    122 

/ 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  195/?  5 


For  either  extreme  or  normal  conditions 
of  pressure  and  temperature. . . 


.  .  .  engineers  specify  Dollinger  Stay- 
new  filters.  They  recognize  that  a  38- 
year-old  filter  manufacturer,  now 
supplying  the  precise  needs  of  the 
missile  industry,  will  meet  the  most 
exacting  filtration  requirements. 

For  dependability,  Dollinger  filters 
are  selected  for  many  applications 
.  .  .  from  missile  manufacturing  to 
missile  launching. 

If  your  need  is  cryogenic  filters, 
pneumatic  instrument  filters,  vacu- 
um filters,  or  engine  air  cleaners,  con- 
sult the  Dollinger  Corporation.  Write 
for  our  composite  catalog,  107  Centre 
Park,  Rochester  3,  New  York. 


>TAYA/£l 


DOLLINGER 


CORPORATION 


Circle  No.  25  on  Subscriber  Service  lard. 


lissiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


all  you  need 


to  store  NITROGEN  TETROXIDE 


is  a  rocket 


This  liquid-fuel  oxidizer  needs  no  refrigeration,  causes  no  freeze-ups 


BASIC 
TO  AMERICA'S 
PROGRESS 


NITROGEN  DIVISION 

Dept.G2J0  40  Rector  Street,  New  York  6,  N.Y. 


As  an  oxidizer  for  liquid  fuels, 
Nitrogen  Tetroxide  has  even  more 
to  recommend  it  than  its  high  per- 
formance (99%  of  theoretical  lsP, 
hypergolic  at  low  altitude).  The 
ease  with  which  it  can  be  stored 
and  handled  offers  another  major 
advantage. 

N204  requires  no  refrigeration, 
no  high-pressure  vessels.  It  is  non- 
corrosive,  can  be  stored  indefi- 
nitely in  plain  carbon  steel  tanks 
at  the  launching  site  or  right  in  the 
rocket  itself.  And  it's  ready  when 
it's  needed— there  are  no  freeze- 
ups  in  valves  and  motors  with  N,04. 

Availability:  excellent.  Allied  is 
a  major  producer  of  Nitrogen  Tet- 
roxide, can  ship  immediately  in 
cylinders  or  tank  car  lots.  Allied 
also  produces  ammonia,  ethylene 
oxide  and  methanol  for  the  rocket 
industry.  Write  for  technical  or 
other  information  you  desire  on 
any  of  these  products. 

For  specifications  and  local  offices,  see  our 
insert  in  Chemical  Materials  Catalog,  pages 
435-442  and  in  Chemical  Week  Buyers 
Guide,  pages  35-42. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Circle  No.  56  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


About  the  earthly  side  of  the  Nike  Ajax. 

The  U.  S.  Army's  Nike  Ajax  is  a  strange  but  potent  bird.  Graceful,  tough, 
packed  with  delicate  instruments.  He  will  fly  only  once  in  his  lifetime- 
only  in  the  event  of  an  enemy  attack.  To  launch  him  with  split-second 
timing  and  accuracy,  the  Army  puts  most  of  its  manpower  and  most  of  its 
materials  into  ground  equipment.  And  virtually  all  the  material  required 
other  than  electronic  equipment  can  be  purchased  from  one  firm— United 
States  Steel.  Whether  you're  talking  about  carbon  steel,  high-strength 
low-alloy,  or  ultra  high-strength  alloy  steels,  Stainless  Steel,  steel  fence, 


The  Nike  Ajax  spends  his  days  in  a  concrete  and  steel  nest  like  this  one. 
ICBM's  will  also  live  this  way,  but  in  nests  that  will  take  thousands  of 
tons  ot  concrete  and  steel.  U.S.  Steel  specialists  work  continually  with 
designers  and  construction  engineers  to  find  ways  to  use  steel  to  its  full 
advantage  on  such  projects  to  build  stronger  with  less  materials  . .  .to 
build  them  faster. 


It  takes  miles  of  wire  and  cable  to  rig  a  Nike  nest.  It  will  take 
hundreds  of  miles  when  bigger  birds  are  put  to  roost.  The  Army  uses 
many  types  of  steel  and  steel  products  in  a  Nike  nest.  U.S.  Steel  con- 
ducts research  and  knows  how  to  cut  costs  for  any  steel  product  used 
in  ground  support  equipment. 


/ 


I 

electrical  cable,  cement  or  wire 
rope,  United  States  Steel  maintains 
the  technical  services  to  provide  the 
proper  assistance  to  cope  with  any 
problem  on  materials  for  ground 
equipment.  When  a  ground  sup- 
port program  goes  to  the  drawing 
board,  consult  with 


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missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Washington  Countdown 


IN  THE  PENTAGON 

The  first  experimental  Samos  .  .  . 

the  ARPA-Air  Force  reconnaissance  satellite, 
is  expected  to  be  launched  about  next  March. 
The  R&D  satellite  will  be  placed  in  a  polar 
orbit — enabling  its  camera  at  one  time  or  an- 
other to  see  all  points  on  the  earth. 

•  •  • 

The  first  operational  Transit  .  .  . 

the  ARPA-Navy  navigational  satellite,  is  ex- 
pected to  be  in  orbit  no  later  than  early  1962. 
However,  a  virtually  operational  Transit  satel- 
lite may  be  in  orbit  by  the  end  of  next  year. 

•  •  • 

Doubling  the  warhead  .  .  . 

of   the   Boeing   Minuteman   and  Lockheed 

Polaris  appears  possible  if  ARPA's  project 
to  boost  the  performance  of  solid  propellants 
about  20%  is  successful.  Both  missiles  pack 
about  a  one-megaton  warhead.  Some  scientists 
think  ultrafine  aluminum  powder  may  be  a 
good  bet. 

•  •  • 

A  catchy  name  .  .  . 

is  being  sought  by  the  Air  Force  for  its  air- 
launched  ballistic  missile.  The  Douglas  missile 
is  known  popularly  by  the  initials  ALBM. 
But  the  Air  Force  apparently  wants  something 
snappier. 

•  •  • 

An  Hawaiian  base  .  .  . 

on  the  big  island  of  Hawaii  for  launching  and 
tracking  polar-orbit  satellites  is  reported  to  be 
under  consideration.  The  Ralph  M.  Parsons 
Co.  has  submitted  a  proposal  for  the  base 
with  a  $38.8-million  price  tag. 

•  •  • 

Testing  of  Bullpup  .  .  . 

for  compatibility  with  Air  Force  jets  is  being 
conducted.  However,  the  Air  Force  is  ex- 
pected soon  to  begin  ordering  the  Navy-air- 
to-ground  missile  with  few  changes  for  opera- 
tional deployment. 

•  •  • 

Manned  Moon  flights  .  .  . 

from  the  United  States  probably  will  be  made 
from  orbiting  space  platforms  rather  than 
Earth  unless  current  Pentagon  planning  is 
changed.  The  whole  question  is  before  ARPA 
scientists  for  study  and  early  decision  under 
Project  Suzano. 


ON  CAPITOL  HILL 

Congressmen  aren't  forgetting  .  .  . 

the  tremendous  success  of  Lunik  II.  Only  the 
pell-mell  rush  to  get  out  of  town  before  Soviet 
Premier  Khrushchev  arrived  staved  off  a  con- 
gressional investigation  of  why  Russia  beat 
the  United  States  in  planting  a  flag  on  the 
moon.  An  investigation  is  almost  certain  to 
be  held  later  this  fall  or  next  January  at  the 
latest. 

•  •  • 

L'affaire  Power  .  .  . 

is  bubbling  along.  The  Pentagon  has  told  the 
House  Information  Subcommittee  that  it 
banned  SAC  Commander  Power's  book  about 
U.S.  missile  and  bomber  forces  because  it  was 
against  Defense  Department  policy  for  him  to 
write  it — not  because  of  what  he  wrote.  The 
Subcommittee's  next  question:  Since  when? 

AT  NASA 
A  big  cut  .  .  . 

has  been  decided  on  in  the  worldwide  tracking 
network  planned  for  Project  Mercury.  The 
reason:  Lack  of  money.  Originally  NASA 
planned  to  build  14  bases  costing  a  total  of 
more  than  $15  million. 

•  •  • 

Fifty-million  miles  .  .  . 

is  the  distance  NASA  scientists  hope  signals 
from  Thor  Able  Ill's  solar  cells  will  carry. 
NASA  plans  to  launch  the  Able  III  satellite 
into  orbit  around  the  sun  late  this  fall.  If  ac- 
curate enough  data  is  received  about  its  orbit, 
scientists  will  be  able  to  track  it  every  time 
its  orbit  brings  it  between  the  earth  and  the 
sun. 

AROUND  TOWN 

One  of  the  big  fights  .  .  . 

of  the  British  elections  will  be  over  U.S.  Thors 
in  Britain.  The  Laborites  will  charge  the 
Douglas  liquid  IRBM's  don't  have  the  needed 
fast  reaction  time — under  15  minutes. 

•  •  • 

Some  of  the  reports  .  .  . 

being  passed  as  "the  latest"  in  the  nation's 
capital: 

.  .  .  Russia  may  try  during  Premier  Krush- 
chev's visit  to  top  Lunik  II  with  an  up-and- 
down  flight  by  a  manned  missile. 

.  .  .  Pressure  for  East-West  space  projects- 
is  expected  to  grow. 

.  .  .  The  first  French  A-bomb  test  is  im- 
minent and  nuclear-tipped  missiles  will  follow- 
swiftly. 


13 


GSE 


by  AEROJET 


Success  in  the  air  depends  on  support 
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14 


^issHes  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959  j 


Industry  Countdown 


MANUFACTURING 

'Plug-in'  payloads  .  .  . 

standardized  at  270  pounds  and  the  same  con- 
figuration will  be  inaugurated  soon  by  ARPA 
in  many  U.S.  space  vehicle  programs.  Modi- 
fications of  the  workhorse  Thor-Able  three- 
stage  missile  will  be  used  for  the  first  pack- 
aged systems.  The  method  is  aimed  at  saving 
time  and  money  and  considerably  simplifying 
both  design  and  launching  operations. 

•  •  • 

Satellite  re-entry  system  .  .  . 

which  will  deliver  a  large  number  of  relatively 
small  packets  back  to  earth  on  command  has 
been  devised  by  Hughes  Aircraft.  One  appli- 
cation of  the  system  would  be  to  drop  weather- 
reporting  radio  transmitters  in  remote  areas. 

•  •  • 

Minuteman  mobility  battle  .  .  . 

being  waged  behind  the  scenes  at  the  Penta- 
gon is  one  to  watch.  It  will  be  a  key  future 
item  in  the  missile  support  market  (see  p.  21). 
The  controversy  is  over  1)  the  percentage  of 
the  programmed  2600  Minuteman  missiles  to 
be  made  mobile,  and  2)  whether  they  will  be 
on  rails,  wheels  or  waterborne.  One  factor 
weighing  against  mobility  is  that  the  solid- 
fueled  ICBM  will  be  as  fragile  as  a  clutch  of 
grouse  eggs,  and  very  tricky  to  handle.  Latest 
word  from  the  Air  Force  is  that  a  "sizeable" 
portion  will  be  mobile. 

•  •  • 

Ultrapure  silicon  .  .  . 

metal  production  plant  will  be  sought  by  Air 
Force  next  year.  On  full  stream,  impurities 
must  be  held  to  one  part  in  six  billion — a 
tough  requirement. 

PROPULSION 
French  are  making  significant  .  .  . 

strides  in  solid-propellant  castings.  Service  des 
Pondres  government  agency  at  its  St.  Medard 
facility  near  Bordeaux  has  successfully  fired 
several  grains  of  1000  pounds  weight  and  is 
actively  researching  aluminized  powder  injec- 
tions. The  agency  also  has  developed  a  poly- 
vinyl chloride  material  for  ammonium  per- 
chlorate. 

•  •  • 

Vernier  guidance  .  .  . 

for  extended  space  probes  is  a  possible  mis- 
sion of  Republic  Aviation's  plasma  jet  engine. 
Development  of  a  lightweight,  high-yield  elec- 
tric power  source  to  run  it,  however,  still  re- 
mains one  of  the  most  critical  unsolved  space- 
flight problems. 

/ 

I  «-e  About  the  Mi: 


Container  structure  .  .  . 

including  rocket  assembly  with  casing,  gas 
producer  and  igniter  for  separate  storage  of 
liquid  propellants  has  been  patented  by  the 

Navy. 

•  •  • 

Ultrafine  aluminum  powder  .  .  . 

in  300-to-400  micron  range  will  be  developed 
for  Navy  by  National  Research  Corp.  under 
$100,000  contract.  It  will  be  followed  by  a 
contract  to  develop  similarly  fine  powder 
aluminum  alloys  with  other  materials — zir- 
conium, magnesium  lithium,  etc. — for  rocket 
propellant  use.  This  is  the  new  technology 
which  put  boron  out  of  business. 

ASTRIONICS 

All  of  Prof.  Fred  Singer's  .  .  . 

calculated  principal  characteristics  about  the 
Van  Allen  radiation  belts  have  been  supported 
by  subsequent  satellite  and  space  probes. 

•  •  • 

Explorer  VI  'telebit'  .  .  . 

telemetry  has  provided  enough  data  to  indi- 
cate a  much  longer  concentration  of  low-en- 
ergy particles  in  the  Van  Allen  belts  than  pre- 
viously postulated — about  200  kev,  according 
to  Dr.  G.  E.  Mueller  of  Space  Technology 
Laboratories. 

•  •  • 

A  joint  report  .  .  . 

by  Holly,  AF  Special  Weapons  Center,  and 
Johnson  of  Lockheed,  indicates  composition 
of  radiation  at  altitudes  up  to  1000  km. 
Radiation  penetrating  30  mg/cm2  is  pre- 
dominantly electrons.  The  data  still  supports 
earth  neutron-albedo  theory. 

WE  HEAR  THAT— 

Gold  plating  for  missiles  .  .  . 

is  still  considered  by  metallurgists  and  missile 
engineers  as  having  no  equal  as  a  protective 
against  re-entry  heat  (except  for  nose  cones) 
.  .  .  General  Dynamics  is  another  firm  taking 
an  interest  in  controlling  solid-fuel  burning 
with  sound  in  the  150  decibel  region  .  .  .  More 
structural  applications  is  the  goal  of  a  beryl- 
lium extruding  process  being  developed  by 
Northrop  and  Beryllium  Corp.  .  .  .  Research 
on  explosive  forming  of  zirconium  will  be 
started  by  Interior  Department's  Bureau  of 
Mines  this  year  and  will  be  followed  by  work 
on  deep  drawing  and  extrusion  .  .  . 

15 

ile  Week  on  Page  107 


I 


GROUND  SUPPORT  EQUIPMENT 

A  Proven  Kearfott  Capability  —  Kearfott's  prominence  in  the  design  and  production  of 
ground  support  equipment  is  a  result  of  15  years'  experience  in  producing  precision  servo  systems, 
computers,  gyro  reference  systems  and  inertial  guidance  equipment.  Kearfott  test  equipment 
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on  inertial  reference  systems: 

I'oltage  and  phase  •  Current  •  Heating  cycle  checks  •  Verticality  of  plat- 
joint  in  ground  erection  mode  •  First  order  erection  time  in  ground  erection 
mode  •  Measurements  of  platform  roll  and  pitch  output  angles  in  ground 
erection  mode  •  Measurements  of  free  drift  of  platform  in  azimuth  in 
ground  erection  mode  •  Measurement  of  azimuth  gyro  torquer  scale  factor 
in  ground  erection  mode 


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FIELD-TYPE  TEST  EQUIPMENT:  Modularized,  self-contained  unit 
that  provides  all  power  and  signal  voltages  to  operate,  test  or  trouble- 
shoot  a  gyro.  All  inputs  to  and  outputs  from  the  gyro  are  accessible 
at  convenient  jacks  where  connections  to  measuring  equipment  can 
be  made,  thereby  enabling  operator  to  evaluate  gyro  performance 
completely.  Modules  are  slide-mounted  for  ready  access  if  repair, 
modification  or  product  improvement  replacement  are  required. 
This  portable  equipment  performs  these  basic  tests: 
Insulation  resistance  •  Warm-uptime'  Torquer  scale  factor  measurement 
Gyro  transfer  [unction  •  Free  drift  •  Gimbal  offset  drift  •  Continuity 
Signal  Generator  Null  •  Phasing  •  Gyro  drift  •  Fixed  torque  restraint 


Floated  Gyro  Test  Console 


.  

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GENERAL  PURPOSE  DATA  PROCESSING:  This  data  handling  system 
provides  a  reliable,  precise  means  of  monitoring,  logging  and  perform- 
ing an  alarm  function  of  up  to  200  separate  temperature,  pressure, 
liquid  level  or  flow  transmitters.  Manual  controls  are  provided  for 
scanning  rates,  automatic  or  manual  logging,  data  input  relating  to 
operator,  time,  day,  run  number  and  type  of  run.  200  numbered  lights, 
corresponding  to  specific  points  being  maintained,  provide  a  visual 
"ofl  normal"  display  for  operator's  warning.  This  system  has  growth 
built  in  and  can  be  expanded  in  capacity  to  1024  points  and  in  scan- 
ning rate  to  2000  points  per  second. 


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16 


ch-tto  No.  30  on  Subscriber  service  c««-d.     o-issiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Pioneering //c/?ie/en?enis 

in  /Qookefrc/  at  JPL 


LIQUID  PROPELLANT  SYSTEMS . . .  were  pioneered  at  JPL.  Development 
work  began  in  1943  and  led  to  the  first  practical  rocket  power-plant  in  the 
United  States  in  which  spontaneous  ignition  took  place  upon  mixing  of 
the  oxidizer  and  fuel. 


SOLID  PROPELLANT  SYSTEMS . . .  received  momentous  impetus  in  1947 
with  the  successful  flight  of  the  Thunderbird,  a  test  rocket.  This  JPL 
pioneering  achievement  demonstrated  a  new  technique  which  has  since 
revolutionized  the  field  of  so/id  propellant  rockets. 


DEVELOPMENT  . . .  of  efficient  rocket  power  plants  involves  large  scale 
testing  and  the  application  of  knowledge  from  many  scientific  and  engi- 
neering fields— thermodynamics,  combustion,  heat  transfer,  fluid  me- 
chanics, and  metallurgy. 


HEAT  TRANSFER  .  .  .  studies  at  JPL  with  a  camera  using  a  Kerr  cell 
shutter  taking  photos  at  20,000  frames  per  second  were  the  first  high- 
speed, high-resolution  motion  pictures  successfully  recording  the  action 
of  nucleate  boiling. 


MATERIALS  RESEARCH  AND  TESTING  .  .  .  is  one  of  many  supporting 
research  programs  under  way  at  the  Laboratory  and  are  considered  a 
"must",  in  providing  needed  data  for  engineers  concerned  with  the 
design  and  development  of  propulsion  systems. 


TESTING  . . .  of  rocket  engines  resulted  in  the  establishment  of  a  center 
for  recording  rocket  engine  measurements  when  in  1948  the  Lab  estab- 
lished the  first  system  serving  five  engine  test  cells.  This  has  now  expanded 
to  a  complex  multi-channel  system. 


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missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Circle  No.  31  on  Subscriber  Service  Cord, 


f 
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MISSILE  SHELTER-PANELS  RAISED  I 


MISSILE  SHELTER- 
PANELS  OPEN 


"buttoned  up"  by  24  Saginaw 


Buttoning  up  the  "overcoat"  for  the  Jupiter  IRBM  is  a  cinch  for  the 
Saginaw  Ball  Bearing  Screw!  The  "overcoat"  is  a  portable  prefab 
standby  shelter  designed  by  Barnes  &  Reinecke,  Chicago,  and 
U.  S.  Army  Engineer  Research  and  Development  Laboratories, 
Fort  Belvoir,  Va.,  to  protect  the  missile's  tail  and  personnel  working 
on  it.  The  shelter  has  1  2  base  sections  with  hinged  panels  raised 
electrically  to  form  a  weather-tight  seal  around  the  Jupiter's  hull. 

The  Saginaw  b/b  Screw  converts  rofary  motion  into  linear  with 
over  90%  efficiency.  This  enables  the  Saginaw  Screws  to 
dependably  raise  or  lower  these  panels — and  hold  the  shelter 
securely  in  place — even  in  the  face  of  76  mph  hurricane  winds. 
In  fact,  each  Saginaw  Screw  is  able  to  withstand  a  combined 
wind  and  weight  stress  of  almost  five  tons!  The  Saginaw  Screw 
also  offers  substantial  savings  in  space,  power  and  weight 
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18  Circle  No.  32  on  Subscriber  Service  Card.       missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


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sign concept  through  production  and  system  man- 


agement, from  tools  and  equipment  to  fixed  facilities. 

More  than  40  years  experience  and  a  highly  com- 
petent organization  with  unusual  skills  and  facilities 
— backed  by  the  services  and  resources  of  United 
Aircraft  Corporation — provide  first-line  qualifica- 
tions and  capabilities  in  the  GSE  field.  For  further 
information  contact: 


GROUND  SUPPORT 
EQUIPMENT  DEPARTMENT 


HAMILTON  STANDARD 

A  DIVISION  OF  UNITED  AIRCRAFT  CORPORATION 

Windsor  Locks,  Connecticut 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959      circle  No.  33  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


19 


/vew  f»ait  t  ft  ran  sir,  im-m  m/wickes 


"The  experimental  model  of  a  new  concept  .  .  .  o  magnetic  pinch  plasma  engine  for  interplanetary  space  frav( 
is  in  operation  at  our  laboratories,"  says  Alfred  Kunen  (R)  Project  Engineer,  Plasma  Propulsion  Project,  shown  with 
Milton  Minneman  of  Republic's  Scientific  Research  Staff,  during  actual  operation  of  the  engine.  >->->-  Republic's  plasma 
engine  unique  in  that  it  utilizes  intermingled  positively  and  negatively  charged  particles  in  a  single  jet  thrust,  can  operate 
on  fuels  more  readily  available  than  required  for  an  ion  engine,  and  attains  greater  thrust.  By  compressing  these  particles 
n  an  invisible  cylindrical  magnetic  girdle  and  shooting  plasma  out  the  rear  at  tremendous  velocities,  sufficient  thrust  is 
generated  to  push  a  vehicle  through  the  near-vacuum  of  outer  space.  Republic  is  working  on  advanced  plasma 

engine  studies  for  the  U.  S.  Navy  Office  of  Naval  Research  and  the  U.  S.  Air  Force  Office  of  Scientific  Research.  >->~y 
Today's  pinch  plasma  engine  is  but  one  of  many  bold  concepfs  under  development  of  Republic  to  create  for  the  space  world  of 
tomorrow.  It  is  part  of  Republic's  multi-million  dollar  exploration  into  the  realm  of  advanced  aircraft,  missiles  and  space  travel. 


Republic's  new  $14,000,000. 
Research  and  Development 
Center,  is  scheduled  for 
operation  early  in  1960. 


market  report  . 


Missile  Support-$40  Billion  by  '67 

Hardened  ICBM  bases  and  Polaris  submarines 
are  setting  the  pace  for  an  expanding  market— 
A  complete  forecast  for  the  vital  years  7960-67 


by  William  E.  Howard 

Washington — Today's  huge  ICBM 
base  construction  program  and  the 
Navy's  big  switchover  to  missiles  are 
pushing  the  already  booming  missile 
support  industry  into  a  new  era  of 
expansion. 

Throughout  the  Defense  Depart- 
ment more  than  $3  billion  will  be  spent 
in  FT  1960  on  the  bases,  ships,  ma- 
chinery, communications,  fueling,  guid- 
ance and  fire  control  systems  to  back 
up  the  Nation's  vast  missile  program. 
Next  year,  as  more  and  more  missiles 
become  operational,  the  amount  prom- 
ises to  rise  substantially. 

Over  the  next  seven  years — bar- 
ring a  drastic  change  in  the  arms  race 
with  Russia — a  projection  by  the  M/R 
Research  Department  shows  a  support 
market  potential  topping  $40  billion. 

Dominating  the  outlook  for  the 
support  field — indeed  the  whole  missile 
industry — is  the  swift  buildup  of  ICBM 
bases  and  t  h  e  nuclear-submarine 
launched  Polaris  IRBM.  With  the  de- 
ployment of  the  first  operational  Atlas 
ICBM's  at  Vandenberg  AFB.  the  entire 
ICBM  effort  is  now  moving  into  high 
gear. 

How  many  ICBM's  will  the  United 
States  build?  The  actual  number  is  a 
closely  held  DOD  secret.  But  it  is  ex- 
tremely likely  base  construction  will 
accelerate  over  the  next  five  years. 

Today,  the  Air  Force  is  construct- 
ing 11  (7  Atlas.  4  Titan)  installations 
and  in  the  next  few  months  is  expected 
to  announce  nine  additional  ICBM 
sites.  The  FY  1960  construction  budget 
contains  $550  million  for  ICBM  bases 
— most  of  them  "hardened"  (under- 
ground) to  withstand  a  nuclear  attack. 

Fully  80%  of  the  $100  million  to- 
tal cost  of  one  hard  ICBM  base  is  in 
the  ground  environment. 

•  Titan    cost  breakdown — E  a  c  h 


Missile  Support  Equipment 
Procurement 

(millions  of  dollars) 

1940  1961 
(Estimated)  (projected) 

Air  Force    $  642.5       $  810 

Army    421  440 

Navy   1,029*  1,200* 

*lncludes  Polaris  submarines  and  missile  surface  ships 


ICBM  base  now  is  costing  between  $40 
million  and  $45  million  just  to  build — 
digging  the  silos  or  emplacements  for 
10  missiles  (including  one  spare)  and 
putting  down  the  reinforced  concrete 
for  the  entire  facility. 

Total  equipment  cost  for  one  Titan 
squadron  is  an  additional  $47.3  million. 
Here's  the  breakdown:  launchers — $19 
million;  guidance  systems — $14  mil- 
lion; fueling  systems — $9  million;  au- 
tomatic checkout — $4  million:  commu- 
nications and  fire  control — $1  million; 
and  transportation  and  handling  equip- 
ment—$350,000. 

Some  of  the  $550  million  in  con- 
struction money  probably  will  be  used 
to  start  the  first  Minuteman  bases  next 
year.  DOD  plans  call  for  production 
of  about  2600  of  the  second  generation 
solid-fueled  Boeing  Minuteman.  The 
great  majority  of  them  will  be  em- 
placed  in  "hard"  silos  in  widely  dis- 
persed squadrons  of  20  to  30  missiles. 
The  remainder  will  be  put  aboard  mo- 
bile launchers. 


Missile  Base  Construction 

(millions  of  dollars) 


I960  1941 

(Estimated)  (projected) 

Air  Force  (ICBM)  $550  $630 

Air  Force  (other)  .117  1 00 

Army  (Zeus)  ....      58  ? 

Army  (other)              90  100 


Many  variables — a  shift  in  em- 
phasis on  strategic  weapons  or  a  change 
in  the  Cold  War — could  affect  the 
ICBM  base  program.  However,  it  is 
apparent  that  DOD  presently  is  pur- 
suing a  course  which  could  mean  a 
total  of  25  to  50  ICBM  installations  by 
1965  and  a  support  market  of  $2  bil- 
lion to  $4  billion  from  this  source 
alone. 

•  Bigger  electronic  d  e  m  a  n  d — A 

lion's  share  of  the  missile  support 
equipment  market — 20%  this  year  and 
expected  to  double  by  1965 — is  going 
into  electronics.  Missile  base  guidance 
systems  comprise  a  considerable  part 
of  the  rising  demand,  and  the  largely 
remotely-controlled  Minuteman  will  re- 
quire an  even  greater  percentage  than 
Atlas  and  Titan. 

Programs  which  will  increase  elec- 
tronic output  in  the  years  ahead  also 
include: 

•  SAGE  and  BMEWS  and  the  en- 
tire global  communications  network 
giving  the  nation  warning  of  an  oncom- 
ing attack  and  the  means  to  send  retal- 
iatory planes  and  missiles  into  action. 
In  FY  1960  about  $800  million  will 
be  spent  on  these  systems  by  the  Air 
Force — and  the  great  proportion  of  it 
in  giant  radar  dishes,  computers,  etc. 

•  Communications,  navigation  and 
fire  control  systems  for  Polaris  and 
the  surface-ship  family  of  Navy  Tar- 
tar, Terrier  and  Talos  missiles. 

•  Missile  ranges.  More  than  $30 
million  is  programmed  for  the  Pacific 
Missile  Range  in  FY  '60  and  before  it 
is  completed  several  years  hence,  the 
Navy  expects  to  spend  $256  million. 
About  $44  million  is  being  earmarked 
by  the  Army  for  an  electronic  equip- 
ment testing  range  at  Fort  Huachuca, 
Ariz.,  where  it  plans  ultimately  to 
spend  a  total  of  $107  million.  It  also 
is  planning  multi-million  dollar  im- 
provements in  the  instrumentation  of 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 

  Circle  No.  34  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


21 


bigger  slice  for  electronics? 


the  White  Sands  Missile  Range. 

•  Zeus  question — One  of  the  major 
decisions  now  confronting  Pentagon 
experts  in  making  up  the  1961  budget 
is  the  Army's  Nike-Zeus  anti-missile 
missile.  To  achieve  operational  capa- 
bility by  1963 — and  to  have  the  bases 
from  which  to  fire  the  big  AICBM,  it 
is  estimated  DOD  will  have  to  program 
$1.5  billion  to  $2  billion  for  Zeus  next 
year. 

The  system  for  detecting  oncoming 
missiles  and  intercepting  them  will  be 
largely  on  the  ground. 

Ultimately,  if  Zeus  gets  a  go-ahead 
(and  strong  arguments  are  being 
brought  against  the  wisdom  of  the  sys- 
tem) it  could  cost  $5  billion  to  $10  bil- 
lion— with  about  80%  of  this  amount 
going  into  ground  environment. 

Zeus  points  up  an  interesting  trend 
that  is  already  being  advanced  by  the 
Navy  in  Talos,  Terrier  and  Tartar  mis- 
siles. That  is:  to  make  the  birds  "dumb" 
as  possible. 

"Most  missiles  right  now  are  too 
smart,"  says  a  Navy  R&D  official.  "Too 
much  of  what  we  consider  to  be  non- 
expendable equipment — the  expensive 
guidance  system — is  in  the  missile.  We 
want  to  make  the  missile  itself  stupider 
and  keep  most  of  the  guidance  system 
on  board  ship.  This  will  mean  building 
bigger  computers — but  I  think  it  will 
save  money  in  the  long  run." 

There  is  a  chance  this  trend  may 
catch  on  in  the  larger  missiles,  pro- 
viding a  bigger  slice  of  MSE  for  elec- 
tronics. 

•  Mobility — Much  is  being  said 
these  days  about  ICBM  mobility,  but 
little  is  being  done  in  the  way  of  fund- 
ing. M/R  has  learned  that  a  proposal 
to  put  the  solid-fueled  Minuteman  on 
rails  camouflaged  in  freight  trains  has 
been  shelved — at  least  temporarily. 

The  latest  idea  is  to  mount  them  on 
special  overland  truck-trailers,  and 
move  them  about  unpopulated  Federal 
lands  in  the  far  west.  Trains  are  con- 
sidered vulnerable  to  nuclear  blast 
ground  shock.  They  also  would  invite 
random  missile  strikes  at  cities  in  a 
big  war. 

Best  bet  is  that  mobility  will  be 
left  largely  to  the  Navy,  both  in  Po- 
laris subs  and  with  surface  ships  out- 
fitted with  Polaris  and  other  long-range 
missiles.  The  Air  Force  also  is  develop- 
ing an  air-launched  ballistic  missile  to 
fill  the  mobile  requirement  in  the 
weapons  "mix." 

The  ALBM  system  when  perfected 
probably  will  have  a  capability  of  com- 
puting all  necessary  targeting  data 
aboard   its  carrier  plane — creating  a 


demand  for  more  and  more  electronic 
miniaturization. 

Including  the  cost  of  submarines 
and  shipbuilding,  the  Navy  potentially 
is  as  big — or  bigger — a  missile  support 
market  than  the  Air  Force. 

More  than  $2.3  billion  already  has 
been  funded  in  the  Polaris  program. 
This  includes  money  for  five  FBM 
submarines  under  various  stages  of 
construction  as  well  as  R&D  for  the 
missile.  In  the  FY  '60  budget  $196  mil- 
lion has  been  appropriated  for  four 
more  FBM  subs. 

This  could  be  just  the  beginning — 
particularly  if  the  Navy  prevails  in 
the  "mobility"  role.  Naval  officials  are 
talking  in  terms  of  40  to  50  FBM  subs. 
The  chances  are  good  they  will  get  25 
or  30.  With  the  nuclear-powered  subs 
costing  $100  million  apiece  equipped, 
exclusive  of  missiles,  this  would  be  a 
substantial  program. 

Each  FBM  sub  carries  16  missiles 
costing  about  $500,000  each  off  the 
production  line.  Price  tag  for  a  combat 
sub:  $108  million. 

The  cost  of  converting  moth-balled 
battleships  and  cruisers  to  Polaris 
launching  platforms  could  run  into  the 
hundreds  of  millions. 

The  Navy  also  is  building  (at  $100 
million  per  copy)  one  Talos  guided 
missile  cruiser  and  has  plans  for  two 
more.  Appropriations  in  FY  1960  call 
for  building  three  guided  missile  frig- 
ates— $180  million;  three  guided  missile 


destroyers — $103  million:  and  convert- 
ing one  cruiser  to  a  Talos  launcher — 
$107.5  million. 

What  the  Navy  is  allowed  in  the 
way  of  shipbuilding  funds,  says  one 
high  Navy  official,  is  "directly  related 
to  our  missile  capability."  When  funds 
are  cut,  the  cut  is  taken  out  of  the 
missile — not  the  ship.  If  a  ship  is  started 
this  year,  and  some  time  before  it  is 
completed  there  is  a  cutback,  the  ship 
will  be  completed — but  its  missile  ar- 
mament will  be  reduced  accordingly. 

The  Navy  does  not  make  any  budg- 
et breakdown  of  its  direct  missile 
support  requirements.  But  officials  esti- 
mate that  for  every  $100,000  "that 
flies,"  there  is  $10  million  worth  of 
seaborne  equipment  backing  it  up. 

•  Non-ballistic  bases — The  FY  1960 
military  construction  bill  has  dealt  a 
blow  to  both  the  Bomarc  and  Mace 
programs.  Congress  wants  most  of  the 
pending  Bomarc  construction  held  up 
until  DOD  determines  whether  the  anti- 
aircraft missile  bases  should  be  located 
further  north,  perhaps  in  Canada  or 
Alaska.  Funds  were  deleted  for  harden- 
ing the  Tactical  Air  Command  Mace 
in  overseas  bases. 

Mace  is  now  a  completely  mobile 
weapon  and  considered  vulnerable. 
The  charge  for  MSE,  test  and  checkout 
equipment  for  a  Mace  group  consisting 
of  40  missiles  comes  to  $17.5  million. 

•  Market  trends— DOD  in  FY  '60 
has  earmarked  a  total  of  about  $5.9 
billion  for  missiles.  This  amount  con- 
tains a  hefty  30%  for  R&D  of  the 
birds  as  well  as  their  support  equip- 
ment. 


-GUIDANCE  SYSTEM  TOWERS  - 


NOSE  COME 
STORAGE  SLOG. 


FIRST  ATLAS  sites  are  above  ground.  Seven  Atlas  bases  are  being  built,  with  the 
three  launchers  at  Vandenberg  AFB  the  first  to  become  operational.  BMD  has 
$550  million  in  ICBM  construction  funds  in  FY  '60 — may  soon  announce  9  more  sites. 


22 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Actual  spending  on  support  equip- 
ment for  operational  missiles  including 
.ship  procurement  will  run  to  about 
$2.1  billion.  The  base  construction  bill 
totals  $815  million.  BMEWS.  SAGE, 
missile  ranges  and  test  facilities  will 
send  the  total  support  bill  well  over  $3 
billion. 

Through  1962,  missile  expenditures 
are  expected  to  increase  at  the  rate  of 
about  $  1  billion  a  year.  With  the  trend 
now  definitely  setting  in  for  more  and 
more  missiles  to  become  operational, 
the  support  requirements  will  increase, 
with  a  proportionately  larger  share  of 
the  missile  dollar. 

Expect  the  support  market  to  get 
more  competitive.  Further  modifica- 
tions of  the  U.S.  missile  program  are 
inevitable  next  year  as  a  result  of  the 
Eisenhower  Administration's  decision 
to  freeze  the  DOD  budget  at  the  cur- 
rent $40  billion-or-less  ceiling.  This 
limitation  is  forcing  some  hard  deci- 
sions— among  them  Nike-Zeus — to  be 
made  now  by  defense  planners  draw- 
ing the  FY  '61  budget,  which  will  be 
presented  to  Congress  in  January. 

SAC's  big  bomber  program  may  be 
a  prime  target  for  cutbacks.  But  so  will 
many  marginal  missile  programs. 

Budget  planners  will  find  some 
elbow  room  in  anticipated  lower  mis- 
sile and  missile  support  production 
costs  as  they  come  out  of  the  R&D 
stage. 

Next  year,  Air  Force  experts  are 
predicting  there  will  be  a  great  deal 
more  "breakout"  of  systems  items  such 
as  launchers,  handling  gear,  fueling 
systems  etc.  into  competitive  bidding. 


TRIO  OF  GIANT  plastic-wrapped  1600  KW  transformers  stand  on  the  Wyoming 
prairie  prior  to  installation  in  an  Atlas  ICBM  base.  They  symbolize  enormous  power 
requirements  and  vast  quantities  of  special  equipment  needed  by  missiles. 


The  Army  already  is  following  an  ac- 
tive "breakout"  policy,  and  the  Navy 
can  be  expected  to  also  as  it  moves 
deeper  into  the  electronics  field — both 
for  missiles  and  its  stepped-up  anti- 
submarine warfare  program. 

The  Army  will  remain  a  big  user 
of  mobile  equipment  for  tactical  "ar- 
tillery" missiles,  especially  the  solid- 
fueled  700-mile  Pershing,  successor  to 
Redstone.  Also  needed:  more  compact 
fire  control  systems. 

•  Need  for  "doers" — The  missile 
support  field  is  wide  open  for  newcom- 
ers. Says  an  ICBM-base  planner: 

"What  we  need  are  more  doers.  Up 
until  now  everyone  has  been  concen- 
trating in  laboratories  and  factories  on 


EQUIPMENT 


FOUR  TITAN  installations  are  being  built  now  by  the  Air  Force  BMD  at  a  cost  of 
more  than  $40  million  each,  just  for  the  facility.  Equipping  a  nine-launcher  complex 
costs  an  additional  $47.3  million.  Support  is  80%  of  the  total  system. 


the  developing  the  birds  and  their  sup- 
port equipment. 

"Only  now  are  we  realizing  that 
the  field — the  base — has  become  an 
extension  of  the  factory  assembly  line. 
And  here  is  where  we  are  having 
troubles.  We  need  people  who  know 
how  to  get  out  and  work  under  field 
conditions  and  put  these  systems  to- 
gether so  they  will  work — and  on 
time." 

The  official  told  M/R  "industry  has 
not  recognized  the  magnitude  of  the 
job — in  fact,  we  all  have  underesti- 
mated the  difficulty  of  working  in  the 
field." 

This  points  up  another  problem 
brought  out  in  an  M/R  survey  of  the 
support  field — the  great  complexity  of 
equipment  comprising  major  systems. 
Throughout  the  industry  there  is  de- 
mand for  greater  and  greater  simplicity 
in  support  items,  a  trimming  away  of 
unnecessary  automation  and  "gold 
plate." 

Industry  and  military  people  alike 
connected  with  the  ballistic  missile  pro- 
gram are  infused  with  a  sense  of  ur- 
gency. They  want  to  get  the  job  done 
the  best  way  as  quickly  as  possible. 

"You  can't  figure  out  the  best  way 
to  lift  a  110-ton  missile  out  of  a  160- 
foot  hole  in  the  ground  and  launch  it, 
within  five  minutes,  including  fueling 
time,  entirely  by  sitting  at  a  drafting 
table,"  says  an  engineer.  "You  have  to 
get  out  there  with  the  missile  in  the 
silo  and  design  around  the  problems 
you  run  into." 

"There's  one  thing  to  remember," 
he  adds.  "The  big  bird  has  to  work 
perfectly  today,  next  month,  next  year, 
in  five  years,  and  we  hope  maybe  never. 
But  if  it  does  fly — nothing  short  of  per- 
fection in  the  support  equipment  and 
all  the  way  around  will  make  it  hit  the 
target." 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


23 


COVER  STORY 


Talos  Turns  Triple  Navy  Threat: 
Anti-Air,  Bombardment  and  AICBAA 

New  Talos  to  kill  planes  100  miles  away; 
Super  Talos  anti-missile  missile  may  be 
seaborne  defense  of  U.S.  homeland 


by  James  Baar 

Washington — Talos — t  h  e  Navy's 
pint-sized  giant  killer — is  turning  into 
a  key  triple  threat  weapon  of  the 
Missile  Age. 

Bendix  Taloses  are  the  new  "big 
guns"  of  the  fleet,  capable  of  smashing 
ships  and  shore  installations  with  nu- 
clear or  conventional  warheads. 

They  are  death  on  missile-launching 
aircraft  at  ranges  greater  than  65  miles. 

And  they  are  the  seed  from  which 
the  Navy  expects  to  bring  forth  a 
possible  sea-going  anti-missile  missile 
called  the  Super  Talos. 

These  capabilities  and  potentialities 


combine  to  make  this  rocket-boosted 
ramjet  missile  one  of  the  most  im- 
portant in  the  Navy's  missile  arsenal. 

Hundreds  of  millions  of  dollars  are 
expected  to  be  spent  for  Taloses  to 
arm  at  least  seven  cruisers  by  early 
1962.  Many  hundreds  of  millions  more 
are  expected  to  be  spent  on  Talos 
radars  and  other  shipboard  missile  sup- 
port equipment. 

These  figures  are  for  the  present 
day  Talos  and  improved  models  alone. 
They  do  not  include  the  cost  of  Super 
Talos  for  which  the  Navy  has  high 
hopes  and  urgent  need. 

The  highly-secret  Super  Talos  would 
be  used  to  bat  down  missiles  fired 


against  carriers,  cruisers  and  other  sur- 
face ships.  It  also  might  be  developed 
for  defense  of  continental  United  States 
against  ICBM's  and  missiles  fired  from 
submarines. 

The  significance  of  the  development 
of  a  seagoing  AICBM  in  the  evolution 
of  U.S.  strategy  would  be  very  great. 

A  seagoing  AICBM  would  rival  the 
continued  development  by  the  Army  of 
Western  Electric's  Nike-Zeus.  It  would 
greatly  increase  the  need  for  large  sur-  I 
face  ships.  It  might  even  bring  back  the  I 
battleship  as  a  combined  anti-missile  I 
missile  ship  and  Polaris  launcher. 

Moreover,  in  the  more  modest  role  I 
as  a  defense  against  missiles  launched 
at  surface  ships,  the  Super  Talos  would 
meet  a  growing  threat  to  the  fleet. 

Today,  once  a  missile  is  launched, 
a  surface  ship  has  no  defense  against 
it  beyond  mobility.  At  present  this  is 
still  considered  effective.  But  tomor- 
row, ever-improving  guidance  will  di- 
minish the  effectiveness  of  maneuver- 
ability to  almost  nothing. 

•  Sired  by  Kamikaze — The  history 
of  the  Talos  dates  back  to  the  end  of 
World  War  II  when  the  Navy  began 
searching  for  a  new  weapon  to  use 
against  Japanese  kamikaze  attacks.  To 
find  one  the  Navy  began  the  top  secret 
Bumblebee  program  at  Johns  Hopkins 
Applied  Physics  Laboratory.  A  family 
of  missiles — Talos,  Terrier  and  Tartar 
— has  resulted. 

The  7000-pound  Talos  is  the 
heavyweight  of  the  group.  Its  Bendix 
solid  booster  and  McDonnell  40,000- 
pound  thrust  ramjet  crammed  into  less 
than  30  feet  of  missile  give  it  a  speed 
of  Mach  2.5.  Its  Sperry-Farnsworth 
dual  guidance — beam  rider  and  hom- 
ing— give  it  a  high  degree  of  accuracy. 
It  can  operate  at  more  than  75,000  feet. 

Improved  models  of  Talos  will  have 
considerably  longer  range  and  greater 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


speed  and  accuracy.  The  Super  Talos 
now  under  development  is  understood 
to  be  so  far  advanced  over  the  Talos 
that  it  bears  little  resemblance  to  it. 

However,  despite  differences,  Super 
Talos  is  being  designed  as  a  part  of 
the  Talos  system.  For  example,  the 
Sperry  AN/SPG-49  super  radar  used 
on  shipboard  in  the  Talos  system  is 
undergoing  further  development  to  en- 
able it  to  detect  oncoming  missiles. 

The  first  operational  Talos  was  fired 
from  the  converted  missile  cruiser  Gal- 
veston last  February.  Next  year  three 
more  converted  missile  cruisers — the 
Little  Rock,  Oklahoma  City  and  Al- 
bany— are  scheduled  to  be  ready  for 
arming  with  Taloses. 

Present  plans  also  call  for  deploy- 
ing Talos  aboard  the  nuclear-powered 
cruiser  Long  Beach  and  the  converted 
missile  cruisers  Chicago  and  Columbus. 
The  Long  Beach  will  be  operational  in 
1961;  the  Chicago  and  Columbus  in 
early  1962. 

Talos  will  serve  on  all  of  these 
ships  in  its  double  role  of  an  anti- 
aircraft and  heavy  bombardment 
weapon. 

As  anti-aircraft,  Talos  is  designed 
to  defend  surface  ships  from  air- 
launched  missiles  by  striking  missile- 
carrying  aircraft  before  the  missiles 
are  launched. 

Its  effectiveness  in  this  role  is  im- 
proving as  its  range  is  extended.  Cur- 
rent designs  call  for  extending  its  pres- 
ent range  of  about  65  miles  to  about 
100.  Later  plans  call  for  pushing  the 
range  even  farther  out. 

•  The  big  punch — As  a  bombard- 
ment weapon,  Talos  has  become  the 
successor  to  the  old  16-inch  gun — the 
former  big  punch  of  the  fleet. 

The  missile — a  little  more  than 
twice  the  weight  of  a  16-inch  shell — 
can  smash  a  surface  target  with  either 
a  conventional  warhead  of  significant 
size  or  a  nuclear  warhead.  Its  rate  of 
fire  is  believed  to  be  at  least  as  good 
as  the  two-a-minute  rate  of  the  16- 
inchers.  And  its  present  range  is  four 
times  as  great. 

In  action,  Talos  will  complement 
its  smaller  cousin — the  Convair  Terrier. 
The  10-mile  range  Terrier  with  its 
conventional  warhead  serves  both  as 
anti-aircraft  and  a  bombardment 
weapon. 

The  trend  is  clear.  Conventional 
guns  are  being  stripped  from  the  fleet 
at  an  increasing  rate. 

The  missile  cruisers  Canberra  and 
Boston  are  partly  equipped  with  Ter- 
riers and  partly  with  eight-inch  guns. 
The  Ta/os-armed  Long  Beach  will 
carry  no  guns  at  all. 

In  the  years  ahead,  the  symbol  of 
tactical  seapower  is  certain  to  be  more 
and  more  the  long  shadow  of  the  blunt- 
nosed  Talos  and  its  successors. 


LAUNCHER,  trained  and  elevated  to  starboard,  holds  a  brace  of  triple  threat  Taloses. 
Successor  to  the  16-inch  gun  as  the  Navy's  "big  punch,"  the  Bendix  missile  is  being 
deployed  aboard  several  cruisers  and  its  range  is  constantly  being  extended. 


HEART  OF  the  Talos  defense  unit  is  the  fire  control  center,  where  consoles  are 
arranged  in  a  soundproof  room  with  shadowless  lighting.  During  full  automatic  opera- 
tion, operators  merely  observe;  but  they  can  inject  elements  of  judgment 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


25 


speed  and  precision  . 


'Articulation'  Solves  Talos  Handling 

High-speed  movement  from  magazine 
to  launching  deck  is  engineered  by  an 
articulated  rack  which  drives  missile  hoist 


by  R.  A.  Burt 

Pittsfield.  Mass. — One  problem 
in  the  design  of  the  Talos  shipboard 
missile-launching  system  was  the  trans- 
fer of  missiles  from  the  below-decks 
magazine  to  the  level  of  the  launching 
deck. 

In  the  7"<j/os-armed  ship,  space  al- 
located for  hoisting  machinery  is  below 
the  hoistway,  rather  than  above  as  in 
more  conventional  land-based  hoist 
systems.  This  dictated  a  "push  up"  in- 
stead of  a  "pull  up"  hoist  design.  Basic 
hoist  power,  two  60  HP  direct  current 
electric  motors  controlled  by  variable 
voltage  from  a  motor  generator  set,  is 
physically  located  below  the  magazine. 

The  magazine  must  be  sealed  from 
the  rest  of  the  launching  system  by  a 
gas-tight  door  at  the  level  of  the  launch- 
ing deck.  The  hoist  must  lift  missiles 
up  through  the  magazine  door  during 
loading  operations,  but  permit  a  tight 
seal  of  the  magazine  during  prepara- 
tion for  launching  and  actual  firing  of 
the  missile.  This  requires  a  hoist  con- 
figuration without  any  complicated  me- 
chanical parts  to  interfere  with  effective 
magazine  door  seals. 

Talos  is  the  largest  and  heaviest  of 
the  shipboard  surface-to-air  missiles. 
The  dead  weight  of  the  hoist  and  load 
(missile  and  stowage  tray)  is  32,000 
pounds.  This  must  be  moved  with 
speed  and  precision  a  vertical  distance 
of  as  much  as  35'. 

To  meet  these  requirements.  Gen- 
eral Electric  engineers  considered  a 
number  of  alternate  designs.  Tension 
arrangements  using  cable  or  chains,  and 
compression  designs  using  chains,  gear 
racks,  screw  jacks  and  pistons,  were 
evaluated.  The  design  selected  is  a 
direct  gearing  device  consisting  of  a 


stationary  axis  pinion  which  engages 
and  drives  a  moving  rack.  One  of  the 
unique  features  of  the  hoist  drive 
mechanism  is  a  gear  rack  having  joints 
which  allow  the  rack  to  articulate  or 
bend  into  a  sharply  curved  shape. 

•  Rack  guides — At  either  end  of 
the  hoist  platform  are  attachment  points 
for  the  articulated  rack.  The  hoist  struc- 
ture is  constrained  by  hoist  guide  rails 
to  move  only  in  a  vertical  direction. 
The  same  guide  rails  also  constrain  the 
articulated  rack  from  lateral  and  axial 
motion. 

At  the  bottom  of  each  hoist  rail  is 
a  housing  which  contains  the  drive 
pinion.  Mechanical  shafting  connects 
each  pinion  through  a  worm  gear  re- 
ducer to  its  electric  drive  motor.  The 
two  drives  for  either  end  are  then  con- 
nected together  by  a  synchronizing 
shaft  which  keeps  both  hoist  ends 
accurately  aligned. 

Below  the  pinion  boxes  are  curved 
rack  guides  which  bend  into  a  hori- 
zontal position.  Whenever  the  hoist  is 
lowered  the  unloaded  sections  of  the 
articulated  rack  pass  out  of  the  bottom 
of  the  pinion  box  and  into  the  horizon- 
tal rack  storage  housings. 

The  hoist  guide  rail  provides  for 
guiding  and  restraining  the  rack.  Posi- 
tions of  the  rack  which  are  actually 
supporting  the  hoist  load  are  under  a 
substantial  compressive  load  and  need 
constraint  to  prevent  buckling  at  the 
joints.  This  constraint  is  provided  by 
rollers  mounted  at  each  rack  joint. 
These  rollers  fit  closely  into  the  hoist 
guide  rail.  Axial  constraint  to  prevent 
column  buckling  of  the  rack  is  achieved 
by  caps  on  each  end  of  each  rack  joint 
pin.  These  caps  bear  against  opposite 
ends  of  the  hoist  rail  cavity  and  thus 
support  the  rack  throughout  its  entire 


stressed  length. 

Even  more  accurate  guiding  and 
constraint  of  the  rack  is  required  at 
its  mesh  with  the  pinion.  Here  the  rack- 
pinion  mesh  is  strongly  constrained 
against  tooth  separating  forces  but 
weakly  constrained  in  the  vertical — 
axial  plane. 

Tooth  separation  loads  are  carried 
by  shaft  mounted  rollers  which  bear 
against  the  back  of  the  rack  sections  at 
the  pinion  mesh.  The  roller  axis  is 
located  at  the  vertical  position  which 
provides  correct  balance  of  the  average 
resultant  load  force  and  pinion  tooth 
force.  The  other  two  rollers  give  addi- 
tional stability  to  the  gear  mesh  as  well 
as  providing  for  negative  hoist  load 
conditions. 

•  Gear  tooth  alignment — Weak  con- 
straint against  axial  movement  and 
angular  movements  in  the  axial-vertical 


MINIATURE  model  is  one-third  actual 
size  of  rack  articulation  developed  for 
Talos.  Rollers  fit  closely  in  rail. 


About  the  Author  —  

Mr.  Burt  is  an  advanced  mechanical  design  engineer  in  the  Ordnance  Depart- 
ment of  General  Electric  Co.,  developer  of  the  multi-million  Talos  Mark  Xll 
missile  launching  system  which  will  he  installed  aboard  nuclear  -powered  cruisers. 


26 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


plain  are  obtained  by  the  springs  at 
each  rack  pin  joint.  At  either  end  of 
each  pin  point  are  Bellevielle  springs 
interpositioned  between  the  rack  sec- 
tion and  each  end  cap.  By  allowing 
slight  angular  adjustments  of  the  rack 
in  a  vertical  plane,  some  self-alignment 
of  the  rack  and  pinion  teeth  occurs  and 
concentration  of  loads  at  the  tooth 
edges  is  avoided. 

To  achieve  a  satisfactory  rack  joint 
design,  accurate  gear  tooth  alignment 
must  be  obtained  without  sacrificing 
load  capacity  of  either  the  gear  teeth 
or  the  rack  structure.  Although  com- 
pression loads  predominate,  there  are 
momentary  tension  loads  of  substantial 
magnitude  which  must  be  carried  by 
the  rack.  The  joint  design  chosen  is  a 
multiple  tongue  and  curve  configura- 
tion pinned  at  the  tooth  center  line. 
Accurate  location  of  the  pin  hole  with 
respect  to  the  tooth  faces  allows  rea- 
sonable tooth  load  division  between 
portions  of  the  interlocking  rack  sec- 
tions. 

There  is  an  optimum  location  of 
the  bore  for  the  rack  joint  pin  with 
respect  to  the  tooth  and  the  rack  body 
which  equalizes  the  strength  of  the 
joint  against  the  various  failure  possi- 
bilities. For  instance,  breakage  might 
occur  straight  across  the  base  of  the 
tooth  or  a  break  might  occur  from  the 
tooth  fillet  into  the  pin  bore.  Repetitive 
stress  tests  were  made  on  models  with 
several  different  hole  locations.  Results 
of  the  tests  were  used  as  a  basis  for 
selecting  the  optimum  hole  location  for 
maximum  all  around  strength. 

Lubrication  is  provided  by  both  oil 
bath  and  pressure  jets.  An  oil  tank  is 


CONTROL  cabinet  for  Talos  launching  system.  Panel  provides  power  distribution 
for  launcher  power  drives,  missile  warm-up  power  and  control  power  supply  portions. 


built  integral  with  the  curved  storage 
housing.  As  rack  sections  pass  through 
the  low  point  of  the  storage  housing 
they  are  immersed  in  oil.  In  addition, 
a  small  pump  feeds  oil  to  a  series  of 
jets  located  at  the  point  where  gear 
rack  teeth  mesh  in  the  pinion  box. 
•  Absorbs  bulkhead  "breathing" — 


HOIST  built  by  General  Electric  weighs,  without  missiles,  350  tons,  making  it  the 
largest  piece  of  ordinance  in  the  Navy.  Power  is  directly  below  the  magazine. 


The  articulated  rack  design  appears  to 
be  the  best  all  around  solution  for  the 
requirement  of  the  shipboard  Talos 
magazine  hoist. 

The  magazine  door  seal  becomes 
relatively  simple.  All  of  the  moving 
hoist  platform  and  drive  parts  can  be 
retracted  into  the  magazine  and  the 
hoist  rails  can  be  switched  out  of  the 
doorway.  Only  a  simple  flat  surface  is 
left  to  be  sealed. 

A  relatively  small  diameter  pinion 
can  be  used  with  the  rack-pinion  de- 
sign. As  a  result,  the  total  gear  reduc- 
tion can  be  accomplished  in  one  stage 
of  reversible  worm  gearing.  Substantial 
weight  and  space  savings  are  thus  ob- 
tained. Direct  gearing  also  introduces 
little  or  no  "pulsation"  in  the  rotary 
to  linear  motion  conversion  such  as  is 
inherent  in  linked  chain  drives. 

The  effects  of  distortions  of  ship 
structure  become  negligible  because  the 
rack  joints  are  parallel  to  the  relatively 
stiff  ship  bulkheads  and  perpendicular 
to  the  direction  in  which  maximum  dis- 
tortions of  the  local  ship  structure  are 
expected.  As  the  magazine  bulkheads 
breathe  back  and  forth,  this  motion  is 
readily  absorbed  by  articulation  at  the 
rack  joints. 

Articulation  of  the  rack  does  ap- 
pear to  add  complications  to  the  design 
and  manufacture  of  a  gear  rack.  How- 
ever, in  an  overall  appraisal,  articula- 
tion is  the  feature  that  makes  possible 
a  simple  compact  drive. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


27 


engine  support  . 


Big  Rockets  Multiply  AASE  Needs 

Trend  is  toward  reducing  sophisticated  engine 
equipment.  But  man-in-space  requirements, 
new  fuels  will  demand  R&D  of  new  support  items 


by  Henry  W.  Gilfillan 

Canoga  Park.  Calif. — Designers 
of  rocket  engine  support  equipment 
face  a  variety  of  new  problems.  These 
are  occasioned  by  the  larger  and  larger 
powerplants  that  are  and  will  be  re- 
quired and  the  introduction  of  new 
propellants.  both  of  the  storable  and 
high-energy  types. 

New  problems  are  the  result  of  our 
insatiable  ambition  to  achieve  greater 
and  greater  things  in  rocketry.  The 
diminution  of  some  of  our  old  prob- 
lems is  due  partly  to  the  fact  that  our 
hardware  is  becoming  simpler  and  more 
reliable,  requiring  less  field  checkout 
and  routine  maintenance. 

The  greatest  thing,  of  course,  that 
ever  happened  to  support  equipment 
was  its  recognition  as  an  important  part 
of  the  weapon  system,  the  realization 
of  its  true  extent  and  cost,  and  the  in- 
tensity of  effort  which  this  realization 
triggered. 

One  of  our  past  problems  has  been 
simply  that  of  learning  to  analyze  func- 
tional requirements  realistically  and  of 
coordinating  properly,  both  internally 
and  externally.  A  few  years  ago  it  was 
hard  to  get  the  attention  of  an  engine 
designer  long  enough  to  consider  sup- 
port matters.  He  was,  understandably, 
too  preoccupied  with  the  more  glamor- 
ous and  apparently  much  more  press- 
ing job  of  developing  a  good  reliable 
engine.  It  was  difficult  to  coordinate 
properly  with  associate  contractors  con- 
cerned with  the  same  weapon  system, 

About  the  Author 


in  matters  relating  to  "integrated"  sup- 
port equipment.  That  is,  equipment 
generated  primarily  by  engine  require- 
ments, but  whose  design  must  be  co- 
ordinated with  missile  systems  or  missile 
supporting  equipment. 

Examples  of  integrated  MSE  might 
be  special  slings  for  installing  an  en- 
gine into  a  missile  airframe.  The  pickup 
points,  of  course,  are  determined  by 
the  engine  itself,  but  other  dimensional 
requirements  are  determined  by  the  air- 
frame and  the  methods  of  engine  in- 
stallation to  be  employed — horizontal 
installation,  for  instance,  for  Jupiter,  or 
vertical  for  Thor.  Another  example 
would  be  electrical  launch  controls, 
with  their  intimate  interconnections 
with  missile  circuitry  and  MSE.  In 
these  cases,  it  was  hard  to  determine 
the  inter-faces  of  responsibility. 

In  the  early  days,  the  maintenance 
concept  was  just  evolving  and  the  ser- 
ious impact  on  design  of  maintenance 
analyses,  belatedly  conducted,  was  not 
yet  fully  appreciated. 

•  R&D  and  standardization — The 
press  of  time  was  an  added  factor.  Sup- 
port equipment  engineers  have  always 
been  hardest  hit  by  schedules.  They 
were  generally  handed  a  nearly  opera- 
tional missile  design  and  then  told  to 
go  ahead  and  design  and  develop  op- 
erational MSE  and  get  it  to  the  armed 
forces  well  ahead  of  the  airborne  hard- 
ware. This  left  them  no  time  for  R&D. 
It  is  a  matter  of  history  that  our  pre- 
cious prototypes  were  sometimes  re- 
luctantly relinquished  in  order  to  meet 


first  production  delivery  schedules.  As 
a  result,  we  were  really  forced  to  de- 
velop our  equipment  while  it  was  in 
production  or  actually  in  the  field.  We 
have  now  come  to  regard  R&D  con- 
current with  production  as  normal. 

Another  matter  of  concern  was 
that  of  standardization  between  weapon 
systems  and  space  vehicles.  No  one 
will  argue  against  standardization  as 
regards  design  and  development  time 
and  overall  cost.  But,  in  the  past,  it 
has  sometimes  been  difficult  to  per- 
suade the  "program"  or  "project  orient- 
ed" people  to  accept  any  design  or 
performance  compromises  that  would 
be  solely  in  the  interests  of  standardiza- 
tion. 

In  the  matter  of  configuration  con- 
trol, we  have  had  to  learn  to  evaluate 
changes  in  airborne  hardware  properly 
with  respect  to  their  effect  on  support 
equipment.  We  have  come  to  appreci- 
ate that  what  may  sometimes  seem  to 
be  an  innocent  improvement  to  a  mis- 
sile may  wreak  havoc  with  the  corres- 
pondingly affected  support  equipment 
as  well  as  with  handbooks,  spares, 
trainers,  training  courses,  and  logistics 
in  general. 

We  have  had  to  learn  to  resist  cer- 
tain rather  human  temptations.  Devel- 
oping automatic  checkout  equipment, 
for  instance,  is  a  fascinating  pursuit. 
But  we  must  take  care  not  to  over- 
automate  unnecessarily  just  because  it 
is  more  fun  to  do  it  that  way.  We  have 
had  also  to  avoid  a  tendency  to  per- 
petuate 'traditional'  system  and  com- 
ponent checkout  procedures  that  are 
no  longer  really  necessary. 

•  Eliminating  sophisticates — It  used 
to  be  considered  mandatory  that  an 
engine  system  be  checked  out  using  ac- 
tual launch  control  equipment.  This  is  a 
good  philosophy  during  R&D,  when 
changes  are  extremely  rapid  and  when 
it  cannot  be  guaranteed  that  launch 
control  equipment  is  truly  compatible 
with  the  engine  until  they  are  checked 
out  together.  In  an  operational  situa- 


Henry  W .  Gilfillan  is  section  chief  for  the  Ground  Sup- 
port Equipment  unit  at  the  Rocketdyne  Division  of  North 
American  Aviation.  He  is  responsible  for  all  the  engine 
handling  equipment  for  Redstone,  Jupiter,  Thor,  Atlas,  Saturn 
booster,  and  Nova  F-l  programs.  After  obtaining  a  BS  in 
electrical  engineering  at  the  University  of  Michigan  in  1939, 
he  was  a  research  engineer  with  Chrysler  Corp.  until  1951, 
when  he  joined  Rocketdyne  as  a  senior  engineer  in  research. 
He  directed  development  of  electrical  control  components 
until  last  year,  when  he  took  over  his  present  assignment. 


28 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


tion,  however,  there  is  less  of  this  un- 
certainty, and,  consequently,  checkout 
equipment  can  be  considerably  simpli- 
fied in  engine  and  missile  maintenance 
areas.  It  was  found  that  under  the  old 
philosophy,  most  of  the  time  required 
to  checkout  an  engine  was  really  spent 
in  checking  out  the  launch  control 
equipment  instead. 

We  were  forced  also  to  comb 
through  our  procedures  and  handbooks 
and  weed  out  unreasonably  accurate  or 
unnecessarily  sophisticated  field  check- 
outs which  would  require  correspond- 
ingly sophisticated  and  complicated 
support  equipment.  We  had  to  rouse 
ourselves  occasionally  from  our  pre- 
occupation with  engineering  elegance 
of  design  of  airborne  equipment  and 
from  our  lack  of  concern  for  down-to- 
earth,  potentially  wartime,  field  con- 
ditions. Engine  designers  have  learned 
to  be  a  trifle  more  thoughtful  about 
including  some  very  minor  design  pro- 
visions to  meet  support  needs.  We  re- 
member how  we  all  once  wished  very 
much  that  one  more  lifting  lug  had 
been  provided  on  one  of  our  engines. 

•  Reducing  MSE — Rocketdyne  rec- 
ognizes that  the  only  sound,  funda- 
mental way  to  reduce  the  cost  and 
amount  of  MSE  hardware  is  to  develop 
simpler,  more  reliable  engines  and  com- 
ponents which  need  little  in  the  way  of 
field  checkout  and  field  maintenance. 

For  example,  the  single  thrust 
chamber  engines  we  were  building  in 
1955  were  comprised  of  88  compo- 
nents. Our  1959  models  have  only  33, 
and  our  1960  engines  will  have  only  5 
components.  This,  of  course,  results  in 
much  higher  engine  reliability  and  in 
greatly  reduced  MSE.  Regrettably,  the 
amount  of  MSE  is  not  reduced  in  di- 
rect proportion  to  the  reduction  in 
components,  but  the  effect  is  gratifying 
indeed. 

The  other  part  of  the  Rocketdyne 
approach  hinges  on  proper  timing.  As 
has  been  pointed  out  many  times  by 
support  people,  design  of  support 
equipment  should  begin  concurrently 
with  the  design  of  the  missiles  and 
engines  themselves.  There  is  a  danger, 
however,  of  starting  to  draw  pictures 
too  soon.  The  trick  is  to  start  actual 
design  not  too  late — but  not  too  early 
either.  In  the  inception  of  a  missile 
design,  the  following  begin  at  the  very 
outset: 

•  Investigation  of  the  vehicle  or 
weapon  system  operational  concept. 

•  Investigation  of  the  maintenance 
concept. 

•  Investigation  of  engine  system 
support  functional  requirements. 

•  Investigation  of  engine  compo- 
nent support  functional  requirements. 

Following  these,  model  specifica- 
tions are  written  (whether  or  not  there 
is  a  contractual  requirement  for  them) . 


These  spell  out  all  functional  design 
requirements  of  each  support  item  in- 
sofar as  they  can  be  determined  at  this 
stage.  Then  all  sources  of  existing 
equipment,  i.e.,  military  inventories, 
commercially  available  equipment,  and 
equipment  already  developed  for  other 
programs,  are  investigated.  If  it  is  sus- 
pected that  other  contractors  may  al- 
ready be  developing  equipment  with 
similar  functional  requirements,  this  is 
investigated  too. 

We  have  developed  a  number  of 
semi-standard  modules,  especially  in 
the  checkout  and  servicing  areas,  which 
can  be  applied  "as  is"  or  with  small 
modification  to  most  new  engines,  mis- 
siles or  space  vehicles.  New  prototype 
design  begins  only  when  functional  re- 
quirements are  firm  enough  to  result  in 
prototype  hardware  that  will  be  reason- 
ably close  to  the  final  operational  con- 
figuration. Final  production  design 
release  is  held  up  as  long  as  possible 
without  jeopardy  to  customer  need 
dates.  In  this  way,  prototypes  are  avail- 
able for  development  for  as  long  a 
period  as  possible. 

•  Compatibility — In  order  to  tie  the 
knot  of  coordination  securely  between 
engine  designers  and  support  equip- 
ment designers,  it  is  now  required  that 
they  sign  each  other's  layouts.  Thus, 
the  engine  people  can  be  assured  of 
functional  and  configurational  compati- 
bility of  the  MSE  with  their  engines 
and,  in  turn,  the  MSE  designer  can 
adequately  be  assured  that  proper  de- 
sign provisions  have  been  made  for 
engine  handling,  servicing  and  check- 
out. As  a  final  safeguard  to  guarantee 


compatibility.  Rocketdyne  now  regu- 
larly conducts  "RIOT"  (Resolution  of 
Initial  Operational  Techniques)  pro- 
grams. These  are  in  the  nature  of  vali- 
dation tests,  wherein  the  engine,  its 
support  equipment,  the  handbooks  and 
the  man  who  has  been  trained  to  use- 
all  three,  are  all  brought  together  and 
operated  as  nearly  as  possible  as  they 
will  be  in  the  field.  Thus  the  last  rem- 
nants of  incompatibility  are  picked  up 
and  corrected. 

Finally,  Rocketdyne  operates  what 
are  known  as  flight  test  support  stands. 
These  are  engine  test  stands  which 
have  been  equipped  with  operational 
ground  support  equipment  insofar  as 
feasible.  Our  past  problems  have  been 
less  of  a  technical  nature  and  more  a 
matter  of  finding  out  what  things  to  do 
rather  than  how  to  do  them.  Recogniz- 
ing the  harmful  effects  of  poor  human 
engineering,  consultants  to  Rocketdyne 
have  produced  a  Human  Factors  de- 
sign manual  for  support  equipment. 
Classes  in  human  factors  principles  are 
conducted  regularly  by  a  qualified  ex- 
pert who  also  approves  all  MSE  design 
layouts. 

Of  more  pressing  interest  are  the 
more  technical  obstacles  that  confront 
us  immediately. 

•  Big  rocket  MSE — The  physical 
size  of  some  of  our  new  engines,  for 
instance  Rocketdyne's  1.5  million- 
pound-thrust  F-l  single-chamber  Nova 
engine  being  developed  for  NASA, 
poses  some  unusual  handling  and  trans- 
port problems.  Since  it  is  desirable  to 
position  the  engine  at  several  different 
angles  during  the  process  of  fabrica- 


WiTH  ENGINE  LIFTING    SUNG  ATTACHED 


EQUIPMENT  used  to  remove  Thor  engine  and  ready -it  for  trip  to  mainte- 
nance area. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


29 


trend  toward  sophistication  .  .  . 


tion,  special  handling  equipment  must 
be  provided  in  the  shop.  With  regard 
to  transport,  there  are  definite  size 
limitations  relating  to  bridge  and  tun- 
nel clearances  as  well  as  allowable  or 
desirable  load  width  on  the  highways. 

Special  consideration  will  also  have 
to  be  given  to  the  limitations  of  high- 
way, rail,  air  and  water  transport.  At 
the  test  stand  or  launching  site,  too, 
the  handling  problems  incident  to  in- 
stallation and  removal  of  the  engine 
are  not  to  be  dismissed  lightly. 

The  size  of  certain  of  the  engine 
control  components  presents  problems. 
We  are  used  to  thinking  of  engine 
propellant  valves  as  being  something 
smaller  than  a  breadbox  that  one  man 
could  pick  up  and  carry.  This  is  by 
no  means  any  longer  the  case,  and 
special  handling  and  protective  gear 
must  now  be  provided  for  them. 

Again  because  of  size,  decontamina- 
tion equipment  for  these  large  engines 
must  be  correspondingly  scaled  up  to 
provide  higher  pressures  and  higher 
flows  of  solvents,  and  purge  gases. 
Thrust  chamber  protective  covers  and 
closures,  heretofore  considered  minor 
design  problems,  now  require  careful 
comparative  analysis  and  design  study 
in  order  to  arrive  at  configurations 
which  actually  do  protect  the  engine 
and  yet  are  made  up  of  subsections 
small  and  light  enough  that  special 
handling  equipment  is  not  especially 
required  for  them  too. 

Happily,  increased  size  has  not  re- 
sulted in  increased  difficulty  of  engine 
checkout  or  in  complexity  of  checkout 
equipment.  In  fact,  the  simplicity  of 
this  particular  engine  has  considerably 
reduced  checkout  requirements  as  com- 
pared to  current  production  engines. 
With  some  new  engines,  however, 
checkout  equipment  has  been  compli- 
cated somewhat  by  the  addition  of  new 
systems  such  as  helium  cryostats. 

The  Saturn  vehicle  being  developed 
for  ARPA  by  the  Army  Ballistic  Mis- 
sile Agency,  and  for  which  Rocketdyne 
is  developing  the  booster  propulsion, 
employs  a  cluster  of  eight  engines 
similar  to  those  now  used  on  the  oper- 
ational Jupiter  missile.  Fortunately, 
again,  clustering  presents  no  particu- 
larly new  support  equipment  problems. 
Engine  installation  gear  may  be  a  trifle 
more  difficult  than  for  an  IRBM,  but 
the  "any  position,  plug-in"  engine  im- 
poses no  new  requirements  on  check- 
out or  servicing  equipment. 

On  the  other  end  of  the  scale,  some 
of  the  new  engines  now  being  de- 
veloped by  the  industry  for  application 
to  upper  stages,  have  thrust  chambers 


which  are  extremely  lightweight.  Special 
handling  and  protective  devices  are  re- 
quired. 

The  new  silo  launcher  configura- 
tions, now  projected  for  various  weapon 
svstems,  impose  no  significant  hardships 
on  the  design  of  engine  support  equip- 
ment, but  may  possibly  exert  a  larger 
influence  on  the  support  devices  asso- 
ciated with  the  rest  of  a  weapon  system, 
such  as  propellant  loading  gear  or  mis- 
sile handling  or  missile  checkout  equip- 
ment. 

•  Space  support  needs — Let  us  take 
now  a  very  brief  glimpse  at  some  of 
the  anticipated  problems  of  the  future. 
The  trend  seems  to  be  toward  higher 
pressures  in  missile  pneumatic  and  hy- 
draulic systems,  possibly  up  to  8000  psi. 

This  will  require  the  development 
of  greatly  improved  fittings  and  hoses 
capable  of  satisfactory  performance 
and  safety  at  these  higher  pressures 
for  use  in  fluid  systems. 

Enormous  size  and  expenses  of  first- 
stage  boosters  for  some  of  the  cur- 
rently contemplated  space  vehicles 
makes  it  extremely  desirable,  probably 
economically  mandatory,  to  develop 
booster  recovery  techniques.  What  new 
support  requirements  will  be  thus  gen- 
erated is  not  yet  known,  but  it  can  be 
foreseen  that  ships  or  landing  fields 
and  communication  systems  will  be  re- 
quired and  also  engine  cleaning  and 
overhaul  facilities.  The  cost,  in  the 
opinion  of  the  writer,  will  be  fully 
justified  by  the  dollar  savings  in 
booster  hardware. 

The  same  applies,  of  course,  to  the 
recovery  of  the  man.  or  men,  in  a 
space  vehicle.  The  extent  and  cost  of 
the  ground  support  required  will  be 
large,  but  this  is  critical  to  putting  men 
in  space.  With  manned  vehicles,  it  may 
be  necessary  to  protect  the  pilot  from 
the  noise  developed  by  his  vehicle's 
engines,  especially  at  blast-off.  And 
it  may  be  possible  to  ameliorate  this 
condition  by  means  of  special  support 
equipment,  the  nature  of  which  we  can 
now  only  guess  at. 

The  potential  effects  of  storable 
propellants  upon  support  equipment 
appear  to  be  beneficial.  Propellant 
transfer  will  be  a  less  frequent  opera- 
tion and  it  will  no  longer  be  necessary 
to  employ  topping  techniques  during 
holds.  The  use  of  storables  actually 
forces  a  reduction  in  checkout  and  in 
maintenance  operations,  as  it  is  usually 
not  practical  to  exercise  valves  and 
control  components  for  purposes  of 
checkout  or  to  remove  and  reinstall 
components  from  a  propulsion  system 
when  the  missile  tanks  are  already  full. 


Other  simplifications  are  also  inherent. 

For  instance,  the  propellants  are  hy- 
pergolic  and  need  no  special  ignition 
systems  for  starts,  or  restarts  aloft,  and, 
consequently,  ignition  system  check- 
outs are  eliminated.  About  the  only 
new  problem  that  storables  introduce 
is  that  of  propellant  leakage  detection 
and  the  disposal  of  propellants  thus 
lost. 

•  Simplification  trend — High-energy 
propellants,  on  the  other  hand,  pose 
very  difficult  support  problems.  Liquid 
hydrogen  requires  special  liquefaction 
storage,  transportation  and  line-trans- 
fer equipment  because  of  its  extremely 
low  boiling  point  (minus  420°F). 
Liquid  fluorine  has  the  same  disadvant- 
ages plus  some  extremely  difficult  ma- 
terials problems.  Passivation  and  clean- 
liness requirements  force  the  develop- 
ment of  new  handling  items. 

Simplification  characterizes  future 
trends  in  rocket  engine  support.  Vastly 
simplified  engines  both  in  being  and 
projected  will  require  very  little  check- 
out. New  techniques  of  induction-braz- 
ing plumbing  will  virtually  eliminate 
leaks  and  the  need  for  leak-test  equip- 
ment. 

Simpler  components  will  foster 
simplification  of  support  gear.  Hyper- 
golic  igniters  and  burst  diaphragms, 
for  instance,  cannot  be  checked  out 
and  hence  do  not  generate  supporting 
devices.  Equipment  for  cold  checking 
in  the  field  will  also  disappear  as  it  is 
becoming  safer  and  safer  to  assume 
that  a  component  assembled  per  print 
with  parts  that  are  dimensionally  cor- 
rect will  function  properly  under  all 
conditions  for  which  it  was  designed. 
Highly  sophisticated  items  like  servo 
valve  analyzers  will  fade  from  the 
operational  scene. 

Future  engines  will  be  capable  of 
being  flushed,  purged  and  preserved 
while  in  any  position,  eliminating 
special  handling  and  rotating  gear  now 
in  use.  The  utter  simplicity  of  new 
engines  and  almost  complete  lack  of 
an  electrical  system  may  eliminate  auto- 
matic checkout  of  engines. 

Technical  breakthroughs  can  and 
must  be  made  by  the  designers  of  air- 
frame hardware,  guidance  systems, 
engines  and  the  researchers  in  fuels, 
materials  and  futuristic  propulsion  sys- 
tems. To  be  sure,  support  equipment 
designers  will  make  use  of  the  new 
knowledge  and  techniques  thus  gained 
by  their  less  earthbound  brethren  in 
order  properly  to  support  the  winged 
things  of  the  future.  Missile  support 
(and  space  support),  however,  will 
hold  up  its  end  by  making  "conceptual" 
breakthoughs — researching  the  new 
ways  in  which  men  in  space  must 
be  supported  and  maintained  alive  until 
they  and  their  vehicles  are  successfully 
recovered  intact. 


30 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


MOTOROLA  MILITARY  ELECTRONICS  CAPABILITIES  REPORT: 

Strategic  Deployment  of  Technical  Personnel 


Dr.  Daniel  E.  Noble,  Executive  Vice  President,  Motorola,  Inc. 


'Dynamic  organization... not  static... is  the  key  to  productive 
use  of  technical  talent  in  the  field  of  military  electronics.' 


The  next  two  pages  tell  how  Motorola  has  achieved  "dynamic  organization" 


Three  field  commanders  direct  day-to-day  activities  of  Motorola's  technical  divisions.  Wheeler's  Military 
Electronics  Division  concentrates  directly  on  military  problems,  drawing  on  the  resources  of  Reese's  Communications 
Division  (world's  largest  producer  of  two-way  communication  systems)  and  Hogan's  Semiconductor  Division 
(world's  largest  producer  of  power  transistors  and  leader  in  mesa  transistor  development  and  production). 
Behind  this  technical  task  force  stands  Motorola's  strength  in  consumer  electronics;  in  an  emergency  the 

company's  total  complex  of  18  plants  in  four  states  can  be  converted  to  mass  production  of  military  equipment. 


Dr.  Lester  Hogan,  Manager 
Semiconductor  Products  Division 


Of  Motorola's  2,000  engineers  and  scientists,  four  out  of  five  work  under  the  dir- 
ection of  Dr.  Daniel  E.  Noble,  Executive  Vice  President.  One  of  the  three  divisions 
under  his  command  is  devoted  exclusively  to  military  electronics;  two  others  provide 
strong  support.  Working  together,  they  form  a  j^/J^^        J  y 


TECHNICAL 
TASK  FORCE 


Officials  of  the  Air  Force  Flight  Test  Center  at 
Edwards  faced  a  particularly  knotty  problem.  Special- 
ized microwave  equipment  was  required  to  relay 
telemetry  from  aircraft  in  remote  areas. 

At  the  request  of  the  military,  Motorola  rapidly 
assembled  the  talent  and  equipment  of  its  tri-divisional 
technical  task  force.  Heaviest  contributions  to  the 
project  were  made  by  Motorola's  Military  Electronics 
Division.  But  important  help  came  from  other  sources: 
microwave  equipment  and  vhf  receivers  from 
Motorola's  Communications  Division;  specialized 
transistor  circuitry  from  the  Semiconductor  Products 
Division. 

With  this  swift  concentration  of  technical  talent 
drawn  from  a  diversity  of  company  sources,  Motorola 
was  able  to  solve  a  major  problem  for  the  Air  Force  in 
record  time. 

Few  organizations  serving  the  military  today  can 
so  rapidly  merge  diverse  technical  talents  and  produc- 
tive capacities  as  can  Motorola.  Its  three  "task  force" 
divisions,  under  the  single  command  of  Dr.  Daniel 
Noble,  can  be  marshalled  almost  overnight  for  the 
solution  of  urgent  military  electronics  problems.  Cross- 
fertilization  of  ideas  and  techniques  is  the  certain  result. 

The  success  of  this  flexible  organizational  struc- 
ture was  again  demonstrated  by  Motorola's  part  in  the 
development  of  the  Project  Mercury  Space  Capsule. 
The  Capsule's  command  control  receiver,  developed 


by  Motorola's  Military  Electronics  Division,  is  the 
smallest  all-transistorized  radio  receiver  of  its  type 
available,  thanks  to  mesa  transistors  developed  by 
the  Semiconductor  Division  and  miniaturization 
techniques  borrowed  from  packaging  specialists  of  the 
Communications  Division.  In  another  instance, 
Motorola's  Semiconductor  Division  developed  the  first 
samples  of  a  new  type  of  electronic  facsimile  paper 
with  important  military  applications. 

In  an  era  marked  by  a  chronic  shortage  of  com- 
petent brain-power,  Motorola's  strategic  deployment 
of  its  technical  resources  is  an  effective  answer,  both 
in  the  solution  of  current  problems  and  in  conducting 
long-range  research. 

Strategic  deployment  of  manpower  is  only  one 
of  the  reasons  why  Motorola  is  able  to  design,  develop 
and  produce  military  systems  and  equipment  with 
speed,  economy  and  reliability.  Motorola's  exclusive 
concentration  in  electronics,  its  cost-conscious 
approach  to  producibility,  and  its  preoccupation  with 
reliability,  are  evident  in  every  Motorola  military  prod- 
uct, from  the  smallest  solid  state  device  to  the  most 
complex  weapons  systems. 

For  a  comprehensive  brochure  on  Motorola's 
Military  Electronics  capabilities,  write:  Technical  Data 
Service,  Motorola,  Inc.,  Military  Electronics  Division, 
8201  East  McDowell  Road,  Scottsdale,  Arizona. 


AA)  MOTOROLA 


CHICAGO  ■  PHOEN 


Military  Electronics  Division , 

Engineers  and  Physicists  interested  in  career  opportunities  are  invited  to  write:  Motorola,  Inc.,  Military  Electronics  Division 
r^17^77^!!     ilium        sraa«  ;n^^7W^^.H  r 


1450  NORTH  CICERO  AVENUE 
CHICAGO  51.  ILLINOIS 


8201  east  Mcdowell  road 
scottsdale,  arizona 


8330  INDIANA  AVENUE 
RIVERSIDE.  CALIFORNIA 


miSSileS  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959        Circle  No.  I  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


Newest  Lear  plant,  Grand  Rapids,  Michigan,  open  September  25, 1959 


DEDICATED  TO  DEFENSE 

This  unusual,  most  advanced  facility  will  produce 
vital  precision  guidance  and  control  products  for  aircraft, 
helicopters,  missiles,  anti-missiles  and  space  vehicles. 


Circle  No.  1  on  Subscriber  Service  Card.       missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


cryogenics  .  .  . 

Pre-cooling  To  Eliminate  Countdowns? 


Retractable  cooling  jacket  is  suggested 

to  prevent  cryogenic  boil-off;  ICBM  bases  require 

25  T/D  LOX-liquid  nitrogen  plants 


by  James  A.  Snyder 

Allentown,  Pa. — Among  the  dis- 
advantages associated  with  high-per- 
formance cryogenic  propellants  is  the 
long  countdown  period.  This  remains 
after  such  other  difficulties  as  mobile 
production  and  handling  have  been 
overcome. 

One  method  of  drastically  reducing 
or  even  eliminating  the  countdown  time 
would  be  fabrication  of  a  retractable, 
refrigerated  missile  jacket.  This  device 
would  pre-cool  the  missile  prior  to 
fueling  and  then  maintain  both  the 
fuel  and  the  oxidizer  in  a  slightly  sub- 
cooled  condition  in  the  missile,  thus 
eliminating  boil-off.  The  jacket  could 
be  removed  just  before  launching.  Dif- 
ferent zones  of  the  jacket  could  be 
held  at  different  temperatures  to  ac- 
commodate the  particular  fuel-oxidizer 
combination  in  use  at  the  time.  The 
system  would  assure  the  presence  of 
the  exact  amounts  of  propellant  neces- 
sary at  the  precise  instant  of  launching. 

Since  the  airborne  cryogenic  equip- 
ment contained  in  the  missile  would 
be  at  low  temperature,  the  possibility 
of  thermal  shock  as  a  source  of  mal- 
function would  be  eliminated. 

It  is  doubtful  that  this  adaptation 
will  be  made  to  the  present  generation 
of  vehicles,  but  it  shows  great  promise 
for  future  high-performance  equipment. 
Meanwhile,  advances  have  been  made 
in  adapting  the  production  and  handling 
of  cryogenic  propellants  to  field  con- 
ditions. 

•  Mobile  LOX  systems — The  Red- 
stone missile — being  highly  mobile — 


.IQUID  REFRIGERATION 


INSULATING  JACKET 


OXIDIZER  STORAGE 


RETRACTABLE  refrigerated  missile  jacket  could  assure  right  amount  of  launch  fuel. 


required  a  LOX  generating  plant  which 
could  be  built  into  military  type  semi- 
trailer vans,  and  able  to  meet  all  the 
normal  military  requirements  such  as 


About  the  Author 

James  A.  Snyder  is  manager  of  the  Government  Projects 
Division  of  Air  Products  Inc.  Holder  of  an  MS  degree  in 
mechanical  engineering  from  Columbia  University,  Snyder 
is  closely  associated  with  LOX  and  liquid  hydrogen  produc- 
tion in  both  large  permanent  plants  and  mobile  support 
systems. 


terrain,  climatic  conditions,  gee-loading 
and  air  transportability.  The  plant  em- 
ploys the  use  of  a  somewhat  standard 
high  pressure  cycle  and  produces  5 
tons  per  day  (T/D)  of  liquid  oxygen. 

In  field  use,  the  only  support  raw 
material  needed  is  diesel  fuel  for  the 
engines  driving  the  compressors.  These 
units  generate  their  own  electricity  for 
auxiliary  purposes.  LOX  or  liquid  ni- 
trogen is  withdrawn  from  the  appropri- 
ate liquid  storage  tank  aboard  the 
trailer  and  is  transported  to  the  mis- 
sile in  a  military  type,  9  T/D  LOX 
trailer.  This  trailer  has  a  self-contained 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


35 


progress  with  hydrogen  .  .  . 


HELIUM  liquefier  was  built  by  Air  Products  to  test  feasibility  of  long-range  transpor- 
tation of  the  material.  The  next  few  years  will  bring  heavy  work  in  this  field. 


liquid  transfer  pump  which  pumps  the 
product  directly  into  the  missile. 

The  Jupiter  system,  with  consider- 
ably larger  demands  than  the  Redstone, 
required  the  development  of  a  liquid 
oxygen-liquid  nitrogen  producing  plant 
having  total  liquid  capacity  of  20  tons 
per  day.  Once  more,  the  mobility  con- 
cept prevailed  and  in  this  instance  it 
was  necessary  to  use  four  semitrailer 
vans  to  house  the  essential  equipment. 
Again,  all  of  the  military  vehicle  re- 
quirements applied.  Two  air  source 
trailers  are  needed,  along  with  a  third 
housing  air  purification  and  heat  ex- 
changer equipment. 

The  fourth  contains  the  control 
room,  expansion  turbine,  distillation 
column  and  plant  storage  tanks.  In 
field  use,  LOX  or  liquid  nitrogen  is 
transferred  from  the  generating  plant 
to  a  4000-gallon  military-type  liquid 
semitrailer.  A  sufficient  number  of  trail- 
ers to  fill  one  missile  are  hauled  from 
the  generating  plant  site  to  the  actual 
launching  site  where  the  product  is 
transferred  from  the  trailers  to  the 
missile  by  means  of  a  separate  transfer 
pump. 

The  required  suction  head  for  the 
LOX  transfer  pump  is  provided  through 
pressurization  of  the  liquid  in  the  trail- 
er by  coils  located  on  the  underside  of 
each  trailer.  Appropriate  filtering  equip- 
ment is  used  to  avoid  the  introduction 
of  mechanical  particles  into  the  missile 
itself. 


•  Transporting  by  air — Other  ma- 
jor missiles  in  our  arsenal  employ  the 
concept  of  a  semi-permanent  or  perma- 
nent base,  such  as  the  Thor,  Atlas  and 
Titan  programs.  The  LOX  generator 
concept  then  changes  from  one  of  ex- 
treme mobility  to  one  of  air  trans- 
portability for  these  semi-permanent  or 
permanent  locations.  For  this  service, 
a  25  ton-per-day  liquid  oxygen-liquid 
nitrogen  generating  plant  was  devel- 
oped with  the  main  power  source  being 
either  diesel  engines  or  electric  motors. 
Again,  the  plants  are  designed  so  that 
the  main  support  requirement  will  be 
easily  available.  A  high-pressure  cycle 
similar  to  the  Redstone  is  used,  except 
that  more  refinements  such  as  expan- 
sion engines  and  more  effective  control 
systems  are  employed  to  provide  a 
plant  having  a  greater  over-all  econ- 
omy. 

In  all  instances,  the  plants  are  de- 
signed to  be  operated  and  maintained 
by  military  personnel.  All  components, 
including  the  building,  form  convenient 
packages  for  air  transportation.  In  these 
bases,  LOX  is  moved  from  the  generat- 
ing area  to  the  launching  area  by  means 
of  4000-gallon  semitrailers.  The  stor- 
age tanks  are  generally  28,000  gallons 
and  pumping  from  the  storage  tank  to 
the  missile  is  accomplished  by  means 
of  a  pressurization  system.  High-pres- 
sure storage  bottles  are  filled  with  va- 
porized LOX  at  a  pressure  of  approxi- 
mately 3000  psig,  and  an  elaborate 


control  system  is  employed  to  fill  the 
missile  quickly  with  LOX  and  to  keep 
it  topped  with  sub-cooled  LOX  during 
the  pre-launching  period. 

•  New  standards — As  the  missile 
program  developed  and  the  equipment 
and  systems  became  more  complex, 
new  requirements  for  quality  control 
became  apparent.  Commercial  stand- 
ards of  cleanliness  and  purity  were  no 
longer  satisfactory.  As  a  result,  a  hy- 
drocarbon analyzer  was  developed  and 
forms  a  part  of  the  scientific  equip- 
ment associated  with  each  of  these  in- 
stallations. It  is  used  to  detect  con- 
taminants in  the  fractional  parts  per 
million  range  which,  if  concentrated, 
could  cause  explosions. 

Similarly,  mechanical  contamina- 
tion became  a  problem.  It  was  neces- 
sary to  develop  new  standards  of  clean- 
liness for  all  LOX  handling  equipment. 
A  system  had  to  be  devised  for  pro- 
tection against  the  introduction  of  the 
contaminants  during  the  various  re- 
handling  operations.  There  is  still  no 
universal  agreement  among  the  missile 
manufacturers  on  this  point,  but  gen- 
erally filters  capable  of  removing  me- 
chanical particles  down  to  a  minimum 
of  10  to  40  microns  are  used. 

Another  specific  missile  develop- 
ment is  storage  tank  decontamination. 
A  device  has  been  developed  which  will 
allow  periodic  removal  of  either  soluble 
or  non-soluble  contaminants  by  means 
of  adsorption  techniques  without  the 
necessity  for  discarding  the  contents 
of  the  tank. 

•  Liquid  Hydrogen — Now  that  the 
security  veil  which  has  surrounded  the 
liquid  hydrogen  program  has  been 
lifted,  it  is  possible  to  discuss  some  of 
the  outstanding  developments  in  this 
field.  Liquid  hydrogen  is  the  most 
promising  new  fuel  in  the  missile  busi- 
ness today. 

Users  feel  that  the  increased  han- 
dling problems  are  more  than  offset  by 
the  remarkable  high  performance  of 
this  fuel.  In  contrast  to  liquid  oxygen, 
liquid  hydrogen  has  a  boiling  point  of 
-423°F.,  a  critical  temperature  of 
-400 °F.,  and  a  freezing  point  only  14° 
below  its  boiling  point.  This  very  light 
liquid  has  a  density  of  only  .58  pounds 
per  gallon  and  a  latent  heat  of  only 
389  BTU's  per  pound-mol  compared 
to  that  of  2932  BTU's  per  pound-mol 
for  oxygen. 

Thus  it  can  be  seen  that  the  liquid 
is  very  cold,  that  it  will  occupy  large 
volumes  on  a  weight  basis,  and  that  it 
has  a  tendency  to  boil  away  at  a  much 
faster  rate  than  the  familiar  liquid 
oxygen.  However,  its  specific  impulse 
when  used  with  LOX  is  approximately 
365,  as  compared  to  a  specific  impulse 
of  approximately  270  for  RPI  and 
LOX.  Of  the  known  chemical  fuels 
and  oxidants,  this  impulse  is  exceeded 


36 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


only  slightly  by  the  combination  of 
hydrogen  and  elemental  liquid  fluorine. 

A  hydrogen  production  and  lique- 
faction facility  is  necessarily  complex. 
The  basic  source  of  hydrogen  is  crude 
oil,  with  additional  hydrogen  being 
extracted  from  water  during  the  chemi- 
cal processing  which  takes  place  in  the 
hydrogen  gas  generation  portion  of  the 
plant.  The  hydrogen  is  liquefied  by  first 
being  cooled  to  liquid  nitrogen  temper- 
atures by  means  of  a  nitrogen  refriger- 
ant system  and  further  cooling  in  a 
hydrogen  refrigerant  system — with  final 
refrigeration  being  supplied  through 
mechanical  expansion  devices  espe- 
cially developed  for  this  application. 

Large-scale  production  of  this  im- 
portant chemical  has  proved  to  be  safe 
and  economical.  The  price  of  product 
on  a  per-pound  basis  is  well  below  that 
of  some  of  the  more  common  storables 
such  as  hydrazine. 

After  production,  the  liquid  hydro- 
gen is  stored  in  vacuum  insulated  stor- 
age tanks  which  have  been  developed 
to  a  state  of  perfection  so  that  only 
a  very  small  loss  rate  (a  fraction  of 
1%  per  day)  is  experienced.  It  is,  how- 
ever, necessary  to  transfer  this  product 
through  vacuum  insulated  transfer  lines 
as  opposed  to  bare  or  non-insulated 
lines  for  LOX  or  liquid  nitrogen.  These 
lines  require  precision  manufacture  to 
maintain  the  high  vacuums,  less  than 
one  micron,  required  for  successful 
operation. 

Special  shielding  techniques  to 
eliminate  infrared  radiation  into  the 
product  had  to  be  developed.  Hydrogen 
is  transferred  from  the  storage  area 
either  by  direct  pipeline  or  with  the 
use  of  large  liquid  semitrailers  de- 
veloped especially  for  this  service. 
Safety  techniques  have  been  developed 
to  the  point  where  it  is  possible  to 
transport  the  product  over  long  dist- 
ances on  public  highways.  However, 
generally  speaking,  the  economics  of 
the  situation  indicate  the  desirability 
of  the  location  of  the  production  lique- 
faction plant  at  or  near  the  missile 
firing  site. 

In  addition  to  its  use  as  a  chemical 
fuel,  hydrogen  has  been  selected  as  the 
ideal  propellant  for  use  with  the 
nuclear  rocket  engine.  No  new  tech- 
niques in  handling  or  storage  of  this 
fuel  are  needed  for  the  nuclear  missile 
program. 

•  Liquid  fluorine — Because  of  a 
shortage  of  funds  for  development  last 
year,  the  liquid  fluorine  program  did 
not  receive  the  amount  of  attention 
which  would  normally  have  been  in- 
dicated by  the  technical  progress  made 
in  this  field.  Next  to  ozone,  elemental 
liquid  fluorine  is  the  most  powerful 
chemical  oxidizer  known.  It  has  a 
normal  boiling  point  of  -306°F.,  a 
critical  temperature  of  -207°F.,  and  a 


latent  heat  of  2952  BTU's  per  pound 
mol.  Thus,  excepting  for  its  extreme 
chemical  activity,  it  is  in  its  physical 
respects,  very  similar  to  oxygen.  In 
addition  to  being  extremely  active 
chemically,  it  is  Iethally  toxic  and  thus 
requires  very  special  handling. 

Elemental  fluorine  is  produced  by 
the  electrolysis  of  HF,  and  various 
chemical  and  physical  techniques  or 
combinations  thereof  are  employed  to 
remove  the  impurities  carried  over 
from  the  electrolytic  process. 

The  high  toxicity  of  the  element 
increases  the  complications  in  storing 
and  shipping.  For  instance,  the  outer 
shell  of  a  fluorine  storage  and  trans- 
port tank  contains  an  intermediate 
shell  which  surrounds  the  inner  fluorine 
tank. 

The  space  between  the  intermediate 
and  inner  shells  is  filled  with  liquid 
nitrogen  which  is  allowed  to  boil  at  its 
normal  temperature,  -320°F.,  thus 
maintaining  the  fluorine  itself  in  a  sub- 
cooled  condition.  This  means  that 
fluorine  can  be  handled  with  these 
loss-free  containers,  thus  preventing 
escaping  gases  and  the  resulting  attack 
on  people  or  materials. 

One  of  the  major  problem  areas 
in  this  program  has  been  the  develop- 
ment and  selection  of  materials  suit- 
able for  containing  the  fluorine  under 
the  various  operating  conditions  likely 
to  be  encountered.  The  materials  used 
in  handling  equipment  must  often  be 
passified,  that  is,  they  are  first  exposed 
to  a  weak  fluorine  solution  which 
forms  a  chemical  film  on  the  surface 
of  the  metal,  thus  protecting  it  from 
attack  by  the  stronger  fluorine  itself. 

Because  of  the  extreme  hazards 
associated  with  the  transporting  of  this 
material,  it  is  considered  better  to 
locate  the  production  sites  as  near  to 


the  use  sites  as  possible.  It  is  antici- 
pated that  activity  in  this  field  will 
increase  greatly  during  the  next  few 
years. 

•  Future  needs — It  is  certain  that 
further  improvements  will  be  made  in 
the  manner  in  which  the  liquid  pro- 
pellants  are  transferred  from  their  stor- 
age areas  to  the  missile  itself.  For  ex- 
ample, research  is  being  done  on  vari- 
ous high-capacity  pump  systems.  Vari- 
ous transfer  systems  are  now  being 
used  and  it  would  appear  that  one 
superior  system  will  emerge. 

The  use  of  the  extremely  cold  cry- 
ogenic materials  such  as  liquid  hy- 
drogen or  liquid  helium  has  required 
the  development  of  superior  insulations 
and,  more  important,  the  application 
of  these  insulations  to  the  appropriate 
tank  or  line  configurations.  Several 
manufacturers  are  developing  proprie- 
tary insulations  with  performances 
many  times  better  than  the  familiar 
perlite-vacuum  low-temperature  insula- 
tion technique.  Generally,  these  new 
materials  successfully  shield  against  in- 
frared penetration  while  retaining  their 
low-conduction  characteristics. 

Finally,  the  area  of  helium  lique- 
faction will  receive  much  additional 
attention  and  development  during  the 
next  few  years.  A  helium  liquefier  was 
developed  primarily  for  feasibility  work. 
This  program  will  demonstrate  the 
practicability  of  long-range  transporta- 
tion of  liquefied  helium.  This  will,  of 
course,  greatly  reduce  transportation 
costs,  as  well  as  the  size  and  bulk  of 
the  equipment  required  for  transporta- 
tion. As  more  helium  becomes  avail- 
able for  missile  use,  liquid  storage  and 
pumping  systems  will  be  developed  as 
well  as  the  recondensation  apparatus 
necessary  to  conserve  this  very  scarce 
element. 


25  T/D  LOX 
GENERATING  PLANT 


Go — <x$-o$ 


4000-GALLON 
LOX  TRAILERS 


oo — oc^-c? 


CONTROL 
SYSTEM 

1/  - 


OXYGEN 

PRESSURIZATION 
CYLINDERS 


LOX  SYSTEM  for  Thor,  Atlas  and  Titan  is  designed  for  operation  by  military  crews. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


37 


Space  Support  Market  On  the  Rise 


NASA's  support  outlay  has  been  limited 
so  far  because  its  vehicles  have  been  modified  missiles 
but  hundreds  of  millions  may  be  spent  in  the  '60's 


by  Paul  Means 

Washington — The  nation's  fledg- 
ling space  program  is  creating  a  new 
market  for  the  missile  industry — a  mar- 
ket for  space  vehicle  support  equip- 
ment. 

How  fast  the  market  grows  will 
depend  entirely  on  the  progress  of  the 
space  program.  Though  only  about  $30 
million  was  spent  by  NASA  this  year 
on  new  space  support  equipment,  the 
amount  spent  per  year  could  grow  into 
the  hundreds  of  millions  during  the 
next  decade. 

Space  vehicle  support  equipment  is 
the  instruments  and  tools  that  test, 
move,  set  up,  check  out,  launch,  track 
and  control  the  space  vehicle.  It  does 
not  necessarily  remain  on  the  ground. 
Space  stations  used  for  launching  ve- 
hicles into  deep  space  would  be  sup- 
port equipment.  So  would  the  equip- 
ment needed  to  support  space  vehicles 
and  their  crews  on  the  moon  and  other 
planets. 

The  market  is  curtailed  presently 
because  most  space  vehicles  in  use  are 
modified  missiles  which  use  equipment 
already  in  existence.  Jupiter-C,  Juno, 
Atlas- Able  and  Thor-Able  all  use  the 
support  equipment  developed  for  their 
missile  prototypes.  The  only  current 
space  vehicle  that  was  developed  from 
the  ground  up  as  a  space  vehicle  with 
its  own  equipment  is  Vanguard. 

Many  of  the  newer  space  vehicles, 
such  as  Centaur  and  Vega,  are  also 
adapted  from  missiles  and  will  use 
existing  equipment.  Scout,  operational 
next  summer,  will  be  the  first  space 
vehicle  since  Vanguard  needing  its  own 
support  equipment. 

But  as  newer  space  vehicles  come 
off  the  drawing  board,  the  market  will 
increase  for  space  vehicle  support 
equipment  of  a  type  that  will  hardly 
resemble  missile  support  equipment. 

The  support  equipment  needs  of 
space  vehicles  are  radically  different 
from  those  of  missiles.  A  missile  must 
be  easily  serviced,  rapidly  moved,  and 
quickly  implaced,  fueled  and  fired. 
Space  vehicles,  on  the  other  hand,  are 
fired  one  at  a  time  from  the  same 
launching  pad  at  non-strategic  bases, 


under  clinical  conditions,  at  unhurried, 
opportune  times. 

Support  equipment  designed  for  ad- 
vanced space  vehicles  must  be  capable 
of  moving  large,  heavy  and  fragile 
components,  of  handling  the  most  toxic 
and  radioactive  fuels,  of  firing  rockets 
developing  millions  of  pounds  of  thrust, 
and  of  tracking,  telemetering,  and  send- 
ing commands  so  complex  as  to  be  un- 
dreamed of  in  the  military  missile 
world. 

Specific  support  needs  of  space  ve- 
hicles are: 

•  Tracking,  telemetering  and 
ground  command  stations — as  space  ve- 
hicles achieve  the  capability  of  chang- 
ing course  or  orbit  upon  signal,  and 
of  travelling  millions  of  miles  from 
earth,  the  need  will  arise  for  more 
powerful  and  more  complex  ground 
stations. 

Estimated  NASA-ARPA  cost  for 
such  equipment  during  the  next  few 
years  is  from  $50  million  to  $75  mil- 
lion per  year. 

Thirty  million  has  already  been 
spent  for  the  east-west  Minitrack  fence 
used  originally  in  the  Vanguard  pro- 
gram. Over  $3  million  has  been  allo- 
cated for  a  similar  fence  in  Alaska,  the 
northern  United  States,  and  Canada, 
to  track  satellites  in  polar  orbits. 

NASA  plans  to  bolster  its  deep 
space  tracking  in  the  near  future  by 
constructing  two  more  of  the  multi- 
million  dollar  Goldstone  85-foot  para- 
bolic dishes.  And  the  demand  for  deep 
space  tracking  apparatus  will  increase 
as  space  vehicles  achieve  the  capability 
of  probing  farther  into  space. 

Man-in-space  will  place  a  heavy 
burden  on  industry  to  come  up  with 
the  type  of  supporting  ground  elec- 
tronic equipment  that  will  keep  him 
safe  and  in  control  of  his  vehicle.  Or- 
iginal estimates  for  the  Project  Mercury 
tracking  range  is  over  $15  million,  with 
$5,250,000  going  for  a  tracking,  com- 
munication and  radar  acquisition  net- 
work in  Southern  Texas. 

Further  into  the  future,  the  elec- 
tronic supporting  equipment  needed  for 
space  stations,  and  moon  and  planet 
launching  bases  should  provide  the 
electronics  industry  with  a  sizable  mar- 


ket for  years. 

•  Test  and  launch  equipment — As 

missiles  become  smaller  and  more  com- 
pact, space  vehicle  boosters  will  be- 
come larger  and  heavier.  This  places 
special  requirements  on  the  types  of 
test  stands  and  launch  equipment  that 
must  be  used. 

Saturn,  the  first  of  the  large  space 
vehicle  boosters,  will  be  over  200  feet 
high  and  will  weigh  580  tons  at  lift- 
off. To  provide  for  its  needs,  a  special 
175-foot  test  tower  is  being  built  at 
ABMA,  and  a  305-foot  self-propelled 
service  stand  will  be  built  at  the  launch- 
ing site. 

Types  of  equipment  this  tower  will 
need  include  fire  protection  facilities, 
personnel  safety  devices,  heating  and 
air  conditioning  systems,  lightning  pro- 
tection, elevators,  cranes,  and  genera- 
tors. 

These  requirements  give  an  idea  of 
the  immense  and  complex  type  of 
equipment  needed  to  launch  the  large 
future  space  vehicles.  The  six  million 
pound  thrust  cluster  Nova,  and  space 
boosters  still  on  the  drawing  board,  will 
even  be  larger. 

•  Check-out  equipment — Some  of 
the  newer  propellants  to  be  used  in 
space  vehicles,  such  as  liquid  hydro- 
gen, and  liquid  flourine,  are  going  to 
require  exacting  and  safe  check-out 
equipment.  The  problems  of  checking 
out  boosters  propelled  by  nuclear  re- 
actors, ion.  plasma  or  photon  energy, 
have  hardly  been  approached. 

•  Moving  equipment — How  do  you 
move  a  booster  over  200  feet  long  and 
weighing  hundreds  of  tons?  Unless  you 
dismantle  the  vehicle,  and  reassemble 
it  at  the  launch  area,  you  must  devise 
some  way  of  flying  it,  moving  it  across 
land,  or  floating  it  down  rivers  intact. 

•  Man-in-space — Before  man  oc- 
cupies a  space  station,  or  installations 
on  the  moon  and  the  other  planets,  a 
great  deal  of  research  must  be  done  to 
establish  what  sort  of  support  equip- 
ment he  needs.  Space  stations  and 
moon  stations  must  be  built  on  the 
ground  that  will  match  the  rigors  of 
space  environment.  Millions  of  dollars 
will  be  spent  for  research  on  this  type 
of  support  equipment. 


38 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


l4ow  four  can  outi  &naw£&r  ao  at  AC? 


In  a  company  so  deeply  involved  in  space  age  instru- 
mentation projects  .  .  .  where  you  can  grow  through  the 
finest  "in  house"  training  .  .  .  where  a  new  advanced 
R&D  group  is  now  operating  —  here,  at  AC,  you 
can  go  as  far  as  your  imagination  and  initiative  will 
take  you. 

Three  advanced  education  programs  can  help  you 
enhance  your  professional  status.  These  are  offered  in 
addition  to  AC's  educational  assistance  programs  for 
men  who  wish  to  study  for  advanced  degrees  in  nearby 
universities. 

Program  A — for  recent  graduate  engineers — gives  you 
a  solid  foundation  in  the  theory  and  application  of 
inertial  guidance  systems  and  servomechanisms. 

Program  B — for  experienced  engineers — consists  of 
upgrading  studies  in  inertial  guidance,  servomechanisms, 
environmental  problems,  engineering  math  and  physics, 
plus  advanced  state-of-the-art  courses. 


Program  C — for  all  engineering  supervisors — involves 
management  training  developed  by  a  team  of  AC  exec- 
utives and  University  of  Chicago  industrial  relations 
experts. 

AC's  new  R&D  Group  is  devoted  to  the  Research 
and  Development  of  advanced  systems  and  components. 
Current  programs  include  many  vital  projects.  Inter- 
planetary navigation  and  guidance.  Digital  computer 
development.  Advanced  inertial  sensors.  Passive  electro- 
magnetic detection,  surveillance  and  navigation  systems. 
Guidance  systems  for  ballistic  missiles,  space  vehicles 
and  aircraft. 

If  you  are  a  graduate  in  the  electronics,  math,  physics, 
electrical  or  mechanical  fields,  or  if  you  have  an 
advanced  degree,  you  may  be  able  to  participate  in 
these  programs.  For  more  details,  write  the  Director  of 
Scientific  and  Professional  Employment,  Mr.  Robert  Allen, 
Oak  Creek  Plant,  Box  746,  South  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin. 


Inertial  Guidance  Systems  •  Afterburner  Fuel  Controls  •  Bombing  Navigational 
Computers    •    Gun-Bomb-Rocket  Sights    •    Gyro-Accelerometers    •  Gyroscopes 

©Speed  Sensitive  Switches  •  Speed  Sensors  •  Torquemeters  •  Vibacall  •  Skyphone 
SPARK  PLUG  #  THE  ELECTRONICS  DIVISION  OF  GENERAL  MOTORS 
missiles  and  rockets,  September  2  1 ,  1959  39 


test  stands  and  gantrys  .  .  . 

Who  Should  Be  Prime  to  Design-Build? 


Big  steel  fabricators  dispute  role  of  missile  makers 
in  constructing  rocket  stands 


by  M/R  Staff 

Washington — Construction  of  a 
2400-ton,  310-foot-high  missile  serv- 
ice gantry  involves  problems  vastly 
different  from  those  encountered  by 
engineers  in  the  design  of  bridges  and 
conventional  structures. 

The  $4-million  tower  being  built 
for  Saturn's  1.5  million-pound-thrust 
must  be  able  to  accommodate  a  240- 
foot  missile  and  provide  for  its  safe 
servicing,  checkout,  and  launch  and  for 
the  comfort  and  convenience  of  the 
missile  crews. 

Such  a  structure  is  practically  a 
city  in  itself.  It  contains  its  own  power 


station,  elevators,  air-conditioning,  fire- 
protection,  intercom,  water,  air.  hy- 
draulic, and  lighting  facilities,  complex 
operating  controls,  and  lightning  pro- 
tection. And  the  entire  structure  must 
be  "portable" — that  is,  be  capable  of 
being  moved  under  its  own  power  to 
a  safe  distance  during  launch. 

There  are  two  opposing  schools 
as  to  who  should  be  the  prime  con- 
tractor on  the  design  and  construc- 
tion of  such  structures.  One — typified 
by  Kaiser  Steel — holds  that  the  de- 
sign, fabrication,  and  erection  of  the 
basic  structure  and  its  mechanical  com- 
ponents should  be  in  the  hands  of  firms 
with  a  long  background  in  construction 
and  heavy  equipment  fields. 


The  construction  firm  feels  that 
the  missile  contractor's  participation 
should  be  limited  to  those  areas  and  to 
the  extent  governed  by  functional  re- 
quirements imposed  on  the  service 
tower  by  the  missile  itself. 

The  other  view  is  that  the  missile 
prime  should  have  full  cognizance  and 
control  over  all  support  equipment,  in- 
cluding the  towers.  They  hold  that 
the  gantry  is  basically  a  simple  steel 
structure  whose  fabrication  and  erec- 
tion is  straightforward  and  should  be 
bid  competitively  and  built  from  the 
engineering  firm's  designs  and  speci- 
fications. 

•  Money  keys  procedure — The  steel 
fabricators  in  this  young  but  thriving 


40 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Better  propulsion  hardware ...  through  CDC  systems 
experience. 

[capabilities  is  the  production  of  many  thin-w  alled  motor 
[cases  for  the  Explorer  Satellite.  These  motors  reflect  the 
inherent  superiority  of  hardware  designed  and  produced 
by  men  who  are  specialists  in  rocket  systems.  Never  losing 
sight  of  the  relationship  between  the  specific  hardware 
and  the  system  as  a  whole,  CDC  specialists  supply  the 
propulsion  hardware  you  want,  when  you  want  it,  at  a 
reasonable  price.  As  a  Marquardt  Corporation  subsidiary, 
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Lcilities  to  meet  any 
mis.  Complete  pro 
id  machinery  f 
spinning,  forging,  and  testing.  Skilled  workers  and  expert 
technicians  make  the  engineering  design  a  reality  in  the 
shortest  possible  time.  May  we  apply  this  overall  depth 
fof  experience  to  you 


- 


Cooper  Development 

Corporation, 


A  SUBSIDIARY  OF  THE  MARQUARDT  CORPORATION 


SCIENTISTS.  CREATIVE  ENGINEERS  —  INVESTIGATE  THIS  FIELD  WITH  A  FUTURE.  CHALLENGING  WORKING  £!• 

Circle   No.  35  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


UTHERN  CALIFORNIA. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


41 


as  usual,  money  talks  .  .  . 


Space  Age  industry  counter  that  big 
test  stands  and  gantrys  are  as  tricky 
to  build  as  missiles,  and  require  a 
specialized  engineering  talent  to  cope 
with  the  never-ending  stream  of  modi- 
fications. Says  N.  M.  Schroeder,  Kaiser 
support  equipment  project  engineer, 
speedy  incorporation  of  changes  is 
most  effectively  accomplished  "by  the 
'design-build'  contractor  working  in 
close  harmony  with  the  missile  de- 
signer." 

Actually,  procedure  is  determined 
by  who  has  control  of  the  money.  In 
the  case  of  the  Alias  program.  Convair. 
the  missile  prime,  had  control  over  the 
entire  weapons  system.  They  could, 
and  did,  award  a  design-build  contract 
to  Kaiser  Steel  for  the  Sycamore  Can- 
yon static  test  facility  and  two  mobile 
service  towers.  Later,  Convair  awarded 
a  contract  for  14  of  the  towers — modi- 
fied to  allow  for  horizontal  checkout 
—to  U.S.  Steel. 

In  most  cases,  however,  responsi- 
bility for  support  construction  for 
Army  and  Air  Force  missiles  is  held 
by  Army  Corps  of  Engineers.  (  Bureau 
of  Yards  and  Docks  has  similar  cog- 
nizance for  the  Navy.) 

Government  policy  is  that  design 
and  construction  be  handled  by  sepa- 
rate firms.  Generally,  a  contract  is  let 


SCALE  MODEL  of  Saturn  tower.  Kaiser 
engineers  first  built  80-inch  model  to 
study  fabrication  and  operation. 


to  design  the  structure  to  governmental 
specifications  based  on  missile  require- 
ments. After  the  design  has  been 
approved,  another  contract  is  let  for 
construction  of  the  facility. 

This  procedure,  although  some- 
times ponderous,  provides  a  check  and 
balance.   It  also  offers  a  measure  of 


guarantee  that  all  will  be  done  ac- 
cording to  Hoyle. 

•  Objections  raised — Many  in  the 
industry  feel,  however,  that  the  firm 
doing  the  design  work  can  logically  do 
a  better  job  on  the  construction.  In 
any  case,  the  bulk  of  missile  gantry 
work  is  done  under  Army  Engineers 
procedures. 

As  in  many  other  phases  of  missile 
development,  some  odd  situations  are 
sometimes  created  in  the  procurement 
jungle.  As  an  example.  Aerojet-General 
was  awarded  contracts  to  construct 
two  1.5  million-pound-thrust  test  stands 
at  Edwards  AFB.  In  their  capacity  as 
an  A&E  firm,  this  would  arouse  no 
particular  question. 

However,  North  American,  the 
prime,  objected  strenuously  since  Aero- 
jet-General is  one  of  their  main  com- 
petitors in  the  propulsion  field.  Ac- 
cording to  reports,  other  A&E  compa- 
nies also  objected. 

It  appears  likely  that  most  of  the  fu- 
ture test  and  launching  gantries  w  ill  be 
built  under  the  established  procedures 
of  the  Corps  of  Engineers — especially 
since  procurement  policies  are  getting 
away  from  the  weapon  system  concept 
which  gave  the  prime  contractor  cog- 
nizance over  the  entire  missile  system. 

Much  can  be  said  for  both  sides  in 
the  controversy,  but  the  primary  objec- 
tive, of  course,  is  that  our  missile  and 
space  programs  have  the  support  struc- 
tures equal  to  their  job  when  and  where 
they  are  needed. 


TOWER  structure  consists  of  104-foot 
missile  erection  and  service  tower  plus 
52-foot  tower  for  second  stage. 


TEST  STAND  for  Titan  is  designed  to  deflect  the  flames  and  thrust  of  a  multimillion 
horsepower  motor.  Many  construction  companies  feel  that  equipment  like  this  should 
be  built  and  erected  largely  by  firms  with  construction  background. 


42 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


new  symbol 
for 

systems 


In  five  years  of  operation.  Consolidated  Systems  has  climbed  from  less  than  one-quarter  million  to 
over  ten  million  dollars  per  year  in  custom-engineered  systems  for  dynamic  and  static  testing, 
chemical  analysis,  industrial  control,  and  high-speed  analog  and  digital  data  processing.  This 
unprecedented  growth  in  specialized  systems  (including  missile  ground  support  and  cryogenics) 
is  proof  of  quality— of  performance — and  of  customer  satisfaction.  Over  500  systems  have  been 
designed,  manufactured,  installed,  and  kept  in  service.  These  are  operating  systems  producing  data 
where  time  is  critical  and  performance  is  paramount.  Read  about  them  in  Bulletin  1458-X2. 


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CORPORATION 

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43 


Flow  Before  Flight ...  Controlled  by  Crane 


At  that  critical  point  in  launching  prepara- 
tions when  liquid  fuel  is  released  to  the  missile 
on  the  pad,  the  valve  that's  opened  is  likely  to 
be  a  Crane  cryogenic  globe  valve. 

Since  1855  it  has  been  traditional  with  Crane 
to  pioneer  in  valves  for  the  newest  applications 
in  the  newest  industries.  This  leadership,  to- 
gether with  Crane  product  quality  and  de- 
pendability, has  made  Crane  the  world's  larg- 
est manufacturer  of  valves. 

Whether  your  need  is  for  special  valves  for 


missile  fuel  handling — or  valves  for  a  more 
"down-to-earth"  application  in  the  control  of 
water,  steam  and  air — Crane  can  meet  all 
your  specifications. 

You  will  find  the  Crane  handbook  "Valves 
for  Guided  Missile  and  Rocket  Services"  very 
helpful  in  specifying  for  liquid  fuels,  gases, 
and  other  fluids  used  at  launching  pads,  test 
stations  and  operating  bases.  Request  your  free 
copy,  on  your  business  letterhead,  from  your 
nearest  Crane  branch  or  write  to  address  below. 


CRANE  VALVES  &  FITTINGS 

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HYDRO- AIRE  Division,  Burbank,  Calif.— Controls  for  Every  Basic  Air-Borne  System 

44  circle  no.  37  on  Subscriber  service  Card.      missiles  and  rockets,  September  2  1  .  1959 


Minuteman  Handling 


Must  Be 


Delicate 


by  Jay  Holmes 

Washington — Handling  of  the 
Boeing  Minuteman,  America's  flexible 
intercontinental  missile,  will  be  a  major 
challenge  to  support  equipment  makers. 

The  finely-balanced  and  structured 
weapon,  with  its  sensitive  guidance  gear 
and  solid-propellant  grain,  must  be 
able  to  move  over  rough  terrain  in  re- 
mote areas  or  on  trains  to  fulfill  its 
mission  of  "mobile"  instant  retaliation. 
Furthermore,  it  must  be  taken  out  of 
its  hard  base  at  intervals  for  checking 
and  recycling  of  propellant. 

The  missile,  due  to  be  operational 
in  1962,  will  be  transported  in  ready- 
to-fire  condition.  This  is  to  provide 
maximum  readiness,  since  only  the 
thermonuclear  warhead  will  be  installed 
at  the  underground  launch  site.  The 
Minuteman  concept  of  widely  dispersed 
launch  facilities,  most  of  them  ready  to 
fire  at  any  given  time,  will  provide 
assurance  that  at  least  some  of  our 
retaliatory  weapons  will  escape  de- 
struction even  after  a  surprise  attack. 

The  lightweight  skin  of  the  rocket 
case  is  a  major  difficulty  in  transporting 
Minuteman.  The  skin,  just  strong 
enough  to  hold  the  combustion  pres- 
sure, must  not  even  be  scratched,  lest 
it  be  weakened  by  notch  sensitivity. 


Bending  loads  must  not  be  imposed. 
Temperature  must  be  rigidly  controlled. 

To  deal  with  this  dilemma.  Gen- 
eral Electric  proposes  a  missile  carrier 
and  loader  powered  by  direct  current 
electric  motors.  A  gasoline  engine  gen- 
erator would  supply  current.  Electric 
motors  have  no  gears  to  shift  while 
the  carrier  is  accelerating  or  decelerat- 
ing, and  while  the  hoist  is  transferring 
the  missile  to  and  from  the  silo.  There 
are  no  sudden  jars. 

In  a  further  effort  to  keep  the  ride 
smooth,  all  wheels  will  be  equipped 
with  hydraulically  operated  brakes  as 
a  supplement  to  dynamic  braking. 
And  on  either  side  of  the  carrier's 
pivot  center,  a  trunion  provides  three- 
point  support  that  eliminates  any 
twisting  or  bending  while  the  missile 
is  raised  or  lowered  into  position. 

The  versatility  of  the  electrical 
system  allows  performance  to  be  al- 
tered to  suit  any  changing  requirements 
and  to  furnish  power  for  auxiliaries. 
One  of  these  needs  is  temperature  con- 
trol, provided  by  a  combination  re- 
frigerator-heating plant  with  a  blower. 

One  70-foot  carrier  has  already 
been  produced  by  Utility  Trailers,  Los 
Angeles,  for  Minuteman. 

Boeing,  associate  general  contrac- 
tor for  assembly  and  test  of  Minute- 
man,  and  a  rocket  engine  company 


probably  would  operate  the  assembly 
and  recycling  facilities.  The  Air  Force 
is  reported  to  be  studying  sites  in 
Nebraska,  Kansas  and  Iowa,  among 
others,  for  their  location.  Although  it 
is  presumed  that  the  launching  bases 
will  be  relatively  close  to  the  assembly 
facilities,  their  locations  will  be  secret. 

It  will  be  fairly  easy  to  hide  launch 
facilities  because  they  will  be  much 
simpler  and  smaller  than  those  for 
Atlas  and  Titan,  the  liquid-fueled 
ICBM's.  Minuteman,  stored  in  a  cam- 
ouflaged silo,  will  be  launched  by  re- 
mote control  from  an  inconspicuous 
building  nearby.  Personnel  and  ground 
support  facilities  will  be  few. 

Autonetics  Division  of  North  Amer- 
ican Aviation  has  the  Minuteman  guid- 
ance contract.  Avco  is  making  the  re- 
entry nose  cone.  Thiokol  is  developing 
the  first-stage  propulsion,  with  limited 
backup  by  Aerojet-General.  Aerojet 
and  Thiokol  have  second-stage  develop- 
ment programs  stressing  different  tech- 
nological approaches.  Aerojet  is  work- 
ing on  the  third  stage  with  Hercules 
Powder  Co.  developing  a  parallel  pro- 
gram stressing  a  different  approach. 

Last  week,  Data-Control  Systems 
Inc.  announced  receipt  of  a  $750,000 
contract  from  Boeing  to  develop  the 
FM/FM  ground  station  telemetry  sys- 
tem for  the  Minuteman  test  program. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


45 


In  Fiscal  Year  1960  alone 


$550  Million  for  ICBM  Facilities 

Here's  an  authoritive  account  of  the  complex 

and  constantly  changing  requirements  of  the  nation's 

most  massive  design  and  construction  program. 


by  Lt.  Col. 
Charles  B.  Alexander,  Jr.,  USAF 
and  Fred  E.  Ressegieu 

Los  Angeles — From  its  Ballistic 
Missile  Division  (ARDC)  here,  the 
Air  Force  supervises  and  directs  the 
largest  design  and  construction  pro- 
gram in  the  United  States  today — the 
preparation  of  bases  and  launch  facili- 
ties for  the  country's  rapidly  increas- 
ing arsenal  of  intercontinental  ballistic 
missiles. 

In  the  fiscal  year  just  concluded, 
the  Air  Force  committed  approximately 
$200  million  to  the  program  for  con- 
struction of  facilities,  making  a  total  of 
$480  million  to  date.  The  FY  1960 
budget  passed  by  Congress  includes  a 
figure  of  approximately  $550  million 
for  ballistic  missile  facilities.  BMD 
handles  directly  the  design  of  all  these 
facilities;  the  Army's  Corps  of  Engi- 
neers is  BMD's  principal  constructing 
agency. 

Because  it  is  vital  that  bases  be 
ready  as  soon  as  the  ICBM's  are  avail- 
able, their  design  and  construction  is 
being  accomplished  concurrently  with 
development  of  the  missile.  Growth 


and  change  are  inevitable  as  the  mis- 
siles approach  operational  status,  and 
changes  in  the  facilities  must  keep  pace 
during  both  design  and  construction. 
Close  control  and  integration  by  BMD 
makes  this  possible. 

Col.  William  E.  Leonhard  is  BMD's 
Deputy  Commander  for  Installations. 
His  organization  manages  the  design 
of  test,  training  and  operational  facili- 
ties for  the  ballistic  missile  program, 
using  selected  architect-engineers  for 
the  actual  design. 

BMD's  responsibility  continues 
during  the  construction  phase.  Changed 
requirements  must  still  be  coordinated 
with  the  missile  contractors  and  the 
facility  designer  and  incorporated  into 
the  launch  buildings  during  construc- 
tion. Col.  Leonhard  accomplishes  this 
through  his  own  field  offices  at  each 
construction  site. 

Construction  of  missile  launch  facil- 
ities is  now  under  way  at  eleven  Air 
Force  bases  in  the  United  States.  The 
Department  of  Defense  appropriations 
bill  for  1960  provides  increased  funds 
for  speedup  of  missile  programs,  spe- 
cifically for  Atlas  and  Minuteman. 

After  receipt  of  a  design  assign- 
ment, the  Architect-Engineer's  first  con- 


cern is  to  accumulate  the  information 
necessary  for  him  to  proceed.  This  in- 
cludes design  criteria  from  the  missile 
designer,  design  and  operational  cri- 
teria from  the  Air  Force,  construction 
agency  design  standards,  and  specific 
information  pertaining  to  the  site,  such 
as  soils,  topographic  and  real  estate 
data. 

•  Complexities — Most  complex  of 
these  by  far  is  the  first — the  design 
criteria  from  the  missile  designer.  In 
designing  missile  facilities,  the  con- 
struction engineer  finds  himself  in- 
volved in  an  engineering  problem  of 
new  dimensions.  Inherently  complex, 
the  missile  and  supporting  equipment 
must  be  sheltered  in  a  facility  designed 
to  withstand  overpressures,  ground 
shock,  and  radiation  from  nuclear  at- 
tack. 

Understandably,  the  criteria  from 
the  missile  designer  is  provided  in  con- 
siderable detail.  It  consists  of  design 
documents  accompanied  by  drawings 
specifying  critical  dimensions,  clear- 
ances, and  arrangement,  as  well  as 
power  and  other  utility  requirements, 
temperature,  humidity,  shock  and  simi- 
lar physical  limitations.  Interfaces  be- 
tween the  facility  and  the  missile  are 
specified  or  suggested.  The  detailed 
requirements  of  propellant  storage, 
handling,  and  loading  are  particularly 
critical.  All  of  the  necessary  informa- 
tion to  assure  that  the  facility  will 
properly  support  the  weapon  system  is 
supplied  to  the  A-E  after  check  and 
approved  by  the  Air  Force. 

Criteria  originating  with  the  Air 
Force  include  those  of  the  Strategic 
Air  Command  based  on  operational 
needs.  Design  specifications  assure  in- 
corporation of  the  latest  technical  im- 
provements, by-products  of  studies  and 
research  conducted  by  BMD  as  well 
as  their  experience  with  other  missile 
systems.  Of  considerable  importance 
are  the  "austerity"  criteria  which  as- 
sure that  completed  designs  contain  no 
frills  and  meet  minimum  essential 
standards  for  the  use  intended. 


lit, 


About  the  Authors 

Colonel  Alexander  is  Assistant  for  Technical  Require- 
ments, WS-107A-1 ,  Facilities  Division,  AF  Ballistic  Missile 
Division,  ARDC.  He  is  responsible  for  validation,  correlation 
and  approval  of  these  requirements  for  launching  and  sup- 
port of  the  Atlas  and  integration  of  these  requirements  into 
design  criteria.  A  native  of  Macon,  Ga.,  and  a  graduate 
of  Macon  University,  he  was  an  Air  Force  intelligence 
officer  in  Europe  in  World  War  IL 

Mr.  Ressegieu  is  Manager  of  Defense  Projects,  Power 
and  Industrial  Division,  Bechtel  Corporation.  He  is  a  graduate 
of  West  Point  and  has  an  AM  in  civil  engineering  from 
Cornell.  He  retired  from  the  Army  with  the  rank  of  colonel 
after  20  years'  experience  including  service  as  District 
Engineer  in  St.  Louis.  From  1954  through  1957,  he  was 
C hief  of  the  Plans  and  Programs  Division  in  the  Office  of  the 
Army  Chief  of  Research  and  Development.  Since  joining 
Bechtel  in  1958,  he  has  been  involved  in  ICBM  facilities 
designing. 


46 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Information  pertaining  to  the  site 
is  received  from  SAC,  A-E  studies  and 
the  construction  agency  concerned 
through  arrangements  made  by  BMD. 

•  Constant  change — Few  of  the  cri- 
teria listed  above  are  static;  arrange- 
ments must  be  made  for  orderly  incor- 
poration throughout  the  design  of  con- 
tinually changing  requirements.  Most 
critical  and  complex,  and  most  subject 
to  change,  are  those  criteria  provided 
by  the  missile  system  contractor.  While 
changes  can  be  effected  by  formal 
changes  to  the  original  criteria  docu- 
ment, transmitted  through  BMD,  more 
often  than  not  the  urgency  of  time 
will  require  a  short  cut. 

During  a  major  design  program, 
representatives  of  the  Architect-En- 
gineer may  be  physically  located  at  the 
missile  system  contractor's  plant,  and 
representatives  of  the  missile  contractor 
similarly  stationed  at  the  A-E's  design 
office.  Through  this  close  technical  liai- 
son, changes  in  the  missile  system  are 
immediately  known  to  the  facility  de- 
signer and  their  impact  on  the  facility 
design  can  be  calculated.  Any  required 
changes  are  of  course  subject  to  BMD 
approval. 

Panels  of  experts  are  available  for 
discussion  and  consultation  on  specific 
areas  of  classified  information  such  as 
effects  of  nuclear  weapons,  blast  waves, 
radiation,  ground  shock. 

Systems  technical  direction  and 
coordination  of  the  many  technical  re- 
quirements of  integration  of  the  sev- 
eral weapon  systems  is  handled  by 
Space  Technology  Laboratories  (STL) 
acting  as  agent  for  BMD. 

•  Conception  and  review — In  the 
design  of  missile  launching  facilities 
one  of  the  first  steps  is  delineating  the 
basic  concept  to  be  followed. 

The  Architect-Engineer  prepares  a 
concept  based  upon  the  total  criteria 
and  presents  it  to  BMD.  usually  using 
a  series  of  charts  which  show  general 
arrangement  of  equipment  and  build- 
ings in  plan  and  section  views  as  well 


as  proposed  treatment  of  some  of  the 
more  unusual  problems. 

At  this  presentation,  BMD,  SAC, 
STL,  and  other  key  groups  can  evalu- 
ate the  concept  and  direct  changes  if 
required  prior  to  approval,  so  that 
detailed  design  can  proceed. 

After  approval  of  the  concept,  the 
Architect-Engineer  prepares  the  pre- 
liminary design,  which  includes  draw- 
ings, outline  specifications  of  equip- 
ment and  materials,  and  engineering 
calculation.  This  is  thoroughly  re- 
viewed by  AFBMD,  an  engineering 
review  conference  is  held,  and  BMD 
directs  any  changes  to  be  incorporated 
into  the  final  design.  Further  confer- 
ences are  held  with  SAC,  the  designers 
of  the  missile,  and  the  designers  of  its 
support  equipment:  the  design  pro- 
ceeds to  its  final  phase  embodying  the 
requirements  for  operation  of  the  mis- 
sile and  of  its  supporting  components. 

Final  design  of  the  facility  is  sub- 
mitted and  again  reviewed.  Every  detail 
is  gone  over  with  a  fine-tooth  comb; 
new  developments  are  incorporated. 
Design  drawings  and  specifications  are 
then  modified  and  passed  to  the  con- 
structing agency. 

Design  work,  however,  does  not 
come  to  a  halt  with  the  award  of  a 
construction  contract;  any  change 
which  occurs  during  development  of 
the  missile  or  its  support  equipment 
must  be  reflected  in  design  of  the 
facility.  Major  changes  affecting  the 
construction  contract  are  handled  by 
change  orders  to  the  contractor.  Other 
changes  or  clarifications  of  the  draw- 
ings and  specifications  are  handled  by 
BMD's  field  representative,  who  con- 
tinuously checks  on  construction  to  see 
that  it  is  completed  on  schedule  and 
in  strict  accordance  with  the  design, 
including  such  changes  as  may  be  devel- 
oped in  the  field  or  in  the  change 
orders. 

•  Tough  requirements — The  requi- 
sites of  a  good  Architect-Engineer  for 
missile  facility  design  work  are  strin- 
gent. 


The  work  includes  structural,  archi- 
tectural, civil,  electrical,  and  mechani- 
cal engineering  and  drafting  and  prepa- 
ration of  specifications.  While  much 
of  the  work  is  like  that  performed  on 
any  large  and  difficult  engineering  pro- 
ject, there  are  important  differences  in- 
volving special  skills  and  organizational 
flexibility  and  adaptability. 

Most  of  the  designs  must  protect 
men  and  equipment  against  nuclear 
blast  and  radiation  and  still  allow  the 
bird  to  be  launched  on  command.  Pro- 
tection of  structures,  men,  and  equip- 
ment from  the  tremendous  ground 
shock  requires  designers  with  the  best 
possible  background  in  such  problems. 

Since  resistance  to  a  nuclear  attack 
necessitates  underground  design,  pro- 
blems in  soil  mechanics  become  ex- 
tremely critical.  Ground  water  is  a 
problem  in  some  areas;  in  others  there 
is  the  opposite  problem  of  obtaining 
an  adequate  electrical  grounding  grid 
and  a  suitable  source  of  water. 

Particular  skills  are  required  for 
designing  cryogenic  systems.  Special 
equipment  and  design  are  required  to 
meet  their  unique  problems.  The  tech- 
niques of  normal  temperature  piping, 
valving,  control,  and  liquid  transfer  are 
inadequate;  even  materials  of  construc- 
tion are  different.  Carbon  steel,  for 
example,  is  brittle  at  these  low  tem- 
peratures and  cannot  be  used  for  pipe, 
valves,  pumps,  or  vessels. 

Schedules  are  tight  and  become 
even  tighter  as  design  progresses.  A 
finished  design  of  one  part  of  the 
facility  may  be  nullified  overnight  by 
developments  in  the  weapon  or  its 
components  and  must  be  redesigned. 
To  meet  the  schedules,  checking  must 
proceed  continuously  and  simultane- 
ously with  design;  flexibility  is  the  key- 
note. Coordination  of  all  phases  must 
proceed  rapidly,  with  constant  inter- 
communication among  all  government 
and  civilian  groups. 

•  Nine  at  a  time — An  operational 
squadron  for  the  Atlas  ICBM  can  si- 
multaneously fire  nine  missiles  — 
grouped  three  to  a  site  or  totally  dis- 
persed, with  only  one  to  a  site. 

Training  bases  are  built  to  be  as 
nearly  like  operational  sites  as  possible, 
insofar  as  actual  equipment  and  ar- 
rangement are  concerned.  The  term 
"Hollywood  Hard"  has  been  coined  to 
describe  these  installations  which  simu- 
late the  "hard"  operational  bases,  the 
main  differences  being  that  the  hard 
bases  are  underground  and  have  more 
massive  concrete  structures. 

Each  missile  is  housed  in  a  Launch 
and  Service  Building.  This  building  con- 
tains, in  addition  to  the  missile,  all  the 
auxiliary  equipment  required  to  raise 
and  fuel  the  missile,  arm  it,  and  check 
and  set  its  guidance  system.  The  whole 
(continued  on  page  76) 


missiles  and  roclce+s,  September  21,  1959 


47 


of  jet  and  missile  ground-servicing  equipment  and  services  Look  to  Bowser  tor  complete, 

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SERV-A-JET  VEHICLES 


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CARTS  PROVIDE  HYDRANT  SYSTEM  FUEL 
FILTRATION  AND  WATER  SEPARATION. 


FIELD  UNITS  PUMP, 
FILTER  AND  METER  Oil 
INTO  JET  AIRCRAFT. 


INSTRUMENT  CONTINUOUSLY 
SAMPLES  AND  MEASURES 
JET  FUEL  CONTAMINATION. 


MISSILE  SERVICING 


HYDRANT  SYSTEMS 


METERING  SYSTEMS 


LUBE  OIL  SERVICERS 


RADAR  ANTENNAE 


PURITY  CONTROLS 


MISSILE  FUELERS 


AVIATION  COMPONENTS 


LIQUID  AND  GAS 
POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT 
OR  ELECTRONIC  METER 
CONTROLLED  SYSTEMS. 


RADAR  ANTENNAE 
AND  RELATED  DRIVE 
EQUIPMENT  TO  SERVE 
MILITARY  AVIATION. 


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Bowser,  Inc.,  research, 
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DEFENSE  DIVISION 

1300  E.  Creighton  Avenue        •        Telephone  H-2341 
FORT  WAYNE  2,  INDIANA 


Packaging  Influences  MSE  Concepts 


How  the  growing  utilization  of  'pocks'  is  boosting 
missile/ space  reliability  and  maintenance  and  cutting  costs 


by  Edsel  F.  Moffitt 

Akron,  Ohio — The  most  obvious 
consideration  in  the  design  of  missile 
support  equipment  (MSE)  or  a  support 
system  is  that  the  functional  require- 
ments of  the  missile,  aircraft  or  other 
vehicle  be  met. 

These  functions  are  often  defined 
through  specifications  which  set  forth 
in  definite  terms  requirements  that  must 
be  met  in  regard  to  a  specific  opera- 
tional capability.  However,  there  are 
other,  less  obvious  considerations  that 
have  a  major  influence  on  design. 

Included  in  this  category  are  fac- 
tors such  as  reliability  and  ease  of 
maintenance  which  are  often  dealt 
with  in  comparatively  general  terms  in 
specifications.  To  this  list  should  also 
be  added  ease  of  logistic  support  and 
versatility — adaptability  to  use  in  mul- 
tiple applications  or  several  programs. 
Versatility  borders  on  and  is  closely 
associated  with  standardization,  still  an- 
other consideration  in  design  and  de- 
velopment of  missile  support  systems 
or  components. 

•  Packaging  is  basic — These  con- 
siderations— operational  capability,  re- 
liability, maintenance,  logistics,  versa- 
tality,  and  standardization — are  ob- 
tained or  lost  to  some  degree  through 
the  factor  of  "packaging":  that  is,  how 
the  system,  sub-system,  or  major  com- 
ponent is  put  together  or  assembled. 

Packaging  is  a  basic  element  in 
working  out  a  system.  In  some  cases 
it  may  very  well  be  the  system.  Gener- 
ally, however,  packaging  means  assem- 
bling into  a  functional  entity  various 
detail  equipments  or  components  for 
performing  related  or  complementary 
functions.  Examples  of  this  type  of 
package  might  be  vehicles  such  as 
trucks,  trailers,  track  vehicles.  A  semi- 
trailer in  which  is  installed  telemetry, 


communication,  or  test  equipment  il- 
lustrates the  idea  of  packaging.  Other 
examples  are  transportable  housings  or 
shelters. 

The  criteria  for  packages,  or 
"packs,"  of  this  nature  may  also  be 
applied  in  a  sub-level;  for  example,  a 
console  of  equipment  installed  in  a 
trailer  or  shelter.  Further  application 
may  be  made  even  to  the  level  of 
"black  boxes"  installed  in  a  console. 
It  is  obvious,  however,  that  greater 
benefits  are  obtained  in  the  first  level, 
where  the  greatest  quantity  of  material 
is  involved. 

Missile  launching  systems,  com- 
munication systems,  command  control, 
and  tracking  systems  are  candidates  for 
the  application  for  packaging  techni- 
que. It  can  also  be  applied  to  servicing 
equipment  for  missiles,  rockets,  VTOL 
aircraft  and  the  more  conventional  air- 
craft. A  notable  example  of  its  use  is 
the  Mace  ground  support  system  pro- 
duced by  Goodyear  Aircraft  Corpora- 
tion. This  system  utilizes  a  building 
block  principle;  the  equipment  is  pack- 
aged into  "packs,"  and  when  various 
combinations  of  these  "packs"  are  as- 
sembled the  required  operations  of  the 
missile  from  assembly,  through  trans- 
port and  checkout,  to  launch  can  be 
performed. 

What  is  obtained  by  packaging? 
What  is  gained  by  the  systems  engineer 
in  utilizing  the  packaging  technique  or 
basing  a  missile  system  on  a  type  of 
building  block  organization?  The  ad- 
vantages discussed  below  might  be  con- 
sidered as  criteria  for  developing  mis- 
sile support  equipment.  (They  are  not 
necessarily  listed  in  order  of  impor- 
tance.) 

•  Versatility — The  capability  of  ap- 
plying an  item  of  equipment  to  various 
systems  or  of  having  application  to 
various  functions  in  a  given  system 


About  the  Author 

Since  his  graduation  from  the  University  of  Louisville  in 
1946  with  a  BS  in  Mechanical  Engineering,  Edsel  F.  Moffitt 
has  spent  more  than  12  years  in  the  design  of  various  struc- 
tural and  mechanical  components  or  support  equipment  for 
aircraft  and  missiles,  as  well  as  other  lightweight  structures 
such  as  radar  antennas.  During  the  past  six  years  he  has 
worked  in  the  area  of  missile  support  equipment  design  at 
Goodyear  Aircraft  Corp. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 

<  Circle  No.  38  on  Subscriber  Service  Cord. 


PACKAGED  Atlas  ICBM  leaves  Convair 
plant  at  San  Diego  on  specially  built 
trailer  for  deliver}'  to  Cape  Canaveral. 

may  be  illustrated  by  communication 
equipment  installed  in  a  transportable 
shelter.  The  basic  shelter  itself  can  be 
a  further  example;  in  the  case  of  the 
Mace  system  the  same  basic  shelter  is 
used  in  several  applications. 

•  Transportability — Packaging  into 
units  also  provides  ease  of  transport- 
ability, a  boom  to  the  military  because 
it  facilitates  movement  required  by 
tactical  and  training  operations. 

•  Flexibility — A  packaged  system 
also  gives  flexibility — the  capability  of 
composing  arrangements  of  equipment 
in  various  theaters  of  operation  to  meet 
various  tactical  conditions.  This  in  part 
is  accomplished  by  the  building  block 
principle. 

•  Maintenance — Maintenance  of  a 
support  system  in  the  field  is  eased 
through  application  of  packaging.  The 
maintenance  problem  is  reduced  to  a 
simple  matter  of  replacing  component 
packages  whenever  failure  occurs.  Vari- 
ous levels  of  maintenance  may  be 
established — a  complete  shelter  or 
trailer  may  be  replaced,  a  change  of 
cabinet  made,  or  a  black  box  chang- 
ed in  a  cabinet.  As  a  result,  down  time 
is  reduced,  and  fewer  and  less  skilled 
personnel  are  necessary. 

Sending  "packs"  back  to  the  depot 
permits  factory  level  of  service  and/ or 
overhaul,  providing  a  high  level  of 
skill  along  with  more  tools  and  facili- 
ties. Usually  this  means  field  equip- 
ment is  in  better  condition;  frequently 
it  also  saves  money. 

In  several  missile  systems  a  Con- 
tractor Maintenance  Service  is  provided 

49 


EXAMPLE  OF  packaging  equipment  into 
Goodyear  Aircraft  for  Mace  program.  At 

by  the  prime  equipment  producer  or 
other  contractor  to  the  military  organ- 
ization. Through  this  arrangement  the 
contractor  in  effect  provides  a  depot 
maintenance  capability  with  the  back- 
ing of  a  manufacturing  organization. 
As  an  illustration,  consider  as  a  pack  a 
railroad  car  launcher  for  a  ballistic 
missile.  For  maintenance  the  car  may 
be  replaced,  routed  directly  back  to 
the  depot  or  factory,  serviced  or  re- 
paired, and  placed  in  usable  supply 
again.  The  result — reduced  field  down 
time  and  a  higher  level  of  maintenance 
service. 

•  Supply — Packaging  permits  flexi- 
bility of  supply;  units  can  be  easily 
transported,  stored  and  relocated  if 
necessary.  Instead  of  inventorying  and 
stocking  a  group  of  sub-assemblies,  the 
user  relies  on  a  specific  operational 
entity,  supplied  in  a  package.  And 
equipment  of  this  type  is  ready  to 
operate  with  a  minimum  of  servicing 
upon  reaching  operational  site;  no  in- 
stallation is  required  and  no  time- 
consuming  check  out  is  necessary. 
Again  the  resultant  savings  are  appar- 
ent in  the  reduction  of  personnel  and 
skill  levels  required  at  the  operational 
site.  And  there's  reduction  in  down 
time  of  a  particular  function  or  system. 

"Packs"  facilitate  any  central  sup- 
ply systems  that  might  be  established, 
such  as  that  now  incorporated  in  the 
Mace  program.  Here  the  Missile  Auto- 
matic Supply  Technique  (MAST)  uses 
an  electronic  computer  tranceiver  in 
global  hook-up  to  keep  tabs  on  all  com- 
ponents for  the  Mace  system.  Comput- 
ers instantly  figure  inventories  and  is- 
sue signals  to  warehouse  points  or 
manufacturers  in  seconds,  providing 
whatever  orders  are  necessary  for  pro- 
duction and/or  shipment  of  needed 
components.  A  supply  system  of  this 
nature,  coupled  by  air  transport  with 
the  capability  of  quick  setup  on  the 
operational  site,  provides  a  short  sup- 
ply time,  from  material  source  to  oper- 
ation, not  heretofore  obtainable. 

The  advent  of  widespread  use  of 
air  transport  has  brought  a  new  ap- 


housings  is  typical  pack,  at  left,  built  by 
right,  packs  mounted  on  all-purpose  truck. 

proach  to  maintenance  and  supply;  the 
time  required  to  transport  from  using 
organization  to  depot  maintenance 
point  or  supply  point  and  back  to 
using  organization  is  no  longer  a  con- 
trolling factor  in  the  cycle.  And  pack- 
aging simplifies  air  transportability  and 
thereby  further  reduces  the  time  cycle. 

It  should  be  noted  that  packaging 
for  operational  advantages  also  pro- 
vides in  effect  a  shipping  container; 
boxing,  crating  or  much  of  the  other 
processing  for  shipping  is  eliminated. 
In  the  case  of  relatively  small  missiles, 
consideration  has  been  given  to  ship- 
ping in  a  container  which  may  then 
be  used  as  the  launcher. 

•  Erection — Savings  of  a  packaged 
system  are  reflected  not  only  in  opera- 
tional maintenance  and  supply,  but  in 
the  simplified  initial  construction  or 
setting  up  of  the  site.  Manpower  re- 
quirements over  and  above  normal  op- 
erating personnel  are  reduced  or  elim- 
inated. This  is  particularly  significant 
because  many  operational  sites  are  lo- 
cated, or  are  subject  to  relocation,  in 
remote  corners  of  the  world.  Again, 
the  reduction  of  personnel  reduces  ma- 
jor problem  of  logistics. 

•  Reliability — Packaging  will  tend 
to  enhance  reliability,  since  installation 
and  checkout  will  be  conducted  at  the 
factory  where  conditions  are  more  fav- 
orable for  applying  reliability  tech- 
niques. Reliability  of  detail  components 
will  increase  because  the  equipment 
may  be  installed  and  completely 
checked  out  in  its  operating  environ- 
ment. This  is  particularly  significant 
with  the  installation  of  electronic  equip- 
ment into  shelters  or  van  trailers.  And 
reliability  in  this  case  will  also  be  aided 
by  the  fact  the  equipment  may  be 
shock-mounted  to  reduce  the  possibility 
of  damage  in  shipping  or  handling. 

•  Types  of  installations — Several 
types  of  operating  installation  or  com- 
plex may  profit  from  adoption  of  a 
packaging  concept.  Fixed  installations 
obviously  will  benefit  from  the  con- 
cept's flexibility,  simplified  mainte- 
nance, ease  of  supply,  ease  of  erection 


and  increased  reliability.  Ease  of  in- 
stalling, removing,  or  servicing  the  mis- 
sile or  other  flight  vehicle  is  also  of 
importance  to  a  fixed  installation. 

In  an  installation  of  the  type 
planned  for  the  Minuteman  missile, 
these  factors  would  save  both  time  and 
funds;  with  a  complex  of  a  great  num- 
ber of  missiles,  the  ease  of  these  oper- 
ations results  in  great  cost  saving.  This 
of  course  applies  to  the  servicing  of 
both  the  missile  and  the  support  equip- 
ment. Even  more  importance  may  be 
attached  to  the  time  factor  when  mis- 
siles such  as  Minuteman  must  be  kept 
on  an  "alert  status."  Packaged  equip- 
ment also  will  enhance  standardization 
of  equipments  and  components  for  use 
in  various  installations  or  locations. 

Semi-fixed  installations  can  be  ob- 
tained through  the  packaging  technique 
without  the  investment  demanded  by  a 
completely  fixed  installation.  A  missile 
Operations  Center  "pack"  similar  to 
that  used  in  the  Mace  program,  for 
example,  will  provide  facilities  for  con- 
trol of  an  operation  without  the  ex- 
pense of  a  permanent  concrete  and 
steel  structure.  And  much  of  the  in- 
vestment in  a  site  using  packaged  com- 
ponents can  be  salvaged  when  the  site 
is  abandoned.  This  situation  is  notice- 
able in  a  satellite  program,  such  as 
Project  Mercury,  where  tracking  and 
communications  equipment  may  be  set 
up  in  far  flung  locations.  Upon  com- 
pletion of  the  program,  the  equipment 
can  be  salvaged;  at  any  time  during 
the  program,  the  site  may  readily  be 
relocated.  Furthermore,  "packs"  permit 
operation  in  relatively  unprepared  ter- 
rain or  geographical  environment;  this 
results  in  savings  in  time  and  money. 

Mobile  systems  of  course  benefit 
most  from  the  packaging  concept.  All 
the  above  noted  advantages  are  appli- 
cable to  the  mobile  system. 

Shipboard  installations  also  reap 
the  benefits  of  the  package  concept. 
Often  the  same  equipment  packages 
can  be  used  interchangeably  on  both 
ship  or  shore;  but  even  though  the  in- 
stallation cannot  be  identical  or  inter- 
changeable, packaging  has  merit  on  a 
shipboard  installation.  It  tends  again  to 
reduce  installation  and  checkout  time, 
reduce  skill  levels  required  on  board, 
and  ease  logistics.  Transfer  at  sea  may 
be  simplified  by  transferring  a  complete 
package  rather  than  a  quantity  of  de- 
tail items  of  equipment. 

•  Concept  application — Although 
this  discussion  primarily  relates  to  mis- 
sile support,  it  is  interesting  to  note 
other  areas  where  packaging  concepts 
have  been  applied.  Particularly  is  this 
apparent  in  the  vehicle  to  be  supported 
itself.  We  see  the  advent  of  packaged 
fuels;  missile  stages  and/or  sections  are 
packages;  much  thought  is  presently 
being  given  to  escape  capsules  or  pack- 


50 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


ages;  commercial  application  of  the 
concept  is  being  made  in  the  aircraft 
industry — a  notable  example  is  the 
DC-3  baggage  handling  system. 

This  discussion  is  based  on  equip- 
ment considerations  only  and  does  not 
take  into  account  operational  require- 
ments such  as  mission.  Operational  re- 
quirements may  override  or  overrule 
certain  of  these  equipment  considera- 
tions, but  the  latter  generally  tend  to 
support  or  complement  the  former. 

Missile  support  equipment  must  be 
considered  or  designed  along  with  the 
flight  vehicle  or  overall  system,  if  max- 
imum realization  of  the  benefits  of 
packaging  are  to  be  obtained,  MSE 
development  must  start  early  in  the 
system  conception.  The  close  relation- 
ship between  MSE  and  the  missile  can 
be  seen  in  the  case  of  automatic  test 
equipment  for  checking  out  of  the 
guidance  system.  The  Atlas  Transporter 
developed  by  Goodyear  Aircraft  Cor- 
poration is  an  additional  example  of 
the  influence  the  missile  characteristics 
had  on  the  handling  equipment. 

Support  equipment  is  also  influ- 
enced by  training  requirements  and 
use.  Experience  has  shown  that  equip- 
ment often  gets  its  heaviest  use  in 
training  and  not  in  operation.  There- 
fore, life  consideration  should  be  based 
in  part  on  training.  Also,  the  configura- 
tion of  the  equipment  might  well  be 
affected  by  training  requirements.  The 
packaging  concept  would  receive  great- 
er emphasis  in  cases  where  training 
could  not  be  conducted  at  the  same 
site  as  tactical  operations,  for  instance, 
a  case  in  which  troops  and  equipment 
had  to  leave  some  heavily  populated 
area  and  train  at  an  established  or 
designated  missile  range. 

Costs  naturally  are  a  major  factor 
in  designing  MSE;  one  way  of  reduc- 
ing them  is  through  mass  production 
techniques.  These  techniques  are  diffi- 
cult to  realize  in  a  field  where  quantity 
requirements  for  specific  items  are  rela- 
tively low;  nonetheless,  they  are  goals 
to  strive  for. 

One  way  to  progress  here  is  devel- 
opment of  custom  equipment  by  use 
of  standardized  (off  shelf)  components 
packaged  into  sub-packages. 

The  most  notable  illustration  of 
this  concept  is  the  automobile  industry, 
where  the  basic  automobile  is  produced 
in  several  series  such  as  standard,  de- 
luxe and  custom,  but  all  are  variations 
of  the  same  basic  product. 

But  what  about  the  size  of  the 
coming  rockets?  Will  this  not  de- 
feat the  trend  toward  packaging?  The 
answer  rests  in  the  fact  that  the  limit- 
ing factor  in  moving  to  larger  and 
larger  items  has  been  the  "state  of  the 
art."  As  the  "state  of  the  art"  moves 
forward  so  does  the  capability  of  per- 
forming with  larger  equipments. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


business 
office 

for  the 
Jupiter 


. . .  Completely  air-conditioned,  heated  and  insulated 
according1  to  U.  S.  Army  Ordnance  specifications, 
this  semi-trailer  van  houses  crew  and  electronic 
equipment  required  for  field  operation  of  the  Jupiter 
surface-to-surface  missile.  This  is  just  one  of  the 
special  equipment  ground  support  vehicles  designed 
and  built  in  collaboration  with  the  Detroit  and 
Redstone  Arsenals  by  Lyncoach,  manufacturers  of 
specialized  mobile  units  for  ground  support  equip- 
ment and  custom-built  coach  and  truck  bodies. 

Complete  Research  &  Development  facilities  available.  Contact: 

LYNCOACH  &  TRUCK  CO.,  INC, 


UUS  Chestnut  Street 
Phone:  GEneral  2-2900 


Oneonta,  N.  Y. 
TWX:  ONEONTA  NY  80H 


Other  Lyncoach-built  semi-trailer  units- 
Triple  launch  control  for  Jupiter  Missile 

Planetary  van  for  Redstone  Missile 
Guidance  and  control  for  Redstone  Missile 
1  ton  ground  support  equipment  trailer  chassis  for  Hawk  Missile 


Circle  No.  55  on  Subscriber  Service  Cord. 


51 


Ballistic  Missile  Early  Warning  System 


ATLAS  ICBM  SYSTEM 


PROJECT  MONMOUTH 


Systems  Engineering  to  R.C.A.  for  the  U.S.  Air  Force  in  establishing 
criteria  for  interference  reduction,  site  emplacement,  radiation  hazards 
and  control,  signal  density  studies,  architectural  shielding  design. 

Definition,  study  and  resolution  of  all  interference  problems  inherent  in 
an  operational  system,  including  both  ground  support  equipment  and 
the  missile,  itself,  for  Convair  Astronautics  and  the  U.S.  Air  Force. 

Continuing  research  program  for  U.S.  Army  Signal  Engineering  Labora- 
tories, involving  mutual  interference  analysis,  control,  and  reduction 
with  a  view  toward  maximizing  spectrum  utilization  efficiency  in  future 
military  electronic  and  communications  systems. 

Titan  and  Minuteman  ICBM  Nose  Cones— AVCO. 

Polaris  Fleet  Ballistic  Missile— Lockheed. 

AMQ-15  Weather  Reconnaissance  System— teamed  with  Boeing/Bendix. 

ASD-1  Airborne  Reconnaissance  System— teamed  with  Sylvania,  Sperry, 
Raytheon,  Airborne  Instrument,  Aerojet-General. 

ULD-1  Electronic  Reconnaissance  System— teamed  with  Lockheed,  Hoff- 
man Labs,  Olympic  Radio,  Cornell  Aero  Lab  and  Stanford  Research. 


MUTUAL  INTERFERENCE  STUDIES  •  SITE  SURVEYS  •  PROPAGATION  STUDIES 

ARCHITECTURAL  SHIELDING  DESIGN         •         RF  FIELD  ENGINEERING 


FLUSHING  55,  N.  Y. 


COMPANY,  INC,        SYSTEMS  ENGINEERING  division 

CULVER  CITY,  CALIF. 


52 


Laboratories  also  at  Dayton,  Ohio,  and  San  Francisco,  Calif. 

Inquiries  from  creative  electronic  systems  engineering  personnel  at  all  levels  ore  cordially  invited 

Circle  No.  39  an  Subscriber  Service  Card.       missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


astrionics  support 


Automatic  Test  Equipment 
Solves  Logistic  Nightmare 


With  a  potential  market  of  nearly  one-half  billion  dollars, 
this  facet  of  support  equipment  has  an  assured  future  .  .  . 


by  George  A.  Peck 

Rochester,  N.Y. — Out  of  the 
military  requirements  of  the  missile 
industry  has  grown  a  new  product  with 
a  tremendous  future — Universal  Auto- 
matic Test  Equipment.  In  an  industry 
growing  like  Topsy,  its  early  evolution 
was  predestined  as  the  only  solution  to 
a  profusion  of  complex  and  sensitive 
test  devices. 

Due  to  the  multitude  of  missile  and 
aircraft  weapon  systems,  the  variety 
and  form  of  specialized  test  equipment 
has  become  a  logistic  nightmare.  Add 
to  this  the  continuing  need  for  highly 
skilled  technicians  to  maintain  this 
gear,  hindered  by  a  rapid  turnover  rate 
in  the  Armed  Forces,  and  you  have  an 
economic  problem  of  vast  proportions. 

Over  $1.5  billion  of  defense  money 
will  be  spent  on  ground  support  equip- 
ment for  missiles  and  aircraft  in  fiscal 
1960.  Of  this  amount,  from  10%  to 
30%  of  every  program  will  be  spent 
on  electronic  MSE,  creating  a  potential 
market  of  $150  million  to  $450  million 
for  this  type  of  equipment. 

The  military  thus  faces  the  con- 
tinuing need  to  initiate  economies  by 

About  the  Author — -  


(1)  simplifying  logistics,  (2)  reducing 
the  necessary  skill  levels,  (3)  reducing 
the  sheer  numbers  of  operators,  and 
(4)  increasing  reliability. 

The  most  logical  answer  to  this 
problem  is  standardized  test  equip- 
ment, automatically  self-checking  with 
built-in  fault  location  capabilities,  and 
flexible  enough  to  be  adapted  with  a 
minimum  amount  of  engineering  de- 
velopment to  any  existing  or  projected 
weapon  systems.  The  logic  behind  this 
concept  is  readily  apparent: 

*  Standardized  test  equipment  is 
necessary  to  reduce  the  logistics  prob- 
lem of  replacement  parts  supply.  A 
reduction  in  the  variety  of  such  gear 
also  simplifies  the  task  of  training  oper- 
ators. Besides,  the  flexibility  gained  cuts 
the  engineering  costs  for  new  weapon 
systems  and  permits  faster  delivery  of 
operational  equipment. 

•  Automation  allows  for  greater 
speed  of  checkout.  In  one  typical  oper- 
ation a  12-hour  manual  testing  pro- 
cedure was  reduced  to  less  than  5 
minutes  by  automatic  means — a  reduc- 
tion ratio  of  150  to  1  in  operational 
time.  An  additional  advantage  exists  in 
that  machines  do  not  become  fatigued, 


George  A.  Peck  is  vice  president  and  general  manager  of 
the  Electronics  Division  of  the  Stromberg-Carlson  Division 
of  General  Dynamics  Corporation. 

He  was  graduated  from  Clarkson  College  of  Technology 
with  a  BS  in  Chemical  Engineering  in  1937.  He  joined 
Stromberg-Carlson  in  1942  as  engineer-in-charge  of  the 
Materials  Laboratory.  For  a  short  time  in  1951,  he  was  on 
leave  from  Stromberg-Carlson,  serving  as  vice  president  in 
Charge  of  Manufacturing  of  Standard  Cable  Corporation, 
Chickasha,  Oklahoma.  He  returned  to  Stromberg-Carlson  as 
production  manager  of  the  Radio-Television  Division,  and 
continued  in  that  capacity  until  August,  1955,  when  he  was 
appointed  vice  president — manufacturing.  In  January,  1957, 
he  was  advanced  to  his  present  position. 


bored,  or  try  to  cut  corners.  Therefore, 
testing  reliability  is  greatly  enhanced. 

•  Self-checking  of  the  equipment 

assures  (1)  that  these  checks  will  be 
made  and  (2)  that  no  testing  time  will 
be  wasted  by  the  use  of  a  faulty  tester. 
This  increases  reliability  and  estab- 
lishes a  higher  confidence  level  in  sys- 
tems marked  for  operational  use. 

•  Fault  location  techniques  built  in- 
to the  tester  lower  the  skill  levels 
necessary  for  maintenance  technicians. 
The  capability  may  be  utilized  to 
troubleshoot  both  the  tester  and  the 
system  under  test  or  either  one,  de- 
pending upon  the  system  complexity. 

•  Flexibility,  as  used  here,  depends 
upon  the  amount  of  standardization 
feasible.  Considering  a  basic  controller- 
programmer  as  the  truly  universal  test 
system,  flexibility  means  that  by  the 
addition  of  adaptor  modules  providing 
unique  stimuli  to  the  systems  under 
test,  the  basic  unit  might  be  used  for 
testing  a  wide  variety  of  weapon  sys- 
tems. Thus,  by  merely  changing  tape 
programs  and  switching  adaptor  mod- 
ules a  number  of  systems  may  be 
checked  out  by  the  same  basic  unit  at 
the  same  location. 

•  Configurations — There  are  many 
forms  which  automatic  test  equipment 
may  take,  but  the  most  logical  of  these 
is  the  modular,  or  "building-block," 
form.  The  major  advantage  of  this  con- 
figuration is  potential  growth  capacity. 
By  simply  adding  drawers  of  circuitry, 
capabilities  can  be  extended  to  provide 
for  greater  needs  in  data  handling  and 
to  include  tests  completely  new  in 
nature. 

The  basic  comparator-programmer 
circuits  may  be  standardized  to  the 
point  where  libraries  of  such  elemen- 
tary designs  are  established.  Mounting 
these  circuits  on  standard-sized  printed 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


53 


family  of  generators  wanted  .  .  . 


circuit  cards  will  provide  rapid  replace- 
ment parts  which  may  easily  be  re- 
duced in  value  to  the  class  of  "throw- 
away"  items. 

The  use  of  completely  solid-state, 
transistorized  circuitry  provides  greater 
ease  of  packaging,  better  accessibility 
for  maintenance,  and  smaller  size  and 
weight.  The  use  of  semiconductors  also 
increases  reliability  and  the  ability  to 
withstand  changing  environmental  con- 
ditions. 

Miniaturization  to  micromodules  or 
the  use  of  cryogenics  is  probably  not 
necessary  and  far  too  expensive  in  the 
present  state-of-the-art.  Besides,  these 
techniques  will  not  as  yet  meet  military 
specifications. 

Standard  programming  codes  are 
being  devised  which  are  compatible 
with  the  variety  of  available  read-in 
and  read-out  methods  in  use  today. 
These  codes  are  adaptable  to  fast, 
simple  preparation  techniques  by  tech- 
nicians of  low  skill  levels. 

•  Environmental  conditions — T  h  e 
physical  configuration  and  complexity 
of  automatic  test  equipment  today  is 
largely  determined  by  where  it  is  used. 
For  instance,  use  on  the  flight  line 
calls  for  mobile,  van-mounted  gear; 
fixing  pads  require  operations — center 
blockhouses;  depots  need  bench- 
mounted  racks;  and  factories  call  for 
production  line  settings. 

In  the  near  future,  the  intermediate 
echelons  will  develop  a  need  for  inte- 
grated and  highly  mobilized  units  for 
field  usage.  These  will  take  the  shape 
of  trailers  and  smaller,  self-propelled 
vans.  Whatever  the  use,  flexibility  in 
packaging  to  meet  a  variety  of  envi- 
ronmental and  operational  conditions 
is  a  prime  requirement. 

Test  equipment  built  in  the  past  has 
had  to  comply  to  such  specifications 
as  MIL-T-945A,  Mil-T-5 148B  and, 
currently,  to  the  more  stringent  Mil- 
T-21200.  These  are  still  rigid  enough 
to  assure  capability  of  the  equipment 
during  nuclear  attack.  However,  there 
are  few,  if  any,  automatic  test  equip- 
ment units  in  the  field  today  which 
meet  fully  the  environmental  require- 
ments of  these  specifications.  More 
work  is  certainly  necessary  along  these 
lines. 

•  Current  problem  areas — The  most 
pressing  problem  of  automatic  test 
equipment  design,  paradoxically,  is  not 
concerned  with  the  tester  itself,  but 
with  the  system  it  must  test.  Very  of- 
ten, weapon  systems  are  designed  and 
built  before  any  thought  has  been 
given  to  testing  them,  so  that  adequate 


test  points  are  totally  lacking.  Waiting 
until  the  last  minute  to  procure  test 
equipment  then  calls  for  a  crash  pro- 
gram to  make  the  system  operational. 

The  necessity  for  proper  test  points 
usually  calls  for  system  modifications, 
which  not  only  slows  down  the  pro- 
gram, but  also  often  has  a  degrading 
effect  on  performance.  Then  too,  lim- 
ited design  time  on  the  tester  neces- 
sarily deters  those  engineers  from  put- 
ting forth  their  best  possible  efforts.  The 
biggest  penalty  paid,  however,  is  the 
lost  chance  to  design  fault  isolation 
techniques  into  the  integrated  system 
and,  thus,  the  need  for  much  more 
exotic  adaptor  modules  to  achieve  this 
capability. 

The  available  test  point  situation  is 
not  quite  as  bad  with  newer  equip- 
ments as  with  the  old.  System  designers 
are  now  aware  of  the  problem  and  are 
changing  their  philosophy,  but  old 
equipment  in  use  is  virtually  inacces- 
sible by  automatic  methods. 

Adaptor  design  is  also  becoming 
more  sophisticated  as  military  demands 
for  standardization  are  now  being  ex- 
tended to  this  area.  One  of  the  prime 
requirements  today  is  for  a  universal 
programmable  stimulus  generator. 

At  first  glance,  it  would  seem  rather 
ridiculous  even  to  attempt  to  build  a 
generator  ranging  across  the  spectrum 


from  DC  to  cosmic  frequencies.  Upon 
investigation,  however,  it  becomes  ap- 
parent that  each  requirement  actually 
calls  for  a  fairly  narrow  range  of 
frequencies. 

Therefore,  what  the  Military  really 
seeks  is  a  family  of  such  program- 
mable stimulus  generators,  each  mem- 
ber representing  a  small  segment  of  the  j 
spectrum,  programmable  to  a  series  of 
specific  frequencies.  Even  these  aren't 
devised  overnight,  but  work  is  presently  ! 
well  along  in  providing  these  produc- 
tion-unit adaptor  modules. 

Never  absent  are  the  problems  of 
time  and  money.  Research  and  develop- 
ment absorb  huge  quantities  of  both, 
but  are  of  prime  necessity.  However, 
the  pressures  of  military  needs  and 
competitive  advantages  sometimes  stifle  l| 
the  use  of  advanced  techniques  through- 
out the  industry.  The  limited  use  of  I 
existing,  highly  reliable,  solid-state  test  I 
equipment  at  present  is  a  good  example,  i 

•  Limitations — The  potential  of  j 
automatic  test  equipment  is  practically  || 
limitless.  However,  there  is  always  the 
question  of  when  it  is  feasible  to  use  | 
automatic  test  equipment.  It  is  then  a  I 
question  of  economic  limitations,  not  | 
engineering  limitations. 

Thus,  the  restrictions  are  basically 
those  of  time  and  money.  Automatic 
test  equipment  must  be  utilized  for  N 
checking  out  complete  systems  if  it  is  I 
to  be  used  economically.  Even  depot  I 
use  doesn't  pay  unless  the  system  is  ex-  I 
tremely  complex  or  testing  encom-  II 
passes  production  quantities. 

Modification  of  the  unit  under  test 


Stromberg-Carlson's  SCATE  

TYPICAL  OF  many  existing  advanced  automatic  checkout  systems  is  Stromberg- 
Carlson's  SCATE.  It  is  completely  solid-state  and  modularly  constructed  for  flexi- 
bility in  adaptation.  Stromberg-Carlson  recently  received  a  $500,000  contract  extension 
from  Bell  Telephone  Laboratories  to  adapt  SCATE  for  testing  the  complex  Nike-Zeus 
guidance  system. 


54 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


is  not  a  limitation  except  to  the  extent 
that  this  would  affect  the  adaptor  mod- 
ules. Punched  tape  permits  easy  revi- 
sion of  the  prescribed  limits  and  test 
procedures.  Magnetic  tape  poses  some- 
what more  of  a  problem,  due  to  bit 
density,  but  is  still  not  a  major  dif- 
ficulty. 

Operational  speed  sometimes  pre- 
sents a  problem.  The  biggest  limiting 
factor  of  speed  is  the  operation  se- 
quence of  the  unit  under  test.  Read-in 
and  read-out  modules  often  are  not 
compatible,  but  faster  methods  are  cur- 
rently available  at  the  cost  of  further 
system  sophistication. 

Physical  problems  limiting  opera- 
tion speed  are  largely  those  of  switch- 
ing techniques.  Besides  the  sheer  bulk 
of  numbers  of  test  points  which  often 
must  be  monitored,  some  type  of  elec- 
tromechanical switching  is  currently  the 
basic  method  used.  This  means  is  much 
too  slow  and  inefficient. 

In  the  more  advanced  forms  of 
automatic  test  equipment,  this  has  been 
replaced  by  a  transistorized,  solid-state 
switching  matrix.  Further  research  and 
development  is  also  being  carried  on 
along  these  lines  to  offer  a  more  com- 
plete solution. 

•  The  cost  picture — The  price  of 
automatic  test  equipment  at  first  glance 
appears  expensive.  Spending  $75,000  to 
$100,000  for  a  basic  unit  and  another 
$50,000  to  $200,000  for  the  appropri- 
ate adaptors  uses  up  a  million-dollar 
procurement  budget  fairly  fast.  How- 
ever, the  four  or  five  test  systems  this 
will  provide  not  only  solve  more  than 


their  share  of  problems  faster,  but  will 
also  be  available  as  basic  units  for  the 
next  test  system  requirement  that  weap- 
on developments  bring. 

Thus,  the  universality  of  the  equip- 
ment spreads  depreciation  over  a  longer 
period.  In  essence  then,  to  the  savings 
in  time,  training,  manpower  and  re- 
liability, we  also  may  add  the  savings 
of  continued  value  through  adaptability. 
Because  of  its  flexible  design,  obsoles- 
cence losses  may  be  diminished  by  the 
simple  replacement  of  redesigned  mod- 
ules. 

A  trend  is  developing  for  the  use 
of  automatic  test  equipment  in  other  in- 
dustries besides  missiles  and  aircraft 
MSE.  Such  areas  as  communications 
systems,  data  handling  networks  and 
ground  radar  station  centers  are  prov- 
ing to  be  fertile  markets.  Thus,  as  pro- 
duction of  the  basic  units  increases,  the 
cost  will  logically  be  decreased. 

Price  of  the  adaptors  will  not  be 
reduced  as  much,  due  to  the  higher 
design  costs,  but  will  decline  somewhat 
as  a  library  of  more  standardized  and 
programmable  adaptor  modules  is  ac- 
cumulated. Any  integration  into  the 
test  system  of  special-purpose  computer 
capabilities  or  other  such  sophistications 
necessarily  will  add  to  cost. 

•  Future  outlook — The  future  sales 
outlook  for  the  automatic  test  equip- 
ment industry  is  excellent.  As  we  move 
toward  manned  space-flight,  systems 
become  more  and  more  complex.  Ad- 
vanced communications  systems,  navi- 
gation aids  and  flight  simulators  and 
controllers  are  coming  off  the  drawing 


boards  at  a  fantastic  rate. 

Networks  of  these  systems  will  not 
be  able  to  tolerate  down-time.  Con- 
stant monitoring  and  standby  equip- 
ment is  a  basic  necessity.  Alarm  sys- 
tems to  switch  in  standby  gear  and 
trigger  off  fault  isolation  subroutines  in 
the  permanent  monitors  will  be  re- 
quired to  assure  rapid  replacement  of 
faulty  components.  Life  and  failure  pre- 
diction techniques  will  have  to  be  built 
into  the  periodic  maintenance  tests  to 
monitor  system  degradation.  All  this 
will  require  millions  of  dollars  of  auto- 
matic test  equipment. 

The  major  challenges  facing  the 
industry  are  basically  those  of  develop- 
ment. A  listing  of  the  more  important 
factors  poses  an  ambitious  program  for 
producers'  consideration: 

•  The  test  philosophy  must  be  in- 
stilled in  systems  designers  who  may 
then  build  equipment  capable  of  being 
universally  and  automatically  tested. 

•  The  test  philosophy  must  also  be 
integrated  into  the  Armed  Forces  logis- 
tics system  to  reduce  down-time  by  as- 
suring supply  of  replacement  com- 
ponents. 

•  Less  expensive  basic  tester  units 
must  be  built  which  are  still  adaptable 
to  changing  requirements  and  have  a 
potential  for  growth  as  systems  needs 
expand. 

•  The  use  of  fault-isolation  tech- 
niques should  be  increased.  This  re- 
duces the  need  for  trained  technicians. 
However,  it  should  only  modify  the 
complexity  of  the  equipment  to  the 
point  where  service  technicians  may  be- 
gin manual  testing  at  a  function  or  on 
a  module. 

•  More  universal  programmable- 
type  adaptors  should  be  designed. 

•  Test  equipment  should  be  made 
more  flexible  and  reliable.  Sophistica- 
tion and  complexity  leads  to  less  flexi- 
bility and  less  reliability. 

None  of  this  may  be  accomplished 
adequately  without  primary  definition 
of  systems  needs  by  the  Armed  Forces. 
Through  the  cooperation  and  sugges- 
tions of  the  industry,  a  well  integrated 
plan  of  specifications  can  be  written  to 
determine  the  best  possible  solution  to 
this  problem.  Without  such  coordina- 
tion, only  the  chaos  of  a  multitude  of 
specialized  equipments  can  result,  caus- 
ing inefficiency  and  extraneous  expense. 

A  problem  exists  and  a  solution  is 
readily  available.  Although  automatic 
test  equipment  is  beset  by  minor  diffi- 
culties and  limitations,  these  are  far  out- 
weighed by  the  advantages  of  economy 
of  men,  money  and  time  which  it  offers. 

The  future  is  bright.  Automatic  test 
equipment  is  the  only  rational  answer 
to  current  systems'  complexity  and  fu- 
ture designs  hold  forth  only  more  com- 
plexity. The  market  for  this  new  uni- 
versal product  is  thus  assured. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


55 


responsibility  grows 


SAGE  Guides  Interceptor  Missiles 

Here  is  an  exclusive  account  of  a  single 
computer's  role  in  replacing  manual  ground 
control  to  meet  a  hypothetical  air  attack 


by  Lawrence  R.  Jeffery 

Lexington,  Mass. — SAGE's  basic 
mission  was  to  provide  a  centralized, 
complete,  and  timely  picture  of  the  air 
situation  over  a  large  area.  This  mission 
has  grown  as  the  reach  of  our  missiles 
and  manned  interceptors  has  out- 
stripped the  range  of  a  manual  Ground- 
Controlled  Intercept  site  using  a  single 


radar  set. 

To  improve  substantially  the  GO 
radar  coverage  would  require  an  enor- 
mous increase  in  its  transmitted  power, 
and  the  long-range  radar  returns  would 
be  limited  by  the  earth's  curvature  to 
high-altitude  aircraft.  SAGE  (Semi- 
automatic Ground  Environment)  side- 
steps these  limitations  by  using  a  digi- 
tal computer  (the  AN/FSQ-7)  to  com- 


bine data  from  widely  separated  radars 
and  construct  a  composite  situation  dis- 
play, as  a  large  map  is  produced  by 
piecing  aerial  photos  together. 

A  network  of  SAGE  direction  cen- 
ters (DCs)  using  these  computers  is 
spreading  rapidly  across  the  country. 
Each  computer  communicates  auto- 
matically with  dozens  of  external 
sources  such  as  radars,  missile  and 
manned  interceptor  bases,  radio  sites, 
and  weather  stations.  Computers  in 
adjacent  DCs  communicate  directly 
with  each  other  and  with  those  at  high- 
er headquarters. 

Nearly  all  SAGE  data  processing  is 
done  by  the  computer,  setting  human 
operators  free  to  make  the  important 
decisions  and  cutting  detailed  operator 
coordination  to  a  minimum.  To  follow 
the  operators'  instructions,  the  com- 
puter senses  the  settings  of  up  to  5000 
console  switches  every  2.5  seconds.  To 
portray  the  air  situation,  it  generates 
about  200  different  types  of  displays 
requiring  20,000  characters,  18,000 
points,  and  5000  lines. 

As  the  nature  of  the  air  threat  and 
our  defense  weapons  provided  against 
it  have  changed,  SAGE  has  been  re- 
quired to  accept  greater  responsibility. 
The  computer,  too,  is  handling  tasks 
far  beyond  its  original  assignment. 

•  Alerting  the  system — We  can  see 
the  system  components  at  work  by  fol- 
lowing a  hypothetical  Bomarc  intercep- 
tion. Let's  begin  by  supposing  that  the 
early-warning  network  has  reported 
many  heavy  penetrations  by  unidenti- 
fied aircraft  and  CINCNORAD  has 
alerted  all  air  defense  units. 

At  McGuire  Air  Force  Base,  in  the 
big  windowless  concrete  cube  housing 
the  SAGE  DC  for  the  New  York  Air 
Defense  Sector,  maintenance  crews  are 
tuning  up  the  standby  computer.  They 
replace  any  of  its  20,000  tubes  which 
do  not  pass  margin  tests,  for  this  ma- 
chine must  be  ready  to  take  over  if 
the  operational  AN/FSQ-7  breaks 
down.  The  senior  director,  responsible 
for  the  center's  operation,  has  ordered 


DIRECTION  center  communicates  automatically  with  external  sites  by  using  digitally- 
coded  data  on  voice-band-width  circuits.  The  computer  is  coupled  to  computers  of 
nearby  centers  and  directly  connected  to  console  displays  in  its  own  center. 


About  the  Author 

Lawrence  R.  Jeffery  is  associate  head  of  the  Design  De- 
partment of  the  recently-formed  MITRE  Corporation  at 
Lexington,  Mass.  He  has  been  engaged  in  design  and  de- 
velopment work  on  the  SAGE  system  since  1954  when  he 
obtained  a  staff  appointment  at  MIT's  Lincoln  Laboratory. 
He  earlier  worked  on  computer  design  at  Raytheon  and  for 
several  years  taught  mathematics  and  television  engineering 
in  Chicago.  He  received  his  M.S.  in  mathematics  from  the 
University  of  Chicago  in  1953. 


56 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


FIRST  DIGITAL 


VOLTMETER 


WITH  THE 


FACTUAL 
FIFTH 
FIGURE 


+ 


9  6  4  3  8 


RESOLUTION 

ERROR, 

MILLIVOLTS 


MEASURED  VOLTAGE 

This  chart  shows  the  significant  resolution  error  that 
results  in  other  five-digit  meters  as  compared  to  the 
NLS  V-35  with  the  factual  fifth  figure. 


The  All-Transistorized  NLS  V-35 

Here  for  the  first  time  is  a  true  five-digit  voltmeter  with  a  factual 
fifth  figure.  Increased  accuracy  of  full  five-digit  resolution  — 
0.001%  —  results  from  the  new  mathematically  perfect  logic  of 
the  NLS  V-35. 

Other  five-digit  digital  voltmeters  require  "desensitizing"  to 
prevent  oscillation  of  the  least  significant  digit.  This  results  in 
a  resolution  error  of  three  to  nine  digits  in  the  upper  portions 
of  each  range  as  graphically  displayed  in  the  chart  to  the  left. 
This  comparison  clearly  shows  the  increased  accuracy  of  the 
NLS  V-35,  made  possible  by  full  five-digit  resolution. 

In  new  logic  ...  in  all-transistorized  circuitry,  including  logic 
...  in  new  simplified  design  with  plug-in  circuit  boards,  plug-in 
oil-bathed  stepping  switches,  and  snap-in  readout .  .  .  the  NLS 
V-35  leads  its  field.  Write  today  for  complete  information. 

NLS  V-35  Specifications 

Measures  Voltage  from  ±0.0001  to  ±999.99,  Ratio  from 
±.00001  to  ±.99999  ...  10  Megohm  Input  Impedance  . . .  0.01% 
Accuracy  .  .  .  Automatic  Selection  of  Range  and  Polarity  .  .  . 
And  Measures  Three  Times  Faster  Than  Any  Other  Stepping 
Switch  Instrument. 


Originators  of  the  Digital  Voltmeter 

non-linear  systems,  inc. 

DEL  MAR  (San  Diego),  California 
NLS  -  The  Digital  Voltmeter  That  Works  .  . .  And  Works  .  .  .  And  Works! 


Compact,  plug-in  design  of  the  NLS  V-35 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959        Circle  No.  40  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


57 


attackers  pour  in 


operators  to  their  consoles,  where  the 
air  picture  will  be  displayed  and  their 
various  actions  taken.  Following  the 
orders  of  the  sector  commander,  the 
senior  director  has  taken  the  "wartime" 
switch  action  on  his  console,  telling  the 
computer  that  nuclear  weapons  may  be 
fired.  His  area  of  responsibility  extends 
from  the  Boston  Sector  on  the  north 
to  the  Ft.  Lee  Sector  on  the  south  and 
from  the  Syracuse  Sector  on  the  west 
out  to  sea  as  far  as  his  radars  can 
search. 

Next  to  the  Syracuse  DC  is  the 
26th  Air  Division  Combat  Center,  hav- 
ing command  responsibility  over  the 
Boston,  New  York  and  Syracuse  sec- 
tors. The  combat  center  also  contains 
a  digital  computer  (the  AN/FSQ-8), 
which  maintains  direct,  automatic  com- 
munications with  the  subordinate  di- 
rection centers. 

•  Tracking  the  target — Many  hos- 
tile aircraft  are  soon  pouring  into  the 
East  Coast  sectors.  We  will  follow  one 
— let's  call  it  Raid  Able — as  it  pene- 
trates the  New  York  Sector  and  is  en- 
gaged. Raid  Able,  we  will  suppose,  has 
just  entered  the  coverage  of  the  heavy 
radar  on  Montauk  Point,  Long  Island, 
on  a  course  slightly  north  of  west. 

The  AN/FST-2  data  processor  at 
the  site  converts  the  radar  echoes  from 
Raid  Able  into  a  digital  message  speci- 
fying the  range,  azimuth,  and  time  of 
the  report.  Less  than  a  second  after 
the  observation,  the  message  is  trans- 
mitted to  the  DC.  There,  the  coded  re- 
turn is  automatically  recorded  on  a 


magnetic  input  drum,  which  acts  as  a 
kind  of  reservoir  for  data  from  all  of 
the  Sector's  radar  sites.  The  drum  stores 
the  data  until  the  computer  is  ready  to 
use  it. 

At  the  proper  points  in  its  operat- 
ing cycle  (called  a  frame),  the  com- 
puter transfers  the  input  data  from  the 
drum  into  its  65,000-register  ferrite 
core  memory,  clearing  the  drum  so  it 
can  be  filled  with  more  input  data. 

The  computer  then  goes  about  its 
other  jobs.  First  it  converts  the  new 
radar  data  from  the  p,  6  form  in 
which  it  was  received  into  the  sector's 
common  x,y  coordinate  system.  Each 
aircraft  track  carried  by  the  system  is 
then  extrapolated  ahead  and  its  position 
compared  with  the  positions  of  the  new 
returns.  Where  a  return  is  sufficiently 
close  to  a  track,  the  computer  labels  it 
as  "correlated"  with  the  track,  and  will 
later  use  it  to  correct  the  track's  posi- 
tion and  velocity. 

Since  our  Raid  Able  is  just  entering 
the  system,  its  returns  do  not  corre- 
spond to  any  of  the  tracks  carried  by 
the  computer.  Such  "uncorrelated"  data 
is  saved  for  use  in  an  automatic  track 
initiation  process.  The  computer  also 
presents  these  uncorrelated  returns  on 
the  situation  displays  (a  19"  Char- 
actron  cathode  ray  tube  developed  by 
Stromberg-Carlson)  of  the  track  initia- 
tor and  track  monitor  consoles  for  pos- 
sible manual  action. 

Nothing  further  will  happen  to 
Raid  Able  for  about  15  seconds,  until 
the  Montauk  radar  has  again  swept 


FOURTH  FLOOR  of  the  direction  center  contains  separate  operational  rooms  for 
air  surveillance,  identification,  weapons  assignment  and  control,  and  command  func- 
tions. Altogether  there  are  more  than  100  operational  positions. 

58 


the  eastern  sky.  In  the  meantime,  the 
computer: 

(  1 )  Updates  the  positions  of  all 
established  tracks; 

(2)  Identifies  newly  established 
tracks; 

( 3 )  Receives  and  decodes  auto- 
matic input  messages  from  Bomarc. 
Nike,  and  manned-interceptors  bases, 
adjacent  direction  centers,  the  Syracuse 
Combat  Center,  weather  stations,  and 
height  finders; 

(4)  Updates  its  weapon  availability 
tables; 

(5)  Makes  new  data  entries  in  its 
table  of  winds  aloft; 

(6)  Selects  weapons  for  use  against 
unpaired  hostiles  and  transmits  launch 
orders; 

(7)  Makes  guidance  computations 
for  airborne  weapons; 

(8)  Prepares  and  transmits  data- 
link  messages  to  weapons; 

(9)  Prepares  and  transmits  weapon 
and  target  data  of  interest  to  adjacent 
direction  centers  and  the  combat  cen- 
ters; 

(10)  Transfers  air  situation  and 
status  information  to  "safe-data  stor- 
age" in  the  standby  computer; 

(11)  Prepares  air  situation  and 
tabular  information  displays  for  the 
more  than  100  operator  consoles  in  the 
surveillance,  identification  and  weapons 
rooms; 

(12)  Reads,  interprets,  and  acts 
upon  the  console  switch  actions  taken 
by  the  operators. 

As  with  any  digital  computer,  the 
SAGE  machine  carries  out  these  tasks 
in  accordance  with  a  sequence  of  in- 
structions (called  the  program)  pre- 
pared and  stored  in  the  computer's 
memory  perhaps  many  months  earlier. 
Although  each  step,  or  "instruction," 
accomplishes  only  one  simple  arithmetic 
or  logical  transaction,  very  complex 
processes  can  be  carried  out  by  suitable 
sequences  of  those  basic  operations. 
The  computer's  enormous  capacity  re- 
sults from  its  ability  to  perform  more 
than  100,000  such  operations  every 
second. 

The  next  two  scans  of  the  Montauk 
radar  bring  in  still  more  data  on  Raid 
Able — data  so  spaced  in  distance  and 
time  that  the  computer,  by  means  of 
the  automatic  initiation  logic  in  its 
program,  will  recognize  these  uncor- 
related returns  as  a  new  track.  A  posi- 
tion and  a  velocity  are  next  computed, 
and  Raid  Able  is  entered  in  the  ma- 
chine's track  table  as: 

Track  number    B207 

Speed    480  Knots 

Course    285° 

Altitude    Unknown 

Flight-size    Unknown 

Identity  Pending 

Now  that  Raid  Able  is  an  estab- 
lished track,  the  tracking  program  will 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


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missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959      ci"le  No-  41  on  Sub"riber  Servi"  Card- 


59 


Bomarc  is  launched  .  .  . 


periodically  attempt  to  correlate  with 
it  any  new  radar  data  near  it.  When  a 
return  is  found  sufficiently  close  to 
B207's  predicted  location,  it  will  be 
used  to  correct  the  track's  position  and 
velocity. 

Since  B207  is  a  new  track,  the  com- 
puter places  it  near  the  top  of  the 
"height  priority"  table  and  soon  sends 
a  height  request  message  to  one  of  the 
semi-automatic  height  finders  (AN/ 
FPS-6)  at  Montauk.  The  message 
causes  the  height  finder  to  slew  auto- 
matically to  the  proper  azimuth.  The 
operator  measures  the  target's  eleva- 
tion angle  and  presses  a  button  to  send 
this  data  back  over  the  phone  line  to 
the  SAGE  computer.  The  reply  reads: 

Track    B207 

Altitude    43,000 

Flight  Size    1 

•  Identifying  (he  target — While 
Raid  Abie's  height  and  flight  size  are 
being  determined,  the  computer  adds 
track  B207  to  the  situation  displays  in 
the  air  surveillance  room.  In  the  iden- 
tification room,  the  track  is  displayed 
with  a  special  attention  device,  and  an 
audible  alarm  is  sounded  in  the  identi- 
fication officer's  (IDO's)  console.  The 
computer  also  displays  to  the  IDO  the 
positions  of  nearby  commercial  flight 
plans.  Since  these  do  not  appear  to 
correlate  with  the  track,  and  since  we 
are  already  under  attack,  the  IDO 
presses  the  follow  buttons: 

B207 
Identify 
Hostile 
Activate 

The  activate  button  tells  the  com- 
puter to  read  the  console's  switches. 
In  the  computer's  memory  and  on  the 
situation  displays  throughout  the  DC, 
the  identity  of  track  B207  is  changed 
to  H,  for  hostile.  Now  the  weapons 
room  enters  the  air  defense  picture, 
and  increased  activity  is  focused  on 
track  B207. 

•  Committing  a  Bomarc — On  a  dais 
in  the  weapons  room,  next  to  the  senior 
director,  sits  the  senior  weapons  di- 
rector, in  charge  of  all  activities  in  the 
room.  Surrounding  the  dais  are  four 
teams,  each  headed  by  a  weapons  di- 
rector responsible  for  committing  wea- 
pons to  targets. 

After  a  weapons  director  has  com- 
mitted a  weapon,  the  subsequent  inter- 
ception is  monitored  by  one  of  the  five 
intercept  directors  on  his  team.  Each 
officer  in  the  room  uses  a  situation  dis- 
play console,  and  has  an  enlisted  tech- 
nician to  assist  him. 

The  time  soon  comes,  in  the  com- 
puter's frame,  when  it  must  spend  a 


half  second  or  so  on  the  selection  of 
new  weapons.  It  cycles  through  the 
list  of  "hostile"  tracks,  comparing  the 
number  and  capabilities  of  the  weapons 
committed  against  a  track  with  a  stan- 
dard previously  specified  by  the  senior 
weapons  director.  When  it  comes  upon 
any  hostile  not  adequately  covered,  the 
computer  removes  it  from  the  table  and 
acts  on  it.  Track  B207  will  be  one  of 
these. 

To  select  a  weapon  (or  weapons) 
for  use  against  B207.  the  program  ex- 
amines each  of  the  sources.  The  F-106 
squadron  at  Suffolk  is  the  first  to  be 
considered.  The  squadron  data  table 
indicates  that  five  aircraft  are  available 
on  five-minute  alert  and  that  the  stan- 
dard armament  load  for  the  day  is 
GAR-3  and  GAR-4  missiles. 

A  final-turn  tactic  is  chosen,  with 
combat  speed  and  other  tactical  param- 
eters appropriate  to  that  armament 
combination  for  the  speed  and  altitude 
of  this  particular  target. 

Similarly,  the  computer  picks  out 
an  interceptor  flight  profile  ( cruise 
speed  and  altitude,  etc.)  to  match  the 
geometry  of  the  problem.  Next  the 
machine  predicts  the  location  of  the 
intercept  point  and  calculates  the  time- 
to-go  to  intercept.  This  turns  out  to  be 
twelve  mintues. 

Finally  it  determines  that  this  in- 
terceptor will  require  5400  pounds  of 
fuel  to  climb  to  altitude,  cruise  out, 
accelerate  to  combat  speed,  make  the 
intercept,  and  return  to  base.  More 
than  this  amount  of  fuel  is  on  board, 
so  the  intercept  is  within  range.  The 
Suffolk  squadron  is  therefore  listed  as 
a  possible  weapon  source  against  B207. 
with  a  time-to-go  of  twelve  minutes. 

Similar  computations  are  performed 
for  the  other  four  interceptor  squad- 
rons accessible  to  the  New  York  SAGE 
sector  and  the  Bomarc  squadrons  at 
Otis,  Suffolk,  and  McGuire.  The  avail- 
ability status  of  Nike  batteries  in  the 
Boston  and  New  York  AA  defense 
complexes  are  also  checked,  and  earli- 
est intercept  points  are  predicted.  A 
seven-minute  time-to-go  is  shown  by 
the  Suffolk  Bomarcs,  and  this  is  sub- 
stantially shorter  than  can  be  obtained 
against  this  target  with  any  of  the  other 
weapon  sources.  The  computer  there- 
fore selects  (still  tentatively)  the  Suf- 
folk Bomarcs  for  use  against  track 
B207.  This  entire  selection  process,  in- 
cluding all  of  the  computations  for  all 
the  weapon  sources,  occupies  the  ma- 
chine for  less  than  one-twentieth  of  a 
second. 

Based  upon  the  location  of  track 
B207,  the  computer  selects  weapons  di- 


rector No.  2  to  be  responsible  for  it, 
and  notifies  him  with  an  attention  dis- 
play. The  display  also  indicates  the 
computer's  recommended  course  of  ac- 
tion (i.e.,  fire  a  Bomarc  from  Suffolk) 
and  the  predicted  intercept  point  cor- 
responding to  that  choice. 

The  WD  indicates  his  concurrence 
by  pressing  a  button  on  his  console  (if 
he  did  not  agree,  he  could  choose  an 
alternate  weapon  source).  Within  a 
few  seconds,  the  computer  transmits  a 
"fire"  message  to  launcher  No.  31  at 
the  Suffolk  Bomarc  squadron.  Seconds 
later,  the  booster  ignites  and  the  missile 
rises  from  the  launcher.  When  it 
reaches  altitude  the  Bomarc  levels  oft 
and  cruises  under  the  power  of  its  ram- 
jets. 

An  automatic  message  flashes  from 
the  launcher  to  tell  the  SAGE  computer 
the  Bomarc  is  airborne.  The  computer 
assigns  track  number  AB15  to  the  mis- 
sile. By  this  time  it  also  has  selected 
one  of  the  WD's  five  intercept  directors 
to  assume  responsibility  for  the  mis- 
sion. 

The  selected  intercept  director's  sit- 
uation display  shows  the  locations  of 
Hostile  B207  and  Missile  AB15  and 
the  predicted  intercept  point.  Both  the 
missile  and  the  target  are  now  being 
tracked  and  a  series  of  guidance  com- 
putations will  steer  the  missile  and 
periodically  up-date  the  predicted  in- 
tercept point. 

•  Guiding  the  missile — The  guid- 
ance computations  take  into  account 
the  target's  position,  speed,  heading 
and  altitude,  the  missile's  position,  alti- 
tude and  speed,  and  the  velocity  of  the 
wind  (weather  data  in  its  memory). 
From  these  inputs  it  computes: 

( 1 )  Missile  mid-course  heading 

(2)  Missile  attack  heading 

( 3 )  Time-to-go 

(4)  Seeker  azimuth  orientation 

(5)  Seeker  elevation  orientation 

(6)  Location  of  intercept  point. 
When  the  computer  notices  that 

target  speed,  heading,  or  altitude  has 
changed  significantly,  the  computations 
are  repeated.  It  takes  about  one-fiftieth 
of  a  second  to  perform  them  once. 

The  computer  then  codes  necessary 
command  information  into  the  proper 
format  for  transmission.  It  also  must 
consider  the  location  of  the  missile  in 
relation  to  all  of  the  data  link  transmit- 
ter sites  in  the  sector  and  select  the  site 
from  which  the  missile  will  receive  the 
strongest  signal.  A  digital  address  for 
the  selected  site  and  the  address  of  the 
missile  (AB15)  are  added  to  the  mes- 
sage, which  is  then  recorded  on  the 
computer's  output  drum. 

Like  the  magnetic  input  drum,  the 
output  drum  acts  as  a  kind  of  reservoir, 
but  in  reverse.  The  computer  fills  it  up 
quickly  with  outgoing  messages  such  as 
the  data-link  commands  for  all  weap- 


60 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Perhaps  you,  too,  can  profit  from 


...INCORPORATED 


. .  .  capacity  to  design,  produce,  install  and  operate 

complete  systems  for  separation,  purification  and 
liquefaction  of  gases  —  systems  that  provide 
profitable  advantages  and  opportunities  throughout  industry. 


HOW  THE  MILITARY  SERVICES 
use  Air  Products  CAPACITY 

Large-scale  low  temperature  systems,  ultra  pure  gases  and 
liquids,  and  a  broad  range  of  specialized  cryogenic  "hardware" 
are  supplied  by  Air  Products  to  the  military.  When  large  quantities 
of  liquefied  gases  were  needed  for  rocket  engine  development 
and  missile  testing,  Air  Products  quickly  designed,  manufactured 
and  put  on  stream  complete  production  facilities.  Typical  facili- 
ties paid  for  themselves  in  less  than  a  year's  time.  Air  Products 
also  provides  a  broad  line  of  portable  air  separators  for  field  and 
shipboard  use  .  .  .  and  has  advanced  the  development  of  exotic 
fuels.  And,  Air  Products  produces  advanced  design  liquefied-gas 
pumps,  cryogenic  storage  and  transfer  systems,  electronic  cool- 
ing devices  and  refrigeration  and  distillation  equipment  for 
military  uses. 


YOU  will  find  here  tangible  evidence  of 
a  growing  technology.  Applying  "Cryo- 
genics" ( the  science  of  low  temperatures ) 
and  engineering  broad  new  routes  to  low-cost, 
high-purity  industrial  gases  is  the  main  busi- 
ness of  Air  Products. 

Air  Products  combines  original  research 
knowledge  with  engineering  and  manufactur- 
ing capabilities  and  substantial  operating 
experience.  These  integrated  activities  have  i 


These  companies  and  many  others  are  the  beneficiaries 

of  major  facilities  provided  by  Air  Products: 
Acme  Steel  •  Bethlehem  Steel  •  Brazilian  National  Steel  •  Celanese 
•  Dow  Chemical  •  du  Pont  •  Grace  Chemical  •  Great  Lakes  Steel 


Petrochemical  plants 
use  Air  Product* . 

equipment  in  /<'''''<^^^| 

preparation 
product  punficaliti 


HOW  THE  STEEL  INDUSTRY 
uses  Air  Products  CAPACITY 

In  the  blast  furnace,  the  open  hearth  and  the  new 
converter  processes  —  Air  Products  oxygen  effi- 
ciently increases  steel  mill  capacity.  Annealing 
nitrogen  and  other  gases  are  also  provided  on  a 
low-cost  tonnage  basis. 

Air  Products'  complete  gas  supply  systems  are 
installed  at  steel  mills  without  capital  investment 
or  operating  worries  on  the  part  of  the  users. 
Continuity  and  reliability  of  supply  are  assured. 
On-site  facilities  pioneered  by  Air  Products 
reduced  the  cost  of  oxygen  80%  in  12  years  — 
transforming  oxygen  from  a  costly  chemical  to 
a  practical  working  utility. 

Further  progress  marks  on-the-job  development 
work  now  continuing  around  the  clock  at  major 
steelmaking  facilities.  Entirely  new  metallurgical 
techniques  .  .  .  and  new  profits  .  .  .  are  available 
through  Air  Products. 


helped  provide  many  Air  Products  customers 
with  distinct  competitive  advantages. 

Air  Products  is  the  world's  leader  in 
APPLIED  CRYOGENICS  -  the  practical 
and  profitable  use  of  low-temperature  science 
for  industry. 

Perhaps  this  CAPACITY  can  help  solve 
your  problems  —  in  cryogenics,  in  industrial 
gas  supply  systems,  or  in  some  new  area  where 
"ground  rules"  are  yet  to  be  established. 


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Mines  •  Weirton  Steel. 


HOW  THE  CHEMICAL  INDUSTRY 
uses  Air  Products  CAPACITY 

Air  Products  low-temperature  systems  permit 
many  modern  chemical  plants  to  improve  operat- 
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develop  new  processes  and  products.  This  results 
from  the  ready  availability  of  low-cost  tonnage 
quantities  of  oxygen,  nitrogen,  hydrogen,  ammonia 
and  methanol  syn-gas,  carbon  monoxide  and 
hydrocarbons  such  as  purified  methane,  acety- 
lene and  ethylene.  Low-temperature  separations 
of  gaseous  mixtures  now  make  it  practical  to 
recover  valuable  components  from  natural  gas, 
refinery  off-gases,  coke-oven  gas  and  other 
"waste"  gases.  The  versatility  of  cryogenics— as 
applied  by  Air  Products— works  profitably  for  the 
chemical  industry  today  .  .  .  offers  unparalleled 
future  opportunity  in  this  fast-growing  industry. 


HIGH  PURITY  GASES  AND  LIQUIDS 
—  available  like  any  other  utility 
with  the  help  of  Air  Products 

CAPACITY 

. . .  The  supply  is  dependable  .  . . 
the  price  guaranteed  .  .  .  with 
Air  Products  on  the  job. 


Liquid  hydrogen,  identified  by  the  Air  Force  as  an  "ultimate" 
chemical  fuel  with  three  times  the  energy  content  of  present 
fuels,  is  in  production  at  this  facility  in  Palm  Beach  County, 
Florida.  Built  and  operated  for  the  Air  Force  by  Air  Products. 


Perhaps  you,  too, 
can  profit  from 


CAPACITY 


;fC  To  find  the  new  opportunities  Applied  Cry-  ^  To  put  entire  gas  supply  complexes  to  work 
ogenics  may  offer  in  the  manufacture,  sepa-  for  you  without  capital  investment  on  your 
ration  and  purification  of  Industrial  Gases.  part. 


5fc  To  provide  integrated  research,  engineer- 
ing, manufacture  and  operation... complete 
services  under  a  single  responsibility. 

5{c  To  forecast  accurately  and  guarantee  total 
cost,  superior  performance  and  reliability. 


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TOW  N,  PENNSYLVANIA 


Air  Products  (Gr 


))  Ltd.,  London 
ipment  Co.,  Allentown 


Air  Products  CAPACITY  has  helped  our 
customers  to  step  out  ahead  of  competition 
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areas  of  opportunity  through  new  products 
or  processes.  A  letter  or  telephone  call  will 
put  Air  Products  CAPACITY  to  work  for 
you. 


Information  is  available  on:  superconductivity  •  frozen  free  radicals  •! 
biological  preservation  •  environmental  control  •  low-temperature  cata-j 
lytic  reactions  •  infrared  detection  •  masers  •  purification  and  liquefaction 
of:  argon  •  carbon  monoxide  •  ethylene  •  fluorine  •  helium  •  hydrogen 
krypton  •  methane  •  neon  •  nitrogen  •  nitrogen  trifluoride  •  oxygen  • 
oxygen  difluoride  •  ozone  •  xenon 


Dynamic  Research,  Inc.,  Los  Angeles  Air  Products,  S.A.,  Caraca 

Industrial  &  Medical  Gas  Div.,  major  U.S.  cities 


MISSILE  HARDWARE 
|      by  NEWBROOK 


•  PLENUM  CHAMBERS 

•  BLAST  TUBES 

•  FUEL  INJECTORS 


ons.  Then,  while  the  computer  is  doing 
other  jobs,  the  drum  "slowly"  doles  out 
its  data  to  the  phone  lines.  It  will  be 
empty  by  the  time  the  computer  has 
more  information  to  record  on  it. 

When  the  message  for  AB15  is 
placed  on  the  phone  line  to  the  data- 
link  network,  the  appropriate  data-link 
site  recognized  the  address,  accepts, 
and  radiates  the  message  in  a  fraction 
of  a  second.  AB15  receives  the  mes- 
sage and  makes  the  necessary  adjust- 
ments in  its  course. 

•  Handover — When  time-to-go  is 
down  to  about  four  minutes,  the  course 
of  track  B207  shifts  still  more  to  the 
north,  and  the  predicted  intercept  point 
drifts  across  the  sector  boundary.  Raid 
Able  is  apparently  headed  for  Boston, 
and  his  present  course  will  soon  carry 
him  into  the  Boston  Sector. 

Accordingly,  the  New  York  com- 
puter places  a  special  symbol  about 
this  track's  display,  alerting  operating 
personnel  that  it  is  about  to  be  trans- 
ferred, and  sends  a  "crosstell"'  message 
to  the  Boston  computer,  giving  data 
about  the  track  and  the  missile  paired 
with  it. 

Boston  almost  immediately  begins 
tracking  the  target  with  data  from  its 
own  radars  and  notifies  New  York  that 
the  transfer  has  been  made.  Missile 
AB15  is  still  in  the  New  York  Sector, 
where  it  is  being  tracked  and  guided. 

As  Missile  AB15  nears  the  border, 
the  controlling  intercept  director  is 
alerted  and  the  New  York  computer 
dispatches  a  crosstell  message  contain- 
ing the  missile's  position,  speed,  head- 
ing, altitude,  fuel  remaining,  and  tacti- 
cal parameters.  Boston's  computer  se- 
lects an  intercept  director  to  monitor 
the  rest  of  the  mission. 

New  York  drops  out  of  the  picture 
by  transmitting  a  final  data-link  mes- 
sage to  Bomarc  AB15,  commanding  it 
to  re-tune  its  data-link  receiver  to  the 
frequency  of  the  Boston  network. 

Boston  now  has  complete  respon- 
sibility for  guiding  the  missile  to  its 
interception  point.  It  tracks,  computes 
the  intercept,  and  transmits  guidance 
commands.  When  the  missile's  seeker 
is  activated,  the  missile  turns  to  its  at- 
tack heading.  AB15  is  now  a  few  miles 
from  the  hostile,  a  few  thousand  feet 
above  it,  and  on  a  collision  course. 

The  radar  seeker  is  aimed  directly 
at  the  target  and  scanning.  When  the 
seeker  locks  on,  the  missile  dives,  and 
its  proximity  fuse  detonates  the  war- 
head at  its  closest  approach  to  target. 

The  stoppage  of  radar  and  beacon 
returns  from  the  target  and  missile  tells 
the  Boston  computer  that  the  mission 
is  accomplished.  On  the  machine's  rec- 
ommendation, an  operator  in  the  Air 
Surveillance  Room  takes  a  switch  ac- 
tion to  erase  AB15  and  B207  from  the 
computer's  active  memory. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


MOTOR  CASES 

Solid  and  Liquid 
Propellants 

JATO  CASES 
NOZZLES 


The  newest  addition  to  the  Quality  Control  facilities  at  Newbrook 
is  the  Hydrostatic  Test  Cell  illustrated  below.  All  controls  are  on 
the  outside.  A  T.V.  Camera  inside  the  cell  enables  the  engineers 
to  watch  the  test  on  a  T.V.  screen.  This  is  only  one  of  many 
projects  at  this  modern  plant  manned  and  equipped  to  produce 
the  finest  in  missile  components. 


45  MECHANIC  ST.  phone:  Yellowstone  4-2644  SILVER  CREEK,  N.  Y. 

Circle  No.  56  on  Subscriber  Service  Card.  £5 


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only  150  pounds. 


Lightweight  aluminum,  compact  for  easy  handling,  storing  and 
shipping. 

Pre-joined  frame  erected  in  minutes  by  unskilled  personnel.  No 
tools  needed.  Improved  design  by  mpm  engineers  provides 
interior  with  maximum  usable  area,  totally  free  of  supporting 
members.  New  low  profile  saves  erection  time,  cuts  costs,  mini- 
mizes weight  and  shipping  space. 

A  blackout  vestibule  is  provided  as  standard  equipment.  Addi- 
tional work  bays  can  be  added  to  the  basic  shelter  as  required. 
For  more  information  about  mpm  Communication  MASTS  and 
TOWERS  and  mpm  SHELTERS  .  .  .  sizes,  costs,  availability,  etc., 
write  to  Magnesium  Products  of  Milwaukee,  Inc.,  748  W.  Virginia 
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missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


BMEWS-A  Bill  ion-Dollar  Investment 
To  Fulfill  One  Objective 


Amen'co's  electronics  giants  unite  to  give  us 
15-minute  advance  warning  of  ICBM  attack 


by  Charles  D.  LaFond 

Moorestown,  N.J. — The  Ballistic 
Missile  Early  Warning  System 
(BMEWS)  is  a  billion-dollar  product  of 
an  evolution  of  national  defense  weap- 
on systems.  The  concept  is  an  accumu- 
lation of  new  ideas  fostered  by  a  need 
for  protection  against  modern  weapons 
■ — -weapons  which  have  surpassed  avail- 
able defensive  hardware  and  destroyed 
our  former  complacency.  An  unusual 
part  of  the  evolution  is  its  very  brief 
time  span. 

Early  in  1958  the  Air  Force  an- 
nounced that  the  Radio  Corporation  of 
America  has  been  designated  as  prime 
contractor  for  the  design  and  construc- 
tion of  the  BMEW  system.  Because 
of  the  rapid  development  of  ICBM's, 
it  had  become  necessary  to  construct  a 
high-powered,  long-range  radar  system 
having  a  series  of  forward  sites  at 
northern  locations  to  detect  any  enemy 
missiles  that  might  be  launched  toward 
the  United  States  or  Canada. 

A  polar  projection  immediately  re- 
veals why  the  forward  sites  had  to  be 
located  in  northern  regions;  the  shortest 
missile  trajectories  from  the  USSR  to 
the  United  States  are  across  the  polar 
area.  Typical  approximate  distances  to 
principal  U.S.  cities  include  3000  miles 
to  Los  Angeles  from  Siberia,  4000 
miles  to  Chicago  from  Siberia,  and 
4500  miles  to  New  York  City  from 
northwest  Russia.  AH  of  these  distances 
are  well  within  the  range  limits  of  pres- 
ent ICBM's. 

Early  plans  for  the  system  called 
for  three  high-powered  radar  stations  in 
northern  latitudes  plus  a  central  com- 
puter and  display  facility  in  the  con- 
tinental United  States.  The  latter  was 
located  at  the  North  American  Air- 
Defense  Command  at  Colorado  Springs. 

Two  sites  have  been  definitely  es- 
tablished; Clear,  Alaska,  and  Thule, 
Greenland.  The  third  site  reportedly 
will  be  established  somewhere  in  Scot- 
land (this  final  selection  is  currently  un- 
der negotiation  with  the  British,  follow- 


FIG.  1 — Artist's  conception  of  a  typical  BMEWS  site  layout.  The  huge  plastic  sphere 
surrounding  the  tracking  radar  when  mounted  on  the  radar  building  will  tower  to  the 
height  of  a  15-story  office  building. 


ing  the  survey  of  eleven  potential  sites). 

BMEWS  has  one  primary  objective: 
to  provide  at  least  a  15-minute  warning 
following  the  detection  of  a  mass  ICBM 
attack.  This  warning  will  alert  military 
forces  and  furnish  information  to  civil 
defense  agencies.  Thus  it  complements 
the  DEW  Line,  which  is  designed  to 


detect  aircraft  and  air  breathing  mis- 
siles. 

Tentatively,  an  $822.7-million  ceil- 
ing has  been  set  by  the  Secretary  of 
Defense  for  BMEWS  implementation. 
This  includes  Sites  1  and  2  and  the 
U.S.  control  facility.  An  additional  $98 
million  (estimated)  will  be  needed  to 


ENVIRONMENTAL 
DISPLAY 


DETECTION 
RADARS 


DIGITAL  DATA 
TAKEOFF 


IBM  709 
COMPUTER 


TRACKING 
RADARS 


DIGITAL  DATA 
TAKEOFF 


CENTRAL  CONTROL 
CONSOLE 


COMMUNICATION 
TERMINAL 


TO  ALL  SUBSYSTEMS 


t  _ 

t 

t 

1 

CONTROL  AND 
SWITCHING 

PRIME  POWER 

SYSTEM  CHECKOUT 
AND  MONITORING 

SITE 
COMMUNICATION 

FIG.  2 — Major  elements  of  the  BMEWS  system. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


67 


complete  Site  3.  Because  of  the  joint 
utilization  of  this  site  (Scotland),  the 
British  will  probably  contribute  an  esti- 
mated $21.7  million  of  the  total  re- 
quired. 

An  estimated  $91  million  of  the 
total  above  will  be  utilized  for  rearward 
communication  facilities  from  Sites  1 
and  2. 

The  original  letter  contract  award 
to  RCA  was  for  $200.1  million.  West- 
ern Electric  Company,  under  separate 
Air  Force  contract,  received  $30.8  mil- 
lion as  prime  contractor  for  rearward 
communications.  It  has  been  estimated 
that  up  to  the  initial  operating  date  of 
the  system,  RCA  will  have  been  award- 
ed a  total  of  $440  million  and  WECO 
a  total  of  $85.7  million. 

In  developing  BMEWS,  RCA  is 
supported  by  several  major  subcon- 
tractors, including  the  General  Electric 
Company,  Sylvania  Electric  Products, 
and  the  Goodyear  Aircraft  Corporation. 
Construction  will  be  accomplished  by 
U.S.  Army  Corps  of  Engineers. 

Such  a  combination  of  talents  and 
facilities  indicates  the  complexity  of  the 
system  as  well  as  the  typical  teamwork 
that  exists  within  American  industry  on 
defense  contracts. 

The  BMEWS  system  will  be  linked 
with  the  Command  Headquarters  at 
Colorado  Springs  through  a  communi- 
cations network  being  constructed  un- 


der a  separate  contract  by  WECO. 
•  Evolution  of  complex  systems — 

H.  W.  Phillips,  RCA  manager  of 
BMEWS  Operations  Administration, 
has  stated  that  approximately  80%  of 
the  products  and  services  furnished  to 
present-day  weapon  systems  by  the  elec- 
tronics industry  were  not  available  as 
recently  as  10  years  ago.  This  is  not 
surprising,  he  said,  when  we  consider 
the  evolution  of  the  weapon  system 
concept  itself  and  the  rapid  develop- 
ment of  new  electronic  and  mechanical 
components. 

Only  since  the  early  days  of  World 
War  II  have  we  seen  the  results  of  ad- 
vanced development  and  application  of 
such  techniques  and  equipments  as  jet 
propulsion,  nuclear  and  thermonuclear 
weapons,  atomic  power,  missiles,  satel- 
lites and  similar  advanced  systems. 

During  World  War  I,  weapon  sys- 
tems, as  we  now  interpret  the  term, 
were  unknown.  Officers  evaluated  battle 
situations  and  issued  orders  to  men  who 
took  action  with  manual  weapons — 
rifles,  bayonets,  machine  guns,  and 
artillery.  As  a  result,  military  opera- 
tions were  slow  and  inefficient  by  our 
present  standards. 

Shortly  before  and  during  World 
War  II,  techniques  and  equipment  were 
refined  so  that  effective  electronic  weap- 
on systems  became  a  reality.  The  first 
system  of  this  kind  involved  anti-air- 


NEW 


THE 


FOR   MISSILE   DATA  REDUCTION 


TWO  Simultaneous 
Recording  Channels 


The  new  Kay  Missilyzer  Is  an 
audio  and  sub-audio  spectro- 
graph designed  for  missile  data 
reduction  and  analysis  of  missile 
and  rocket  engine  noise.  It  can 
also  be  used  for  ships,  aircraft 
and  for  rotating  and  reciprocat- 
ing machinery  in  ordnance,  bal- 
listics, seismology.  acoustics, 
biophysics. 

The  Missilyzer  produces  perma- 
nent visual  records  of  complex 
wave  forms  to  15  kc  and  pro- 
vides three  different  analyses  of 
these  wave  forms.  The  first  an- 
alysis relates  frequency  and  in- 
tensity to  time.  The  second,  re- 
lates intensity  (over  a  wider 
dynamic  range  than  the  first)  to 
frequency  at  a  particular  in- 
stant of  time.  The  third  display 
shows  the  available  average  am- 
plitude versus  time. 

The  unit  Is  equally  suitable 
for  steady  state  measurements. 


68 


Dept.  MR-9 


For  complete  specifications 

KAY  ELECT 

Maple  Avenue, 


SPECIFICATIONS 

FREQUENCY  RANGE:  Standard  models,  5-15,000  cps, 
in  bands  listed  below. 

Analyzing  Filter  Band  Duration 
Recorded 

Freq.  Range  Narrow  Wide  Sample 

5-500  cps  2  cps  20  cps  24  seconds 

15-1500  cps  6  cps  60  cps  8  0 

50-5000  cps  20  cps  200  cps  2  4 

150-15,000  cps       60  cps  600  cps  0.8 

RECORDING  MEDIUM:  Magnetic  Drum. 
FREQUENCY      CALIBRATION:  Calibration 
markers  at  30  cps  or  240  cps  intervals  may  be 
recorded  on  analysis  paper. 

RECORD-REPRODUCE  AMPLIFIER  CHAR- 
ACTERISTICS: Frequency  response  switch- 
able  to  provide  flat  or  (for  transducer  usage) 
either  44-db  or  60-db  falling  characteristic. 
TWO  IDENTICAL  RECORD  CHANNELS:  May 
be  employed  independently  or  in  parallel. 
PICKUP  DEVICES:  Vibration  pickups,  micro- 
phones or  other  properly  matched  devices  can 
be  used. 

INPUT  IMPEDANCES,  SWITCHABLE:  High, 
1.8  Megohms  for  low  level  and  microphone  In- 
put. Low.  for  high  level  signals,  such  as  from 
tape  recorders. 

PRICE:  $2950.00  f  ob.  factory. 

Amplitude  Display  Unit,  Cat.  670-B,  adapted 

for  use  with  the  Missilyzer,  $175.00. 

and  prices  of  accessory  units  write: 

C  COMPANY 

Pine  Brook,  New  Jersey  CApital  6-4000 


J 


Circle  No.  65  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


craft  weapons.  These  were  controlled 
manually  or  semi-automatically,  based 
on  information  obtained  from  sound 
and  optical  trackers,  search-lights,  com- 
puters and  gun  directors.  Unfavorable 
weather  seriously  hampered  operations, 
however,  and  searchlights  revealed  the 
position  of  anti-aircraft  units. 

The  development  of  radar  radically 
changed  the  system.  Detection  became 
possible  under  all  weather  conditions 
and  at  ranges  of  several  hundred  miles. 
The  next  step  electronically  united  the 
radars,  computers,  and  guns  for  accu- 
rate fire  control.  This,  then,  was  a 
simple  integrated  weapon  system. 

Many  other  achievements  occurred 
during  World  War  II  that  led  to  com- 
plex weapon  systems:  advanced  jet  air- 
craft engines  were  developed;  guided 
missile  work  began;  advanced  fire  con- 
trol systems  were  developed  for  ground, 
shipboard,  and  airborne  applications; 
and  nuclear  energy  was  harnessed  as  a 
weapon  and  as  a  source  of  power. 

Since  the  end  of  World  War  II, 
some  of  the  greatest  advances  in  the 
defense  program  have  been  accom- 
plished in  the  electronics  field.  Radars, 
computers,  and  communication  equip- 
ment have  been  greatly  refined.  Tran- 
sistors, printed  circuitry,  and  micro- 
miniature modules  have  contributed 
tremendously  to  our  superior  electronic 
equipment.  Undoubtedly,  said  Phillips, 
the  development  and  application  of 
miniaturized  electronic  components  is 
helping  us  to  maintain  our  position  as 
a  world  leader  in  perfecting  complex 
weapon  systems. 

•  Design  configuration — In  the  final 
configuration,  it  is  contemplated  that 
BMEWS  will  feature  RCA-designed 
tracking  radars  and  General  Electric 
detection  radars.  The  detection  radars 
are  being  developed  in  conjunction 
with  the  Lincoln  Laboratory  of  Mas- 
sachusetts Institute  of  Technology  and 
ARDC. 

Together,  these  radars  will  detect 
and  track  an  invading  missile  as  it  ap- 
pears above  the  horizon.  With  the  aid 
of  a  high-speed  electronic  computer 
and  associated  equipment  being  pro- 
vided under  subcontract  by  Sylvania 
Electric  Products,  altitude,  speed,  and 
trajectory  of  the  target  will  be  estab- 
lished. 

The  Goodyear  Aircraft  Corpora- 
tion, as  one  of  the  three  major  sub- 
contractors, is  responsible  for  the  de- 
sign and  production  of  the  tracking 
radar  antenna  pedestal  assemblies  and 
the  140'  diameter  rigid  spherical 
radomes  to  protect  radars. 

Fig.  1  shows  a  possible  layout  of  a 
BMEWS  site.  The  sizes  involved  are 
impressive.  The  huge  plastic  sphere  sur- 
rounding the  tracking  radar  antenna 
when  mounted  on  the  radar  building 
will  tower  to  the  height  of  a  15-story 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


EXPANDING  THE  FRONTIERS 


OF  SPACE  TECHNOLOGY. .  .IN 


ELECTRO-MECHANICAL  DESIGN 


has  complete  capa- 
bility in.  more  than  40  areas  of  science  and  technology.  As  sys- 
tems manager  for  such  major  projects  as  the  Navy  POLARIS 
FBM;  DISCOVERER  SATELLITE;  Army  KINGFISHER; 
Air  Force  Q-5,  X-7  and  X-17,  the  Division  is  heavily  engaged 
in  all  phases  of  design  and  packaging. 


LoCt 


*a0irjf<  §jj  ?  sS3i?j/  —If  you  are  experienced  in  electro- 
mechanical design  or  packaging  with  specific  knowledge  of 
electronic  packaging;  wiring  design;  harness  assembly;  ignition 
and  separation  systems  design  or  auxiliary  power  systems  de- 
sign, we  invite  your  inquiry. 


Research  and  Development  Staff,  1-3-29,  962  West  El 
Camino  Real,  Sunnyvale,  California.  U.S.  citizenship  required. 


-  ^      / MISSILES  AND  SPACE  DIVISION 


Systems  Manager  for  Navy  POLARIS  FBM;  DISCOVERER,  SENTRY 
and  MIDAS;  Army  KINGFISHER;  Air  Force  Q-5  and  X-7 

SUNNYVALE.  PALO  ALTO,  VAN  NUYS.  SANTA  CRUZ.  SANTA  MARIA,  CALIFORNIA  •  CAPE  CANAVERAL,  FLA.  •  ALAM060ROO.  N.  M.  •  HAWAII 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  2!,  1959 


69 


1 


PORT  OF  EMBARKATION 

In  the  decade  of  missilery  abend,  prime  contractor 
capability  must  go  far  beyond  the  requirements 
of  hardware  design  and  manufacture.  New 
experience  and  facilities  are  now  required  in  the 
increasingly  critical  launching  phase — from 
ground  handling  and  testing  to  countdown 
and  data  control. 
Martin's  Cocoa  Division  is  the  first  organization 
of  its  kind  devoted  exclusively  to  this 
specialized  area.  Accomplishments  have 
already  established  new  operational  standards 
at  Cape  Canaveral,  one  of  tlie  two  U.S.  ports 
of  embarkation  for  the  major  space  events 
of  the  decade  ahead. 
An  example  of  the  latest  development 
in  electronic  fail-safe  launching  equipment 
is  the  new  Martin  Master  Operations 
Control  [MOC]  system,  which  automatically 
monitors  count-down  procedures  in  the 
test  firing  of  research  and  development-type 
TITAN  missiles.  With  equipment  such 
as  this,  TITAN  launchings  ha  re  ach  ieved 
unheard-of  performance  reliability. 


70 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


office  building.  The  detection  radar  an- 
tennas each  have  more  area  than  a  full 
sized  football  field.  These  are  stationary 
— scanning  action  is  accomplished  by 
moving  a  beam  mechanically  or  elec- 
tromechanically. 

Technically,  it  is  significant  that  the 
system  required  increasing  the  range 
capability  over  the  present  radars,  such 
as  those  used  on  the  DEW  Line,  by 
a  factor  of  10  to  1.  This  could  be  done 
theoretically  by  increasing  power  by  a 
factor  of  10,000,  but  this  is  well  be- 
yond the  feasible  economic  limits.  The 
second  approach  was  the  construction 
of  much  larger  radar  antennas  to  ob- 
tain increased  range  by  concentrating 
the  energy  in  a  narrower  and  a  more 
efficient  beam. 

In  addition  to  the  necessity  for  pro- 
viding longer  range  so  that  early  de- 
tection is  possible,  it  is  also  necessary 
to  provide  frequent  coverage  of  the 
area  being  observed  so  that  targets  can- 
not slip  through  without  detection.  This 
is  accomplished  by  developing  the  best 
compromise  between  pulse  rate  and 
pulse  length. 

•  Reliability — According  to  R.  H. 
Baker,  program  reliability  manager  at 
RCA,  one  of  the  overriding  considera- 
tions in  connection  with  the  design,  de- 
velopment and  production  of  BMEWS 
is  the  high  reliability  requirement.  In 
order  to  afford  full  protection,  it  is  es- 
sential that  the  system  be  capable  of 
staying  on  the  air  continuously. 

The  required  reliability,  said  Baker, 
is  being  achieved  through  careful  ap- 
plication of  thoroughly  developed  reli- 
ability techniques  in  connection  with 
the  development  of  the  system  concept, 
the  physical  design  of  the  hardware, 
and  the  production  and  installation  of 
the  equipment. 

•  Operation — Fig.  2  is  a  functional 
chart  showing  the  major  elements  of 
the  system  and  their  relationship  to 
each  other. 

The  "Data  Take  Off"  provides  a 
fundamental  part  of  the  system  capa- 
bility by  furnishing  preliminary  detec- 
tion information  and  transforming  ana- 
log radar  returns  to  digital  form.  The 
tracking  and  detection  radars  require 
separate  data-take-off  equipments  be- 
cause of  the  differences  in  the  generated 
signals. 

The  site  computers  are  known  as 
"track  initiation  and  prediction"  com- 
puters. Two  IBM  solid-state  digital 
computers  make  up  this  duplex,  which 
is  operated  on  a  real  time  basis  (com- 
puter operations  are  concurrent  with 
the  events  on  which  information  is  be- 
ing generated). 

Target  trajectories  are  computed 
from  the  digitized  target  information 
and  the  computed  trajectories  are  com- 
pared with  known  courses  and  charac- 
(continued  on  page  78) 

71 


Atlas  Beams 
U.S.  Peace  Plea 

WASHINGTON,  Dec.  19  — 

The  voice  of  President 
Eisenhower,  broadcasting  from 
the  Atlas  satellite  in  space,  today 
was  heard  in  a  dramatic  Christ- 
mas message  calling*  for  peace 
on  earth. 

As  the  San  Diego-built  rocket 
raced  overhead  at  17,000  miles 
an  hour  the  communications 
system  flashed  these  words: 

"This  is  the  President  of  the 
United  States  speaking.  Through 
the  marvels  of  scientific  advance, 
my  voice  is  coming  to  you  from 
a  satellite  circling  in  outer  space. 

"My  message  is  a  simple  one. 
Through  this  unique  means  I 
convey  to  you  and  to  all  mankind 
America's  wish  for  peace  on 
earth  and  good  will  toward  men 
everywhere." 

Mr.  Eisenho^J^^^irK^  to 
transmit 


m 

72 


circle  no.  2i  on  Subscriber  Service  Card.     missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


mostly  for  building  and  support 


PMR  Plans  to  Spend  $256  Million 

The  nation's  largest  missile  and  space  vehicle 

range  includes  only  base  from  which  polar  launches  can 

be  made,  will  be  heavily  used  by  services  and  NASA. 


M/R  Staff  Report 

Point  Mugu,  Calif. — Over  a  quar- 
ter of  a  billion  dollars  is  planned  to 
be  spent  during  the  next  few  years  to 
develop  the  nation's  largest  missile  and 
space  vehicle  range. 

And  most  of  this  money  will  be 
spent  for  construction  and  missile  sup- 
port equipment. 

The  Pacific  Missile  Range — run  by 
the  Navy  with  the  Bendix  Corp.  and 
the  Texas  Transportation  Corp.  as 
prime  range  contractors — is  already  the 
largest  range  in  size  (65,000  acres  of 
water  and  land).  Present  and  future 
expenditures  will  give  it  the  most  ex- 
tensive facilities. 

PMR  is  really  four  ranges: 

•  The  Inland  Range  —  which 
stretches  eastward  from  Tonopah,  Nev. 
to  Dugway  Utah,  tests  short  range  sur- 
face-to-surface missiles; 

•  The  Sea  Test  Range — extends  500 
miles  south  paralleling  the  California 
coast  and  is  used  for  testing  short- 
range  air-to-air  and  air-to-surface 
guided  missiles  and  medium-range  sur- 
face-to-surface missiles; 

•  The  IRBM-ICBM  Range — cen- 
tered at  Vandenberg  AFB  extends  thou- 
sands of  miles  over  the  Pacific,  allows 
long  range  tests  with  maximum  teleme- 
try and  safety; 

•  The  Space  Range — at  Point  Ar- 
guello,  is  the  nation's  only  range  having 
the  unique  geographical  advantage  al- 
lowing polar  orbiting  satellites  to  be 
fired  with  complete  safety. 

PMR  presently  employs  6500  and 
has  a  yearly  payroll  of  $35  million. 
By  the  end  of  FY  1960,  over  $151  mil- 
lion will  have  been  spent  on  the  base. 
During  the  next  few  years,  a  total  of 
$256  million  will  have  been  spent. 
The  final  figure  may  be  in  the  billions. 

Like  its  sister  bases — the  Atlantic 
Missile  Range  run  by  the  Air  Force 
and  White  Sands  run  by  the  Army — 


PMR  is  used  by  all  four  services  and 
both  space  agencies.  Base  Commander 
Rear  Admiral  Monroe  has  as  his  Dep- 
uty Commanders  representatives  of  the 
Army,  Navy,  and  Air  Force,  and  soon 
will  have  a  Director  from  the  National 
Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration. 

What  does  PMR  intend  to  spend 
its  quarter  of  a  billion  dollars  on?  The 
primary  market  will  be  for  construction. 
Buildings,  fuel  storage,  high  explosive 
magazines,  facilities,  frequency  control 
facilities,  warehouses,  and  additions  to 
many  existing  but  inadequate  facilities. 

Missile  support  equipment  needs 
range  from  mobile  instrumentation  sta- 
tions, vehicles,  and  towers,  to  the  vari- 
ous small  electronic  components  that 
form  the  guts  of  any  missile  test  center. 

PMR  does  not  duplicate  the  work 
of  AMR  or  White  Sands.  AMR  was 


constructed  as  a  research  and  develop- 
ment center  for  long  range  guided  mis- 
siles, and  White  Sands  performs  the 
same  function  for  shorter  range  air-to- 
air,  surface-to-surface  and  surface-to- 
air  guided  missiles. 

Except  for  Polaris  and  other  Navy 
missiles,  PMR  is  used  for  training 
crews  to  fire  the  missiles  once  they 
become  operational. 

The  Point  Arguello  space  range,  as 
was  explained  before,  carries  out  a 
function  that  no  other  launch  base  can. 
It  is  the  only  base  that  can  put  a  satel- 
lite safely  into  a  polar  orbit — there  is 
nothing  between  Point  Arguello  and 
the  South  Pole  except  water.  This  pro- 
vides an  excellent  fall-out  area  for  the 
booster  and  also  a  large  safety  area  for 
destruction  of  vehicles  which  do  not 
go  into  proper  orbit. 


ACTUALLY  four  ranges  in  one,  the  vast  Pacific  Missile  Range  already  includes  Inland 
Range  in  Western  U.S.,  Sea  Test  Range  south  from  California,  IRBM-ICBM  Range 
from  Vandenberg  AFB  west,  and  Space  Range  at  Point  Arguello. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


73 


AiResearch  Actuation  Systems  For 

Portable  Radar  represent  a  typical  electromechanical  systems 
application  in  ground  support  equipment.  Two  types  of  AiResearch  actuation  systems 
are  now  in  production  for  the  Army's  mobile  trailer-mounted  ground  radar  unit.  They 
consist  of  a  manually  operated  antenna  folding  storage  system  and  an  electrically 
powered  antenna  elevation  system. 


Designed  to  operate  under  the  most  severe 
environmental  conditions,  this  type  of 
electromechanical  system  can  operate  on 
60  cycle  A.C.,  400  cycle  A.C.,  or  28  volt 
D.C.  Other  suggested  applications  include: 
missile  launchers,  missile  ground  handling 
and  support  equipment,  armored  vehicle 
fire  control  and  ballistic  handling  systems, 
and  mobile  communications  equipment 
requiring  servoed  actuating  systems. 


AiResearch  leadership  in  the  development 
and  production  of  electromechanical 
equipment  for  aircraft,  ground  handling, 
ordnance  and  missile  systems  of  all  types 
also  includes  such  recent  examples  as 
spoiler  servo  control  systems,  magnetron 
and  Klystron  tuning  devices,  and  safe-arm 
mechanisms  for  missile  igniting.  We  invite 
you  to  submit  a  problem  statement  of  your 
electromechanical  requirements. 


U.S.  Army  Signal  Corps  ground 
portable  radar  unit  operated  with 
two  AiResearch  electromechani- 
cal actuation  systems. 


CORPORATION 

AiResearch  Manufacturing  Divisions 


Los  Angeles  45,  California  •  Phoenix,  Arizona 
Systems,  Packages  and  Components  for:  AIRCRAFT,  MISSILE,  ELECTRONIC.  NUCLEAR  AND  INDUSTRIAL  APPLICATIONS 

74  circie  No.  43  on  subscriber  Service  Cord.     missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Because  of  its  peculiar  needs,  the 
Army's  Nike-Zeus  anti-missile  missile 
will  be  tested  at  PMR. 

PMR  grew  from  the  early  Navy 
missile  base  at  Point  Mugu  which  was 
set  up  in  1946  to  test  short  range  mis- 
siles for  use  with  the  fleet.  Early  mis- 
siles developed  at  Mugu  were  the  Loon 
(modified  German  VOl)  and  the  sur- 
face-to-surface Lark.  These  missiles 
were  the  forerunners  of  the  Navy's 
air-to-surface  Bullpup,  air-to-air  Spar- 
row's I  and  III,  and  the  surface-to-sur- 
face Regulus  1. 

The  reason  that  Point  Mugu  and 
the  surrounding  area  stretching  90 
miles  north  to  Point  Arguello  was 
picked  to  become  the  largest  missile 
and  space  vehicle  range  were :  ( 1 )  it 
offered  more  launching  room  for  long 
range  missiles  and  could  launch  satel- 
lites into  polar  orbits;  (2)  launches 
could  be  conducted  in  complete  se- 
crecy; and  (3)  there  were  no  inhab- 
ited areas  within  10  miles  of  the  facil- 
ity, offering  greater  safety  to  the  ci- 
vilian populace. 


Point  Arguello,  originally  the  Ar- 
my's Ft.  Cooke,  was  brought  into  the 
PMR  complex  in  1958. 

The  three  biggest  installations  al- 
ready constructed  or  under  construc- 
tion at  PMR  are  the  Thor,  Atlas  and 
Titan  complexes.  Eight  Thor  pads  are 
nearing  completion  and  three  Atlas 
pads  are  ready  to  handle  the  nation's 
first  operational  ICBM. 

Joining  these  complexes  in  the  fu- 
ture will  be  installations  for  the  Min- 
uteman,  the  Nike-Zeus,  and  for 
the  larger  NASA  space  vehicles,  such 
as  Centaur,  Vega,  Saturn,  and  Nova, 
now  under  development. 

NASA,  which  has  not  used  PMR  in 
the  past,  intends  to  make  extensive  use 
of  it  in  the  future.  Joining  ARPA  satel- 
lites launched  from  PMR  will  be 
NASA  polar  orbiting  satellites  and 
communications  satellite. 

An  integral  part  of  the  space  oper- 
ation, when  built,  will  be  the  equatorial 
launch  site  tentatively  slated  for  con- 
struction on  Manus  Island  in  the  Ad- 
miralty Islands  Group. 


I    I  FIRM  SITING  SELECTED 
■  PROPOSED  SITING  SELECTED  i 


NAVAL  MISSILE  FACILITY,  POINT  ARGUELLO 


POINT  ARGUELLO  boasts  the  nation's  only  missile  range  permitting  completely  safe 
launching  of  satellites  into  polar  orbit  South  of  the  point  is  nothing  but  open  water, 
providing  fall-out  area  for  booster  and  room  to  destruct  erratic  birds.  , 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


A  Special  Memo 
from 

ROCKETDYNE 

to  a 

PHYSICIST 

Rocketdyne,  the  Nation's  leader  in 
Research  &  Development  of  high 
and  low  thrust  propulsion  systems 
has  a  position  demanding 

PROJECT  RESPONSIBILITY 

for  a  Senior  Research  Scientist  or 
Specialist  to  perform 

THEORETICAL-EXPERIMENTAL 
RESEARCH  in 
ELECTRICAL  PROPULSION 

including 

IONIZATION  OF  SPECIES 
ELECTRICAL  DISCHARGE 
PHENOMENA 
ION  ACCELERATION 

Desired  Qualifications:  PhD  de- 
gree and  five  years  of  applicable 
experience. 

Please  write : 

Mr.  D.  J.  Jamieson, 
Engineering 
Personnel  Department, 
6633  Canoga  Ave., 
Canoga  Park,  California 

ROCKETDYNE  Ifc 

A  DIVISION  OF  NORTH  AMERICAN  AVIATION,  INC. 
First  with  Power  for  Outer  Space 


Circle  No.  57  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


75 


ICBM  Facilities 


purpose:  probe 


One  of  the  20th  century's  most 
significant  events  is  the  Cape  Canav- 
eral astronautical  probe.  Pan  Am  is 
proud  that  through  our  responsibili- 
ties to  the  Air  Force  in  operation  and 
maintenance  of  the  Atlantic  Missile 
Range,  we  have  been  active  partici- 
pants in  the  preparation  and  launch- 
ing of  every  probe.  We  are  pleased 
that  members  of  our  technical  staff 
have  had  this  opportunity  to  further 
their  professional  careers  on  projects 
of  such  significance. 

Other  engineers  and  scientists 
should  investigate  their  future  on  the 
threshold  of  the  space  age  with  Pan 
Am  by  Addressing  Mr.  J.  B.  Apple- 
dorn,  Director  of  Technical  Employ- 
ment. Dept.  B-ll. 


Guided  Missiles  Range  Division 
Patrick  Air  Force  Base.  Florida 

Circle  No.  58  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


76 


(continued  from  page  47) 

fuel  system  and  all  the  cryogenic  sys- 
tems are  located  here. 

The  missile  is  stored  in  a  horizontal 
position,  attached  to  a  motor-driven 
erection  boom  with  which  it  can  be  | 
raised  to  a  vertical  position.  When  the  | 
missile  is  vertical,  boom  clamps  are 
withdrawn  and  the  boom   is  moved  ; 
away  from  the  missile  so  as  not  to 
interfere  with  launching. 

The  vertical  missile  sits  directly 
over  a  concrete  flame  pit  which  curves  ! 
away  to  deflect  flame  and  hot  gases 
from  its  vicinity.  The  terrific  heat  en- 
ergy released  into  this  pit  when  the  I 
engines  fire  is  almost  beyond  imagina-  I 
tion;  alloy  steel  melts  like  butter  unless  j 
cooled  by  large  volumes  of  water,  i 
Hence,  steel  flame  deflectors  are  not  ( 
economical  for  operational  sites  and  I 
concrete  deflectors  have  been  designed  | 
to  ablate  without  harmful  deterioration.  ] 
In  normal  readiness,  the  missile  will  I 
be  stored  horizontally  with  roof  and  U 
flame  pit  exit  doors  closed  against  blast  U 
effects  of  a  possible  enemy  missile.  All  | 
liquid  fill  lines  are  capped,  and  air  D 
intake  and  discharge  openings  have  I 
blastproof  covers  which  will  auto-  j 
matically  close  whenever  an  external  | 
blast  occurs  and  will  remain  closed  I 
until  the  danger  has  passed. 

•  "Buttoning  up" — Connected  to  I 
the  Launch  and  Service  Building  by  a  I 
tunnel  is  the  Launch  Operations  Build- j| 
ing,  containing  the  Control  Room  and  j 
communications  equipment  and  the  | 
electric  power  generating  equipment,  ft 
as  well  as  sleeping  quarters  for  the  I 
operating  crew  and  air  conditioning,  ! 
electric  power  generation,  cooking,  and  j 
domestic  water  facilities.  Everything  is 
on  an  austere  basis  but  complete  inl 
every  detail;  the  operational  crew  canl 
"button  up"  in  complete  isolation  from  I 
the  outside  world  except  by  telephone.  I 
During  an  alert,  or  during  exercise* 
of  the  missile,  all  crew  members  arel 
withdrawn  into  the  Operations  Build-|J 
ing  for  protection  against  operational 
hazards.  From  here,  they  can  carry  out 
a  complete  countdown  and  launching 
by  remote  control. 

Each  complex  is  self-sufficient  dur 
ing  the  "button-up"  period,  retaining 
its  capability  to  strike  back  even  though 
all  power  lines  are  knocked  out  in  the 
area,  all  water  supplies  cut  off,  all 
roads  blocked  or  destroyed,  and  all 
local  communications  inoperative.  And 
each  individual  complex  is  located  far 
enough  away  from  every  other  complex 
so  that  any  conceivable  multi-megaton 
thermonuclear  bomb  which  might 
knock  out  one  missile  would  be  too 
far  away  to  adversely  affect  others 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


COMVIRONMENTS  .  . . 

(A  New  Word  In  Space- Age  Technology) 

.  .  .  translation:  "Combined  Environments." 
STELLARDYNE'S  Combined  Environments  Facil- 
ity simultaneously  submits  a  test  unit  to  any  com- 
binations of  vibration,  acceleration,  altitude,  high 
and  low  temperature  and  humidity  concurrent  with 
functional  operation. 

In  addition,  STELLARDYNE  is  equipped  to  provide, 
per  Military  Specification,  novel  single  or  simple 
environments  such  as  simulation  of  radiant  heat  from 
rocket  engines,  as  well  as  combinations  of  environ- 
ments such  as  high  and  low  temperatures  with 
vibration  and  acceleration.  Particular  skill  has  been 
attained  in  simulating  transient  environments,  like 
the  rapidly-changing  fluid  and  gaseous  temperatures 
occurring  in  aircraft  and  missile  systems  during 
flight.  For  example,  gas  temperatures  can  be  con- 
trolled from  —300°  to  +800°F,  and  water-flows 
from  0  to  10,000  gpm  in  a  fraction  of  a  second.  These 
are  just  a  few  of  the  many  capabilities  that  make 
STELLARDYNE  another  word  for  Space-Age 
"COMVIRONMENTS." 

STELLARDYNE  can  test  and  report  on  any 
product  or  component  in  any  dimension  or  environ- 
ment, as  well  as  in  combinations  of  environments. 
Whatever  your  requirement  —  if  you  need  answers 
-  STELLARDYNE  can  help  you,  reliably,  expedi- 
tiously and  economically.  Your  inquiry  is  invited. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Circle  No.  44  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


77 


Workings  of  BMEWS  .  .  •  (continued  from  page  71 ) 


FIG.  3  (at  left) — Recently  completed  near  New  Jersey  Turnpike  just  east  of  the  Camden-Philadelphia  area,  is  a  prototype  of 
similar  installations  to  be  constructed  in  the  Far  North.  The  dome  will  provide  protection  for  huge  antennas  inside.  It  was 
fabricated  by  Goodyear  Aircraft.  FIG.  4  (at  right)— Artist's  cutaway  drawing  shows  in-location  installation  at  a  Far  Northern 
site  of  BMEWS  tracking  antenna  and  supporting  pedestal  being  fabricated  by  Goodyear  under  a  multimillion-dollar  RCA  contract. 


teristics  of  satellites,  aurora,  meteor 
trails,  etc.  The  computers  then  make 
strategic  decisions  in  designating  track- 
ing radars  to  cover  specific  targets  on 
which  more  information  is  required. 

Finally,  they  are  capable  of  formu- 
lating messages  for  transmission  to  the 
display  in  the  Zone-of-the-Interior.  The 


information  from  the  detection  and  the 
tracking  radars  is  fed  into  the  two  com- 
puters simultaneously. 

One  computer  performs  the  more 
detailed  computation  and  acts  as  the 
active  computer.  As  answers  are  gen- 
erated they  are  transmitted  on  through 
the  system  for  evaluation  and  in  par- 
allel are  fed  into  the  second,  or  stand- 
by, computer  for  a  correlation  check. 

The  second  computer  is  operated 
on  a  simplified  program  so  that  it  will 
have  an  answer  ready  for  comparison 
with  the  answer  generated  by  the  ac- 
tive computer. 

Correlation,  of  course,  is  a  relative 
matter  and  is  based  on  whether  or  not 
the  answers  agree  within  specified 
limits.  If  a  variation  is  noted  that  is 
beyond  the  specified  tolerance,  the 
built-in  checking  capability  of  the  com- 
puters is  put  into  operation  and  also  the 
system  checkout  equipment  checks  each 
computer  automatically  to  determine 
which  one  is  in  error.  Proper  correc- 
tive action  can  then  be  taken. 

BMEWS  is  provided  with  a  compre- 
hensive and  completely  automatic 
checkout  and  monitoring  system.  This 
system  according  to  RCA  is  believed 
to  be  the  most  extensive  automatic 
checkout  and  monitoring  system  that 
has  been  built  up  to  this  time.  The 
principles  being  used  have  all  been 
proved  in  a  similar  system  built  by 
RCA  for  the  Talos  Ground  Launch 
System.  This  system  has  been  in  opera- 
tion successfully  for  about  \Vi  years. 

One  major  advantage  of  the  check- 
out system  is  that  it  makes  possible  the 
isolation  of  a  malfunction  without  the 
necessity  of  system  shutdown. 

Signals  from  the  checkout  and 
monitoring  system  are  fed  into  BMEWS 


and  then  at  specified  monitoring  points 
the  outputs  are  compared  against  refer- 
ence outputs  generated  by  the  checkout 
and  monitoring  system.  Variations  that 
are  out  of  specified  tolerances  indicate 
problem  areas  requiring  further  check. 

At  the  Zone-of-the-Interior  facility, 
the  data  from  the  forward  sites  will  be 
decoded,  evaluated,  modified  by  other 
intelligence  and  displayed.  This  action 
provides  the  basis  for  evaluation  of  the 
potential  threat  and  the  determination 
of  whether  a  decision  for  action  is  re- 
quired. 

•  Engineering  problems — It  is  im- 
practical to  provide  a  detailed  descrip- 
tion of  all  of  the  major  elements  of  the 
BMEWS  system,  but  a  few  of  the  speci- 
fic engineering  problems  that  have  been 
encountered  can  be  discussed. 

The  first  problem  encountered  was 
with  the  radome.  It  had  to  be  capable 
of  withstanding  winds  as  high  as  185 
miles  per  hour  and  temperatures  as  low 
as  minus  65°F.  Since  it  is  installed  on 
top  of  a  building,  the  coefficient  of 
drag  is  higher  than  would  be  the  case 
for  a  radome  installed  on  the  ground. 
The  drag  coefficient  for  a  radome  in- 
stalled in  the  usual  fashion  is  about 
0.38.  The  coefficient  of  drag  for  the 
BMEWS  radome  is  0.657  or  almost  l3A 
times  as  great. 

Wind  tunnel  tests  made  on  the 
model  of  the  radome  developed  that 
the  total  lift  could  be  almost  1.4  million 
pounds,  total  drag  could  be  nearly  1.14 
million  pounds  and  the  overturning 
moment  could  be  over  58  million  foot- 
lbs. 

The  radome  is  of  sandwich  con- 
struction with  skins  made  of  reinforced 
plastic  impregnated  fiberglass  with  a 
phenolic  impregnated  paper  core.  The 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


ARMY  RESEARCH  OFFICE 

AERONAUTICAL 
ENGINEER 

.  .  .  interested  in  basic 
and  theoretical  research 

You  will  join  a  small  group  of 
technical  men  in  the  various 
disciplines  responsible  for  the 
over-all  planning,  coordination 
and  supervision  of  the  Army's 
dynamic  research  program. 

ARO  serves  as  focal  point  for  the 
Army's  relationship  with  the 
scientific  community  and  monitors 
research  at  universities  and 
other  outside  contractors. 

M.S.  or  Ph.D.  and  a  minimum  of 
three  years  intensive  experience 
required.  For  details  write: 

Dr.  R.  A.  Weiss 

Scientific  Director 

ARMY  RESEARCH  OFFICE 

Office,  Chief  of  Research  and  Development 
Washington  25,  D.  C. 


ARMY  RESEARCH  OFFICE 

Circle  No.  64  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

78 


panels  are  hexagonal  in  shape,  6" 
thick,  and  about  6'  across.  It  takes 
1,646  of  them  to  make  one  radome. 
The  panels  will  be  bolted  directly  to- 
gether without  any  additional  frame- 
work or  structual  support. 

Fig.  3  shows  how  the  panels  are 
fastened  into  final  radome  form.  The 
elimination  of  structual  support  re- 
duces the  transmission  losses  by  a  fac- 
tor of  approximately  10.  This  is  a 
highly  desirable  end  result.  More  im- 
portant still,  the  bore  sight  error  will 
be  less  than  0.3  mils.  However,  the 
elimination  of  the  frame  introduces 
certain  mechanical  design  problems. 
The  principal  one  is  to  reach  the  best 
compromise  between  tension  and  shear 
loading  of  the  bolts.  The  influence  of 
the  heavy  wind  loadings  is  not  only  a 
major  factor  in  this  connection  but  also 
in  connection  with  ^he  design  of  the 
non-rigid  base  ring  made  as  a  part  of 
the  building  structure  to  support  the 
radome. 

The  low-temperature  environment 
was  also  a  serious  problem  to  reckon 
with  in  connection  with  the  design  of 
the  detection  radar  reflector.  Welded 
structures  made  of  conventional  struc- 
tural steel  are  subject  to  failure  at  low 
temperatures.  A  transition  of  the 
physical  properties  of  the  metal  occurs 
and  causes  a  serious  reduction  in 
strength.  To  assure  adequate  strength 
to  withstand  the  heavy  wind  loadings 
under  the  extreme  low  temperature 
conditions  it  was  necessary  to  utilize  a 
nickel  steel  with  suitable  low  tempera- 
ture properties. 

Fig.  4  shows  an  artist's  conception 
of  the  tracking  radar  reflector  radome. 
and  building.  The  total  weight  of  the 
rotating  mass  is  over  200,000  pounds. 
When  it  reverses  direction,  the  deac- 
celeration  and  acceleration  take  place 
at  about  25° /sec,  which  imposes  a 
loading  of  nearly  1  g. 

Considering  that  the  center  of  grav- 
ity of  this  rotating  mass  is  about  85' 
above  ground  it  is  obvious  that  me- 
chanical problems  would  be  involved 
in  designing  the  pedestal  assembly, 
drive  mechanisms,  gears,  bearings,  sup- 
port and  the  pedestal  base  itself.  The 
main  bearing  in  the  pedestal  which  car- 
ries the  load  is  designed  to  be  capable 
of  continuous  operation  for  at  least 
a  ten-year  period. 

One  of  the  phenomena  that  causes 
difficulty  in  far-north  construction  is 
permafrost  (frozen  earth  below  a  cer- 
tain ground  level  that  maintains  its 
frozen  state).  Since  there  is  a  thaw 
during  the  summer  season,  it  is  neces- 
sary to  use  non-frost-susceptible  ma- 
terial (referred  to  as  NFS)  where 
buildings  are  to  be  constructed.  It  is 
necessary  to  use  the  NFS  so  that  the 
heat  from  the  buildings  will  not  melt 
the  permafrost  and  thereby  cause  the 


buildings  to  settle. 

Large  plastic  tents  are  used  during 
the  cold  weather  to  permit  construction 
work  to  continue.  The  tents  are  kept 
inflated  by  pumping  in  heated  air, 
which  also  makes  it  possible  for  the 
work  to  be  performed  under  reason- 
ably tolerable  conditions. 

•  Test  installation — An  engineering- 
test  and  personnel-training  installation 
is  being  constructed  at  Moorestown, 
New  Jersey  (Fig.  3).  It  will  house  a 
complete  tracking  radar  and  will  have 
installed  for  protection  of  the  radar 
one  of  the  140'  diameter  radomes. 


Included  as  part  of  the  test  instal- 
lation will  be  other  parts  of  the  com- 
plete system  that  are  associated  with 
the  operation  of  the  tracking  radar. 
This  will  include  the  high  power  trans- 
mitting apparatus  for  probing  the 
distant  sky,  and  the  high  speed  com- 
puters for  calculating  speed  and  direc- 
tion of  an  approaching  ballistic  missile. 

Two  types  of  radar  transmitters 
currently  are  under  development:  a 
triode  and  a  klystron  amplifier.  Follow- 
ing extensive  tests,  one  will  be  selected 
for  multiple  procurement  and  use  at 
the  sites. 


Engineered  Design,  plus  Production  Ability,  plus 
Quality  Control  equal  reliability. 

That's  the  formula  which  guides  the  C.  G.  Hokanson 
Co.,  Inc.,  in  its  research,  development,  and  manufacture 
of  specialized  air  conditioning  ground  support  equip- 
ment for  the  missile  and  aircraft  industry.  Investigate 
how  Hokanson  reliability,  plus  fast  delivery  time  and 
competitive  prices  can  solve  your  particular  air  condi- 
tioning problems.  Hokanson  designed  air  conditioning 
equipment  has  proven  its  "count-down  reliability"  on 
the  following  missiles: 
THOR  TITAN  POLARIS  SNARK 


Ground  Support  Specialists 

AIR  CONDITIONING 


C.  G.  HOKANSON   COMPANY,  INC. 
2140  Pontius  Avenue   •   Los  Angeles  25,  California 
Circle  No.  66  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,1 959 


79 


8 


□ 


Energy  conversion  is  our  business 


Earth's  attraction  for  an  apple? 
Free  fall  in  relativistic  space? 
A  complex  meson  field? 
Built-in  return  power  for  project 

Mercury? 
How  is  it  related  to  binding  energy? 

Gravity  is  both  a  bane  and  a  boon  to  man's 
efforts  — and  a  thorough  understanding  of 
it  is  of  great  significance  in  the  completion 
of  Allison's  energy  conversion  mission. 

Gravity  conditions  our  thinking  on  ad- 
vanced assignments.  For  example,  in 
outer  space  there  is  a  disorientation  of 
conventional  design.  The  fact  that  large 
accelerations  can  be  obtained  with  low 
thrust  forces  has  taken  us  into  the  new  field 
of  electrical  propulsion,  ion  and  magneto- 
hydrodynamic  rockets. 

In  our  inquiries,  we  supplement  our  own 
resources  by  calling  on  many  talents  and 
capabilities:  General  Motors  Corporation, 
its  Divisions,  other  individuals  and  organi- 
zations. By  applying  this  systems  engineer- 
ing concept  to  new  projects,  we  increase 
the  effectiveness  with  which  we  accom- 
plish our  mission  —  exploring  the  needs  of 
advanced  propulsion  and  weapons  systems. 


LI  SON 


80 


Division  of  General  Motors,  Indianapolis  6,  Indiana 
missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  195 


Electro-Mechanical 
CLUTCH  and  BRAKE 
ASSEMBLY 


Army  Establishing  Missile 
Support  Base  in  France 


by  Anthony  Vandyk 

Chateauroux,  France — The  U.S. 
Army  plans  to  establish  a  European 
Inventory  Control  Point  here  for  sup- 
ply and  maintenance  support  of  cer- 
tain guided  missile  systems  furnished 
to  NATO  nations. 

The  Inventory  Control  Point  will 
be  incorporated  in  the  NATO  Mainte- 
nance Supply  Service  Center  which  has 
been  established  at  Chateauroux.  This 
center  is  currently  managed  by  the  U.S. 
Air  Force  but  it  probably  will  be 
turned  over  to  NATO  in  the  middle  of 
1961. 

At  the  moment  all  missiles  and 
their  support  equipment  supplied  from 
the  U.S.  are  shipped  by  ocean  sur- 
face transportation  except  for  cer- 
tain high-priority  items  as  some  special 
equipment.  In  these  cases  air  trans- 
portation is  used.  USAF  officials  be- 
lieve the  outlook  is  good  for  increased 
emphasis  on  supply  by  air. 

Today  there  are  relatively  few 
U.S.  missile  units  in  Europe.  The  U.S. 
Air  Force  has  only  three  missile  bases 
— all  located  in  West  Germany.  The 
missile  units  are  under  control  of  the 
38th  Tactical  Missile  Wing,  head- 
quartered at  Sembach  Air  Base  Ger- 
many, and  include  the  587th  Tactical 
Missile  Group  at  Sembach,  the  586 
TMG  at  Hahn  Air  Base,  and  the  585th 
TMG  at  Bitburg  Air  Base. 

The  587th  TMG  is  presently  tran- 
sitioning to  the  Martin  TM76  Mace 
as  replacement  for  the  Martin  TM61 
Matador.  The  586th  and  585th  will 
eventually  transition  from  the  Matador 
to  the  Mace,  but  dates  for  conversion 
have  not  been  announced. 

No  plans  have  been  announced 
for  additional  U.S.  Air  Force  tactical 
guided  missile  bases  in  Europe. 

•  Willing  Suppliers — Publicly,  at 
least,  there  are  no  plans  for  the  U.S. 
Armed  Forces  or  any  of  the  NATO 
nations  receiving  U.S.  missiles  to  have 
support  equipment  manufactured  in 
Europe.  The  main  reason  is  that  it 
would  be  too  costly  to  produce  the 
small  quantities  required  to  support 
existing  facilities. 

Nonetheless,  the  European  aircraft 
industry,  which  is  suffering  badly  from 
lack  of  orders,  would  welcome  an 
opportunity  to  get  into  this  field.  In- 
dustry officials  hope  the  offshore  pro- 


curement program  may  be  extended  to 
this  area. 

They  point  out  that  contracts  such 
as  those  involving  the  production  of 
F-86s  by  Italy's  Fiat  and  F-84  spares 
by  France's  Sud  Aviation  proved  that 
the  European  industry  can  do  a  good 
job  in  building  U.S.  equipment  under 
license. 

Officials  at  Chateauroux  believe 
that  European  industry  may  get  in- 
volved with  U.S.  missiles  first  in  the 
overhaul  and  maintenance  field,  rather 
than  in  license  production.  At  the 
moment  the  USAF  has  contractors  in 
most  of  the  countries  of  Europe  over- 
hauling and  maintaining  piloted  air- 
craft, their  engines  and  components. 
This  system  has  saved  the  U.S.  tax- 
payer money  as  well  as  giving  needed 
work  to  the  European  aircraft  industry. 
Its  exension  to  the  missile  field  would 
be  logical. 

New  Missile  Buildings 
Rise  on  Both  Coasts 

New  buildings  are  rising  for  missile 
makers  on  the  East  and  West  Coasts. 
Lockheed  has  signed  a  construction 
contract  for  the  first  $2,500,000  unit 
of  its  new  electronics  division  head- 
quarters at  Newport  Beach.  Calif. 
Microwave  Associates  Inc.  has  begun 
construction  of  a  S750,000  expansion 
of  its  facilities  in  Burlington.  Mass. 
And  Rantec  Corp.  has  broken  ground 
for  a  SI 00.000  building,  the  first  stage 
in  a  three-year  expansion  of  its  Cala- 
basas,  Calif.,  plant. 

Puget  Sound  Bridge  and  Dry  Dock 
Co.,  Seattle,  a  wholly  owned  Lockheed 
subsidiary,  and  Diversified  Builders 
Inc.,  Paramount,  Calif.,  will  be  joint 
general  contractors  on  the  Lockheed 
job.  It  provides  for  about  100.000 
square  feet  of  construction,  which  will 
be  the  nucleus  of  a  major  scientific 
and  production  center  on  a  200-acre 
triangle  near  Upper  Newport  Bay.  The 
schedule  calls  for  occupancy  late  next 
summer. 

VAPPI  Construction  Co.  of  Cam- 
bridge. Mass.,  will  build  the  Microwave 
addition,  scheduled  for  completion  next 
spring.  A  new  17,000-square-foot  wing 
will  be  added  to  the  building  housing 
the  firm's  semiconductor  and  tube  op- 
erations, and  a  new  32.000-square-foot 
structure  will  be  built  for  research  and 
production  of  microwave  radar  com- 
ponents. 


4 


Precision  Built  by 
Forbes  and  Wagner  for 

Aeronautical  Communications  Equipment  Inc. 


Aerocom  Transmitter 

Uses  two  F  &  W  drives 
as  circled.  When  fre- 
quency is  selected 
motor  is  actuated  and 
first  clutch  engages 
driving  crystal  drum  to 
proper  crystal.  Clutch 
releases  and  brake 
holds  setting. 
Second  clutch  engages, 
driving  tuning  unit  to 
proper  tuning  point. 
Clutch  is  then  deacti- 
vated and  brake  holds 
entire  mechanism. 
Motor  coasts  to  a  stop. 


Aerocom  Tuner 

Uses  one  F&W  drive. 
Frequency  selection 
starts  motor  drive 
through  clutch  to 
variometer  and  varia- 
ble condenser.  When 
point  of  resonance  is 
reached,  clutch  dis- 
engages and  brake 
holds  setting. 


Let  us  help  YOU  with  YOUR 
Electronic  Problems 

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communications, Computers,  Radar,  Guided  Mis- 
siles and  allied  fields.  Write  for  brochure. 


Growth  Opportunity  for  Electrical  Engi- 
neers. To  meet  the  growing  demand  for 
our  services,  we  offer  steady  employment, 
high  base  salary  plus  profit  sharing,  paid 
vacation,  group  life  and  hospitalization 
insurance,  sick  leave  policy,  retirement 
program,  etc.  Located  on  shore  of  Lake 
Erie.  Fishing,  boating,  swimming  at  your 
doorstep.  Ideal  community  life.  Thirty 
minutes  from  Buffalo  via  thruway.  Replies 
held  in  strict  confidence. 


Torbes  and  wagner,  inc. 

348  CENTRAL  AVENUE 
SILVER  CREEK,  N.Y.  '       •         TELEPHONE  650 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Circle  No.  59  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


8! 


—reviews 


Engineering  and  management 
opportunities  in... 

RCA  SYSTEMS 
SUPPORT  PROJECTS 


RCA  offers  expanding  opportunities  in  Weapon  Systems 
Support  projects.  This  work  involves  program  planning, 
advanced  operations  analysis,  systems  analysis,  equipment 
development  and  design,  and  systems  integration.  Experi- 
ence is  desired  in  the  many  areas  of  systems  support — 
checkout  and  test  equipment,  logistics,  and  training. 

Exceptionally  fine  professional  and  management  positions 
are  available  to  EE's,  ME's,  Mathematicians,  and  Physi- 
cists with  at  least  five  years  of  experience. 

Salaries  are  excellent;  opportunities  for  advancement,  un- 
limited. Benefits  are  among  the  best  in  the  industry. 
Several  current  Systems  Support  Project  areas  are: 

Aircraft  electronics  systems 

Military  and  civil  digital  communications  systems 

Missile  systems 

Space  vehicles  and  space  stations 

FOR  INTERVIEW  WITH  ENGINEERING 
MANAGEMENT: 

Please  send  complete  resume  to: 

Mr.  C.  B.  Gordon 
RCA,  Box  Z-221 
Professional  Employment 
Building  10-1 
Camden  2,  N.J. 


RADIO  CORPORATION  OF  AMERICA 

Defense  Electronic  Products 


82 


Circle  No.  60  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


PROBLEMS  OF  SATELLITES  AND  SPACE 
OPERATIONS;  Lecture  series,  Office  of 
Naval  Research,  April-July  1958.  Order  PB- 
1 51410  from  OTS.  U.S.  Dept.  of  Commerce. 
Washington  25,   D.C.   Ill    pps.  $2.50. 

The  lectures,  presented  to  the  ONR 
research  staff  and  representatives  of 
other  Government  agencies  from  April 
to  July  1958,  concern  problems  asso- 
ciated with  manned  satellites  and  space 
operations. 

Talks  were  given  by  Donald  H. 
Menzel,  director  of  the  Harvard  Ob- 
servatory, on  problems  of  the  space 
age;  Homer  E.  Newell,  Jr.,  superin- 
tendent of  the  Atmosphere  and  Astro- 
physics Division,  Naval  Research  Lab- 
oratory, on  objectives  of  space  re- 
search; Gerald  M.  Clemence,  scientific 
director  at  the  Naval  Observatory,  on 
Space  navigation  and  celestial  me- 
chanics. 

John  P.  Hagen,  director  of  Project 
Vanguard  at  NRL,  on  satellite  track- 
ing; N.  Whitney  Matthews,  head  of 
the  Applications  Branch,  Solid  State 
Division,  NRL,  on  satellite  payload 
optimization;  Fred  L.  Whipple,  director 
of  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Ob- 
servatory, on  astronomy  and  space 
operations. 

Jerome  B.  Wiesner,  director  of  the 
Research  Laboratory  of  Electronics  at 
MIT,  on  space  communications;  and 
Hugh  L.  Dryden,  deputy  director  of 
the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space 
Administration,  on  the  work  of  the 
NASA. 


HIGH  TEMPERATURE  PRINTED  CIRCUITRY; 

G.  H.  Young,  C.  H.  T.  Wilkins  Etc.  Quarterly 
report  No.  4  on  Computer  Components  Fel- 
lowship No.  347.  Order  PB  136  579  from 
Library  of  Congress,  Photo-duplication  Serv- 
ice, Publications  Board  Project,  Washington 
25.  D.C.  41  p.  Microfilm,  $3.30.  photocopy, 
$7.80 

Findings  of  the  program  on  high 
temperature  printed  circuitry  are  sum- 
marized briefly,  and  the  several  tech- 
niques for  circuit  fabrication  are  evalu- 
ated in  the  light  of  the  200°C  temper- 
ature specification  for  this  year  and  the 
750°C  specification  for  the  coming  year. 

The  conductivity  of  silver  enamels 
has  been  found  to  remain  high  with  silver 
contents  as  low  as  26%.  Platinum  resistor 
films  were  found  to  have  a  linear  temper- 
ature coefficient  of  resistance  from  28  to 
500°C,  with  a  change  in  resistance  of 
plus  18%  over  this  temperature  range. 

Boron  carbide  thermistor  films  are 
stable  in  air  above  750°C,  but  crack 
when  temperature  cycled  between  200  to 
300°C.  Silicon  carbide  and  zirconium 
carbide  enamel  resistor  were  successfully 
formed  using  suitable  wetting  agents. 

Irreversible  increases  in  resistance 
were  observed  in  testing  vacuum  deposited 
gold-palladium  resistor  films  to   500  °C. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Circle  No.  45  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


FLIGHT  FORGINGS 

BY  CAMERON 

WHEN  DEMANDS  ARE  CRITICAL 

The  Cameron  split-die  forging  process  has  cre- 
ated a  new  concept  in  forged  components  that 
fly.  Parts  which  must  handle  new  extremes  in 
temperature  and  mechanical  stress  are  now  in 
routine  production  at  Cameron.  As  an  added 
benefit  interesting  economies  result  from  savings 
in  the  critical  materials,  often  in  short  supply, 
which  are  specified  for  these  important  parts. 


Our  facilities  are  complete  through  every  pro- 
duction phase.  We  melt  many  of  our  own 
special  alloys,  bloom,  forge,  heat-treat,  and  per- 
form machining  operations  when  required.  Each 
of  the  shapes  below  was  a  problem  when 
presented  to  our  Special  Products  Division.  They 
are  now  current  production  items,  adding  to  our 
ever-increasing  list  of  extreme  service  solutions. 


Forging  of  a  Refractory  Throat  for 
Missile 

Material:  Tantalum  90% 
Tungsten  10% 
Outside  Diameter  of  Large  End:  6.25" 
Height:  4" 

Outside  Diameter  of  Small  End:  5.25" 
Weight:  42.25  lbs. 


Forging  of  Turbine  Rotor  Stub  Shaft  for 
Nuclear  Jet  Engine 

Material:  A-286  Steel 

Outside  Diameter  of  Cone  End:  33.687" 

Outside  Diameter  of  Shaft:  10.375" 

Height:  44.875" 

Weight:  1150  lbs. 


Forging  of  a  J-93  Front  Turbine  Shaft  for 
Aircraft  Gas  Turbine  Engine 

Material:  Waspalloy 

Diameter  of  Conical  End:  23.38" 

Diameter  of  Hub  End:  6.50" 

Length:  27.68" 

Weight:  430  lbs. 


Forging  of  a  Liner  —  Exit  Cone  Missile 

Material:  Unalloyed  Arc  Cast  Molybdenum 
Diameter  of  Large  Conical  End:  10.50" 
Height:  12.89" 

Diameter  of  Small  Conical  End:  6.75" 
Weight:  104.5  lbs. 


If  your  forging  demands  are 
critical,  write,  call,  or  come  by  — 


■  RON  WORKS,  INC. 

SPECIAL  PRODUCTS  DIVISION 
P.   O.    Box   1212,    Houston,  Texas 


reviews  . 


A  simple  method  of  attaching  lead  wires 
to  high  temperature  printed  ceramic  cir- 
cuits using  properly  formulated  enamels 
is  also  described. 


EFFECTS  OF  BRIGHT  POINT  LIGHT 
SOURCES  ON  LOW  LEVEL  IMAGE 
ORTHICON  DETECTORS;  R.  K.  H.  Gebel, 
WADC.  Order  PB  151587  from  OTS.  U.S. 
Departmenf  of  Commerce,  Washington  25, 
D.C.  $.50. 

Treated  in  this  pamphlet  are  causes 
and  corrections  of  the  high  brightness 


point  source  effect  in  orthicon  tubes. 

The  conclusion  was  reached  that 
halo  and  ghost  produced  by  redistri- 
bution of  secondary  electrons  in  a  mil- 
itary tube  should  be  avoided  if  pos- 
sible, since  they  appeared  to  show  non- 
existant  targets.  The  present  glass  tar- 
get plate  should  be  replaced  with  a 
faster  target  having  insulated  metal 
plugs. 

By  incorporating  this  assembly  in 
an  isocon  arrangement  no  "overfloat- 
ing"  of  the  charge  which  results  in  the 
loss  of  low  intensity  background  infor- 
mation, because  of  high  intensity  point 
sources,  should  occur. 


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irritants  from  exposed  areas  for  immediate  first  aid 
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MODEL  7761 
Circle  No.  61  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


TRACKING  OF  A  MOVING  TRANSMITTER 
BY  THE  DOPPLER  EFFECT;  Thomas  Skinner. 
Order  No.  PB  139  90?  from  Library  of  Con- 
gress. Photo  duplication  Service,  Publications 
Board  Pro|3ct.  Washington  25,  D.C.  23p. 
microfilm,   $2.70,   photocopy,  $4.80. 

This  report  considers  the  feasibility 
of  tracking  a  moving  transmitter,  in  par- 
ticular, an  artificial  earth  satellite,  by 
measurements  of  doppler  shift  only. 

Although  it  is  shown  to  be  possible 
to  track  a  transmitter  moving  on  an 
arbitrary  course,  unless  sufficient  prior 
knowledge  of  the  motion  is  available  the 
computational  procedures  are  imprac- 
tically  involved. 

With  this  in  mind,  two  restricted  types 
of  motion  are  considered,  constant  veloc- 
ity and  two-body  central  field  motion. 
The  former  is  analytically  very  simple, 
and  the  latter  is  a  reasonable  approxi- 
mation to  the  motion  of  an  artificial 
satellite. 


AN  INVESTIGATION  OF  THE  MECHANI- 
CAL PROPERTIES  OF  CERMETS  AS  RE- 
LATED  TO   THE    MICROSTRUCTURE;  Ira 

Binder  and  Robert  Steinitz.  Order  No.  PB  151 
722  from  OTS,  U.S.  Department  of  Com- 
merce, Washington  25,  D.C.  95  p.  $2.25. 

Seven  different  test  groups  were  for- 
mulated, using  60  TiC-40  Ni  as  the  test 
material,  comprising  changes  in  original 
particle  size,  processing  procedure,  and 
controlled  binder  addition. 

Each  test  group  was  heated  in  seven 
different  fashions.  Each  test  batch  so 
obtained  was  tested  for  physical  properties 
and  its  microstructure  was  investigated. 
The  microstructures  were  correlated  with 
changes  in  physical  properties. 


OXIDATION  OF  EXPERIMENTAL  ALLOYS; 

Joseph  C.  Richmond  and  H.  Richard  Thorton. 
Order  No.  PB  151741  from  OTS,  U.S.  De- 
partment of  Commerce,  Washington  25,  D.C. 
I9p.  $.50. 

Tests  were  conducted  on  five  newly 
devoloped  high-temperature  alloys  to  de- 
termine their  oxidation  resistance. 

Measured  was  the  average  depth  of 
external  oxidation  and  maximum  depth 
of  oxide  penetration  on  specimens  placed 
under  stress  in  air  under  varying  tem- 
perature conditions  for  an  equal  time. 

The  changing  weight  of  samples  oxi- 
dized in  air  at  high  temperatures  was  con- 
tinuously recorded  for  up  to  100  hours. 
All  of  the  alloys  conformed  reasonably 
well  to  the  parabolic  rate  law  in  the 
weight-gain  oxidation  tests. 


RADIO  TRACKING  OF  EARTH  SATELLITES; 

Pickard  and  Burns,  Inc.  Order  PB  139915  from 
Library  of  Congress,  Photo  Duplication  Serv- 
ice, Publications  Board  Project,  Washington 
25.  D.C.  141  p.  microfilm:  $7.20,  photocopy: 
$22.80. 

This  report  includes:  Satellite  orbital 
data,  application  of  orbital  data,  instru- 
mentation for  doppler  frequency  measure- 
ments and  analysis,  laws  of  satellite  mo- 
tion, energy  relations  and  orbital  velocity, 
and  perturbations  of  satellite  motion. 


84 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


bio-electronics 


Nerve  Cell  Research  Urged 
for  Decision-making  Guidance 

Armed  Forces  Chemical  Association  also  hears 
of  need  for  work  in  dielectric  behavior  in  space 


by  John  Judge 

Washington — Living  nerve  cells 
may  yield  clues  to  developing  a  bio- 
electronic  space  vehicle  guidance  sys- 
tem with  "decision-making"  capability. 

Alton  E.  Prince,  a  chemist  in  the 
Wright  Air  Development  Center  ma- 
terials laboratory,  said  intensive  nerve 
cell  research  is  indicated  as  the  result 
of  the  recent  discovery  of  the  synthesis 
of  "giant"'  protein  molecules. 

He  told  the  Armed  Forces  Chemi- 
cal Association  14th  annual  meeting 
that  ''with  more  knowledge  concern- 
ing the  molecular  structure  in  the  liv- 
ing ceil,  the  synthesis  of  polymeric 
chains  which  would  be  responsive  to  an 
electrical  signal,  select  the  necessary  in- 
formation and  make  a  decision,  is  a 
necessity."  He  believes  such  materials 
ultimately  would  find  wide  use  in  space 
guidance  systems. 

Prince  said  it  can  be  anticipated 
that  the  fundamental  aspects  of  space 
age  chemistry  will  not  change  much 
from  the  present  or  the  past.  The  pro- 
ducts of  space  age  chemistry  will  de- 
pend, as  in  the  past,  on  the  ingenuity 
of  the  scientists  in  their  laboratories.  It 
is  certain  that,  in  time,  some  of  the 
laboratories  will  actually  be  space  ve- 
hicles. 

"It  seems  probable  that  there  will 
be  less  room  for  the  extreme  individ- 
ualist in  a  corner  of  a  laboratory  by 
himself,  because  teams  of  people  with 
great  differences  in  training  and  expe- 
rience even  now  are  required  to  solve 
existing  problems.  This  is  true  because 
nearly  half  a  lifetime  is  required  to 
gain  training  and  experience  to  formu- 
late sound  concepts  for  future  needs," 
he  said. 

Another  fundamental  problem  that 
can  develop  is  that  attempts  will  be 
made  to  place  the  new  knowledge 
gained  from  space  exploration  into 
categories  already  established  for  our 


own  little  earth.  It  is  believed  that  the 
exploration  of  the  space  and  its  con- 
tents will  yield  facts  which  do  not  at 
all  fit  into  our  preconceived,  inherited 
and  firmly  established  categories  of  the 
past,  he  added. 

Need  for  increased  chemical  re- 
search in  structural  materials  capable 
of  functioning  in  an  environment  of 
2000  °F  to  5000  °F  was  stressed  by 
Claude  Kniffin  of  ARDC.  He  pointed 
out  that  few  presently  available  ma- 
terials are  fully  satisfactory,  especially 
for  extended  periods  of  service.  The 
day  of  the  multiple  use  of  single  ma- 
terials in  aerospace  vehicles  structure  is 
definitely  over,  said  Kniffin.  and  the 
trend  is  toward  composite  items  such 
as  sandwich  structures  and  surface 
coatings. 

Future  performance  requirements 
envision  temperatures  up  to  10.000°F 
and  if  these  are  to  be  met.  progress 
must  be  made  in  two  simultaneous  yet 
slightly  divergent  directions.  The  ma- 
terials themselves  must  be  provided  and 
the  data  currently  available  must  be 
collected,  evaluated,  and  disseminated 
so  that  more  effective  application  can 
be  made. 

•  Vacuum  research  needed — Much 
of  the  present  knowledge  of  dielectric 
materials  has  been  developed  in  the 
light  of  terrestrial  conditions,  reported 
Nelson  A.  Terhune  of  the  Army  Signal 
Research  and  Development  Labora- 
tories. But  little  is  known  about  their 
behavior  in  outer  space.  Evaporation  is 
greatly  enhanced  by  the  absence  of  at- 
mosphere, said  Terhune,  and  the  ma- 
terial can  be  effected  in  two  ways. 

Ablation  of  the  substance  or  a 
change  in  its  composition  due  to  the 
loss  of  a  more  volatile  component  may 
become  serious  in  a  relatively  short 
time.  And  the  other  effects  will  be 
caused  by  the  removal  of  the  absorbed 
gases  always  present  under  normal 
conditions. 


Dr.  Wilbur  A.  Riehl  of  the  Army 
Ordnance  Missile  Command  called  for 
new  and  improved  corrosion  inhibitors, 
compatible  paints  for  marking  and 
coating  shipping  containers  and  addi- 
tives as  partial  catalysts  in  high-energy 
liquid  fuels.  The  Army  expert  suggested 
the  possible  use  of  scavengers  or  "get- 
ters" in  removing  fuel  contaminants. 

•  Energetic  binders — F  u  t  u  r  e  re- 
search in  high-energy  solid  propellant 
technology  should  be  directed  toward 
chemical  reactions  that  produce  low 
molecular  weight  gases  at  reasonable 
flame  temperatures.  Dr.  Evan  C.  Noo- 
nan  of  the  Naval  Ordnance  Laboratory 
said  this  path  may  produce  delivered 
impulses  in  the  neighborhood  of  300  LP 
with  solids. 

He  suggested  that,  due  to  the  de- 
mands for  high  elongation  at  maximum 
strength  for  case  bonded  propellants. 
energetic  binders  might  be  substituted 
for  part  of  the  oxidizer  in  composite 
grains. 

Martin  Devine  of  the  Naval  Air 
Material  Center  reported  new  dry  film 
lubricants  have  been  developed  which 
are  stable  through  a  temperature  range 
of  — 300°F  to  750°F.  He  said  they  will 
permit  ball  bearing  lubrication  for 
periods  up  to  240  hours. 

The  compounds,  inorganic  in  na- 
ture, will  function  immersed  in  liquid 
oxygen.  Based  on  their  chemical  struc- 
ture, the  stability  in  nuclear  radiation 
and  at  low  pressures  should  be  satis- 
factory. It  is  anticipated  that  such  lu- 
bricants will  eliminate  excess  weight, 
increase  reliability  of  operation  and 
provide  new  mission  capabilities. 

Research  in  high-temperature  plas- 
tics was  discussed  by  Dr.  Lewis  W. 
Butz  of  the  Office  of  Naval  Research. 
He  said  program  objectives  include  de- 
velopment of  information  concerning 
the  range  over  which  properties  can  be 
varied  by  changing  the  details  of  struc- 
ture and  the  providing  of  new  inor- 
ganic plastic  compositions. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


85 


WESTERN  GEAR  CAN  SUPPLY  THE  SOLUTIONS 


To  insure  the  reliability  of  the  missile,  its  positioning  must  be 
accurately  and  cautiously  handled.  No  matter  what  mode  of 
transportation,  truck,  rail,  air  or  water,  there  are  Western  Gear 
precision  drives  and  related  equipment  engaged  in  the  touchy  and 
delicate  task  of  handling  the  mighty  "birds."  Moreover,  Western  Gear's 
extensive  experience  and  facilities  enable  the  company  to  effectively 
handle  your  system  requirements. 

For  complete  information  on  our  capabilities  and  facilities,  write  on 
your  letterhead  for  Bulletin  5900. 

WESTERN  GEAR  CORPORATION 

Precision  Products  Division,  P.O.  Box  192,  Lynwood,  California 


circle  no.  46  .n  Subscriber  service  cord.     missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


— letters  

Battery  Omission 

To  the  Editor: 

It  surprised  us  that  your  article 
"Batteries  Retain  Their  Power  Role" 
(M/R,  Aug.  24)  failed  to  mention  our 
company  as  a  leading  manufacturer  of 
nickel  cadmium  batteries.  We  probably 
have  sold  more  (such)  batteries,  in  a 
wider  number  of  applications,  in  this 
country,  than  all  the  other  .  .  .  manu- 
facturers combined. 

NICAD  developed  and  introduced 
both  the  pocket  plate  and  sintered  plate 
nickel  cadmium  storage  batteries  to  the 
United  States.  We  have  sintered  plate 
batteries  in  the  Tartar,  Terrier  and  Norair 
T-38  trainer  as  well  as  in  "design  in" 
phases  of  a  number  of  missiles  and  other 
classified  military  projects.  Our  pocket 
plate  batteries  are  used  extensively  in 
many  military  and  nonmilitary  applica- 
tions, including  missile  ground  support: 
DEWLINE,  WHITE  ALICE  and  USAF 
GLOBECOM  installations.  Nearly  1000 
major  U.S.  merchant  ships  are  equipped 
with  NICAD  batteries  .  .  . 

Ralph  W.  Gage 

Sales  Promotion  Manager 

NICAD  Division 

Gould-National  Batteries,  Inc. 

Eastharrrpton,  Mass. 
M/R     apologizes     for  inadvertently 
omitting    NICAD,    decidedly    a  leading 
manufacturer   in   the   battery   field. — Ed. 

Full  Names  in  Future 

To  the  Editor: 

In  M/R  of  Aug.  31,  we  noticed  a  mis- 
leading detail  in  your  article  on  Avco's 
Dr.  Arthur  Kantrowitz.  You  say  "a 
policy  change  after  the  war  switched 
Avco  to  civilian-market  emphasis  and  it 
acquired  Bendix  and  Crosley.  Largely 
because  of  distribution  problems,  Avco 
sold  Bendix  to  Philco  in  1956  .  .  ." 

To  the  best  of  our  knowledge,  Bendix 
Aviation  Corp.,  as  such,  has  never  been 
any  part  of  Avco  Corp.,  by  acquisition, 
agreement  or  any  other  means.  It  is  true 
that  Bendix  Aviation  and  Bendix  Wash- 
ing Machine  Activities  were  founded  by 
Mr.  Vincent  Bendix,  but  at  no  time  was 
there  any  connection  between  the  two 
activities,  due  to  the  fact  that  Mr.  Bendix 
had  disassociated  himself  from  Bendix 
Aviation  Corp.  prior  to  any  interest  on 
his  part  in  the  Bendix  Washing  Machine 
Activities. 

We  feel  that  your  statement  .  .  . 
incorrectly  presents  the  present  position 
in  the  aviation  and  missile  fields  enjoved 
by  Bendix  Aviation  Corp. 

E.  A.  Carpenter 
Marketing  Manager 
Special  Products 
Red  Bank  Division 
Bendix  Aviation  Corp. 
Eatontown,  N.J. 
M/R  regrets  not  specifying  that  the 
company  involved  in  the  acquisition  was 
the  firm  now  titled  Bendix  Home  Ap- 
pliances Inc. — Ed. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


RCA's  Missile  and  Surface  Radar  Division  Offers: 

DIVERSITY 


DIVERSITY  of  Locations 


Los  Angeles,  California  •  Moorestown,  New  Jersey 

Both  the  California  and  New  Jersey  installations  are 
completely  integrated,  modern  engineering  facilities. 
The  Los  Angeles  installation  is  a  new  modern  labora- 
tory in  nearby  Van  Nuys,  which  will  provide  the 
opportunity  to  live  and  work  in  the  famous  San 
Fernando  Valley.  Historic  Moorestown  offers  the 
advantage  of  living  in  an  established  suburban  resi- 
dential community  only  eight  miles  from  Philadelphia. 


DIVERSITY  of  Projects 


ATLAS  — RCA  is  Project  Manager  for  the  develop- 
ment, manufacture  and  product  support  of  automatic 
checkout  and  launch  control  systems  for  the  opera- 
tional Atlas  ICBM. 

BMEWS  — RCA  is  Weapons  System  Manager  for  de- 
velopment of  the  Ballistic  Missile  Early  Warning 
System  .  .  .  the  world's  largest  integrated  radar  data 
processing  system. 

DAMP  — RCA  is  Program  Manager  for  the  study  of 
flight  characteristics  of  ballistic  missiles. 


DIVERSITY  of  Assignments 


SYSTEMS  •  PROJECTS  .  DEVELOPMENT  &  DESIGN 

Openings  in  the  following  fields  of  interest: 

Advanced  Radar  Techniques  •  Digital  and  Analog 
Systems  and  Devices  •  Transmitters  and  Receivers  • 
Digital  Logic  Design  •  Displays  •  Servos  •  Microwave 
•  Mechanisms  •  Structures  •  Programming. 

EE's,  ME's,  Physicists  and  Mathematicians  inter- 
ested in  contributing  to  any  of  the  above  projects  are 
invited  to  address  inquiries  to: 


FOR  ATLAS 

Mr.  O.  S.  Knox 
RCA,  Dept.  V-13JA 
11819  West  Olympic  Blvd. 
Los  Angeles,  California 


FOR  BMEWS  AND  DAMP 

Mr.  W.  J.  Henry 
RCA,  Dept.  V-13J 
Moorestown, 
New  Jersey 


RADIO  CORPORATION  of  AMERICA 

MISSILE  &  SURFACE  RADAR  DIVISION 


Circle  No.  67  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


87 


HIGH  PRESSURE  HOSE 
AIRCRAFT  AND  MISSILES 


Withstands  tests 

more  severe  than  MIL-H-8788 

High  Temperature  Spectrum  tests  exceed  MIL-H-8788  in 
both  impulse  and  temperature  requirements  and  fully 
qualified  to  ARP  604. 

Positive  lock  fitting  through  elimination  of  socket  hex. 

Available  with  swivel  elbows  that  can  be  rotated  with- 
out disturbing  the  wire  grip  lock. 

Stratoftex  High  Pressure  Fitting  combines  the  exclusive 
Pressure  Activated  Gland  Seal  and  the  assurance  of 
crimp  design. 

Shelf  life  practically  unlimited. 

Available  in  two  styles  of  high  temperature  fittings. 
Combination  of  stainless  steel  and  carbon  steel,  or  cor- 
rosion resistant  all  stainless  steel  fittings. 

Hose  assemblies  are  factory  assembled  from  stock 
with  straight,  45°  and  90°  fittings.  Other  angles 
or  connections  are  made  to  your  specifications. 
WRITE  FOR  BULLETIN  S-7  TODAY! 


P.O.  Box  10398  •  Fort  Worth,  Texas  One. 

Branch  Plants:   Hawthorne,  Cal.,  Fort  Wayne,  Toronto 
Canada:   Stratoftex   of  Canada,  Inc. 


Atlanta,  Chicago 
Cleveland,  Dayton 
Detroit,  Fort  Wayne 
Fort    Worth,  Hawthorne 
Houston,    Kansas  City 
Milwaukee 
New    York,  Philadelphia 
Pittsburgh 
San    Francisco,  Seattle 
Toronto,  Tulsa 


Circle  No.  22  on  Subscriber  Service  Cord.       m;ssi|es  a„d  September  2  I,   1 959 


people 


DUNLAP 


Dr.  W.  Crawford  Dunlap,  Raytheon  Mfg.  Co.  scientist,  has 
been  named  editor-in-chief  of  "Solid  State 
Electronics,"  a  new  international  publica- 
tion dealing  with  transistors  and  other 
solid-state  devices. 

Dr.  Dunlap,  director  of  semiconductor 
research  for  Raytheon,  is  the  United  States 
representative  heading  a  five-man  board  of 
editors  from  the  United  Kingdom,  Europe, 
Japan,  the  Far  East  and  one  to  be  ap- 
pointed from  the  U.S.S.R. 

Prior  to  joining  the  company  in  Janu- 
ary of  this  year,  he  was  supervisor  of 
solid-state  research  at  Bendix  Aviation  Research  Laboratory 
and  a  consultant  and  research  physicist  with  General  Elec- 
tric Co. 


Frederick  D.  Dodge  has  been  elected  chief  engineer  of 
Minneapolis-Honeywell's  Missile  Equipment  Division,  design- 
ers and  producers  of  missile  launching  and  checkout  equip- 
ment. 

Prior  to  joining  the  division  in  1958,  Dodge  held  various 
engineering  positions  at  Brown  Instruments  Division. 

John  N.  Monroe,  formerly  president  of  Monroe  Labora- 
tories, has  joined  the  Guided  Missile  Division  of  Firestone 
Tire  &  Rubber  Co. 

Monroe,  a  specialist  in  conceptual  guidance  and  detection 
systems,  stellar  tracking  and  optics,  previously  was  associated 
with  Northrop  Corp.  and  The  Martin  Co. 


DODGE 


MONROE 


LEVESOUE 


Russell  J.  LeVesque  has  been  appointed  manager  of  the 
Printed  Circuit  Department,  Technical  Products  Division  of 
Packard-Bell  Electronics. 

LeVesque  has  had  more  than  16  years  experience  in  the 
electronics  industry  including  ten  years  of  supervision  and 
design  at  Northrop,  two  years  with  North  American  Aviation 
as  design  engineer  and  electronic  designer  for  two  years  with 
Hughes  Aircraft  Co. 

Mrs.  Donald  R.  Quarles,  who  has  long  been  associated 
with  aviation  matters  through  her  husband,  the  late  Assistant 
Secretary  of  Defense,  has  joined  FAA  as  Confidential  As- 
sistant to  the  Chief  of  Office  of  Public  Affairs. 

Thomas  M.  Linville,  manager  of  the  Research  Operation 
~  Department  of  General  Electric's  Research 
Laboratory,  has  been  named  a  member  of 
the  National  Research  Council  and  will 
represent  the  American  Institute  of  Elec- 
trical Engineers  in  the  NRC's  Division  of 
Engineering  and  Industrial  Research. 

Linville,  who  joined  GE  in  1926  has 
served  in  his  present  position  since  1953. 
He  has  specialized  in  design  and  develop- 
ment of  motors  and  control  systems,  en- 
gineering administration,  engineering  edu- 
LINVILLE         cation  and  holds  seven  patents. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Missile  &  Aircraft 
Ground  Support  Equipment 


Complete 
Systems: 

^  400  cycle,  800  cycle  and 

Higher  Frequencies 
.a.  DC  Power  Supplies 
.a.  Pneumatic  Power 
a.  Hydraulic  Power 
-A.  Aircraft  Energizers 
^  Nacelle  Testers 
^  Refrigeration,  Heating  & 
Air  Conditioning 
Cargo  Loading  and 
Unloading  Equipment 

Competent  Bogue  Engineers  are 
located  near  you— Call  for  their 
skills  at  your  convenience. 


%  mi  • N 


BOGUE 

BOGUE  ELECTRIC  MANUFACTURING  COMPANY 
PATERSON    3,  NEW  JERSEY 


Circle  No.  5  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


89 


power 

BY  CATERPILLAR 


THEY  DEPEND  ON  CAT  DIESEL  POWER  TO 
KEEP  AIR  FORCE  ATLAS  MISSILE  ON  TARGET 


Calibration  of  the  delicate  electronic  system  of 
an  Atlas  missile  requires  a  portable  power  source 
with  unusually  accurate  control  of  voltage. 

Down-range  tracking  stations  need  a  power 
supply  that  can  be  depended  upon  in  any  emer- 
gency. 

Both  requirements  are  met  by  Caterpillar 
Diesel  Electric  Sets.  Caterpillar  Diesel  Engines 
in  these  sets  are  extremely  efficient  4-cycle  en- 
gines which  operate  on  any  fuel  from  JP-4 
through  No.  2  furnace  oil.  They  start  easily, 
pick  up  load  quickly  and  can  be  maintained  and 
operated  by  unskilled  personnel.  Parts  — and 
service  — are  available  all  over  the  Free  World. 

These  are  some  of  the  reasons  why  you  will 
see  so  many  Caterpillar  Electric  Sets  used  for 
primary  and  standby  power  at  our  missile  bases 
and  other  military  establishments.  They  are 
used  to  supply  power  for  testing,  for  starting  jet 
engines,  for  radar  warning  systems,  for  lighting, 
heating  and  other  base  living  facilities. 

Free  booklet.  Get  the  full  story  on  the  advan- 
tages of  Caterpillar  Diesel  Electric  Sets.  Write 
to  Engine  Division,  Caterpillar  Tractor  Co., 
Peoria,  Illinois,  U.  S.  A. 

Caterpillar  and  Cat  are  Registered  Trademarks  of  Caterpillar  Tractor  Co 


At  Edwards  Air  Force  Base  in  California,  power  for  testing  the 
precision  electronic  control  circuits  of  the  Atlas  missile  is  supplied 
by  two  Cat  D375  Diesel  Electric  Sets.  They  meet  the  triple  re- 
quirement of  portability,  dependability  and  accurate  control. 


JET  ASSIST.  Caterpillar  Portable  Elec- 
tric Sets  supply  dependable  power  for 
starting  jet  engines  and  for  calibrating 
control  systems. 


ALONE.  Without  benefit  of  people  to  look 
after  them,  Cat  Electric  Sets  furnish  power 
for  gap  filler  sites  in  our  aircraft  warning 
system.  They  are  used  at  larger  bases,  too. 


ENDURANCE.  At  Air  Force  Bases  in  the 
Atlantic,  Cat  Electric  Sets  have  run  over 
20,000  hours  without  overhaul,  while 
supplying  63,000  kwh  a  month. 


new  missile  products- 


Mobile  Missile  Cleaner  Available 


The  Narda  Ultrasonics  Corp.  re- 
cently introduced  the  new  M-l  Ultra- 
sonic Missile  Cleaner — a  fully  self- 
contained  mobile  missile  cleaner  for 
use  at  bunching  pads  and  at  missile 
assembly  plants. 

The  flat  bed  trailer  is  24  feet  long 
and  supports  a  transducerized  tank 
measuring  20  feet  by  6  feet  by  3  feet 
deep.  This  tank  requires  30  kw  input. 

The  transducers  are  paired  in  1  kw 
modules  for  easy  field  maintenance  and 
replacement.  The  trailer  is  towed  by  a 


power  tractor  of  the  cab  over  the 
engine  type. 

Twelve  of  Narda's  G-25001  gen- 
erators are  installed  in  the  rear  of  the 
air-conditioned  van.  The  van  is 
equipped  with  all  of  the  necessary 
cables  and  maintenance  facilities. 

In  addition  to  missile  cleaning 
equipment.  Narda  has  developed  the 
SonBlaster  DVC — 3000  "Jupiter."  a 
two-stage  ultrasonic  vapor  degreaser. 

Circle  No.  225   on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


LOX  Manifold  Features 
Automatic  Change-over 

Liquid  oxygen  cylinders  can  now 
be  manifolded  with  a  new  manifold  in- 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  19 

^  Circle  No.  3  on  Subscriber  Service 


traduced  by  Linde  Co.,  Division  of  the 
Union  Carbide  Corp. 

Used  with  four  Linde  LC-3  liquid 
oxygen  cylinders,  the  new  Oxweld 
M-40  provides  an  uninterrupted  supply 
of  12.000  cubic  feet  of  oxygen.  More 
than  48  conventional  high-pressure  cyl- 
inders would  be  needed  to  supply  the 
same  amount  of  oxygen.  And,  the  new 
unit  occupies  only  a  fraction  of  the 
space  required  for  an  equivalent  high- 
pressure  cylinder  supply. 

The  new  manifold  is  expected  to 
find  widespread  use  as  a  replacement 
for  many  existing  systems  of  high- 
pressure  cylinder  oxygen  supply. 

Automatic  change-over  from  one 
bank  to  another  is  an  important  feature 
of  the  new  Oxweld  M-40.  As  the  supply 
in  one  cylinder  bank  is  depleted,  the 


manifold  automatically  continues  to- 
supply  oxygen  from  the  other  bank. 
This  feature  provides  a  continuous,  un- 
interrupted supply  which  is  important 
in  many  industrial  applications  and 
vital  in  hospital  use. 

The  new  Oxweld  M-40  manifold  is 
flexible.  Standard  models  are  supplied 
for  use  with  four  or  two  Linde  LC-3 
cylinders  arranged  in  two  banks. 

The  M-40-2  two  cylinder  manifold 
is  designed  for  hospital  service.  A  five- 
cylinder  emergency  standby  manifold 
for  gaseous  cylinders  and  a  junction 
box  assembly  for  connecting  both  mani- 
folds to  a  hospital  piping  system  are 
available  for  use  with  the  M-40-2 
manifold. 

Circle  No.  226  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

Exhibit  Demonstrates 
CCX  Liquid  Equipment 

Pure  Carbonic  Company  and  Wyle 
Manufacturing  Corp.  cooperating  on  a 
project  to  show  the  advantages  of 
carbon  dioxide  (CO.,)  liquid  as  a  cool- 
ing agent  for  environmental  testing 
have  developed  a  traveling  exhibit 
mounted  on  a  40'  flatbed  trailer  to 
demonstrate  products  directly  at  the 
plant  sites  of  missile/ aircraft  compo- 
nents manufacturers. 

Pureco.  a  division  of  Air  Reduction 
Company,  Inc.,  is  a  major  nation-wide 
producer  and  distributor  of  CO.,  and 
CO.,  supply  systems,  and  Wyle  is  a 


leading  manufacturer  of  environmental 
equipment  designed  to  use  CO.,  liquid 
for  low  temperatures. 

The  CO.,  liquid  for  the  demonstra- 
tions is  provided  in  two  storage  units: 
a  stationary  six-ton  unit  and  a  half- 
ton  mobile  unit.  These  units,  typical  of* 
those  made  available  by  Pureco,  pro- 
vide storage  without  loss  over  an  in- 
definite period.  . 

C02  liquid  is  piped  from  the  stor- 
age units  to  a  Wyle  portable  servo  tem- 
perature conditioning  unit.   This  unit 

9t 


INERTIAL  GUIDANCE 


Represents 
one  of 
many 

applications 
of 


Autocollimation 


to  solve 

Alignment 

Problems 

of  a  highly 

precise 

nature. 


The  KERN  DKM2 


When  equipped  with  the  new  No.  356  Autocollimating  Eyepiece, 

this  famous  one-second  theodolite  has  a  total  magnification  of  23x  and 

an  operating  range  from  zero  to  at  least  100  feet  for  autocollimation. 


WHU  for 
technical  data 
and 

tpeeifloattont. 

No.  12 


The  FINEST  in  SURVEYING  EQUIPMENT 

KERN  INSTRUMENTS  INC. 

120  Grand  St.,  White  Plains,  N.  Y. 


Circle  No.  13  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


How  to 


m 

n 

u 


shipment  damage 
to  sensitive 
equipment 

V-DOT  visibly  shows  transit  damage.  DE- 
PENDABLE,   SIMPLE,    TAMPER  PROOF, 
ECONOMICAL — 

Inertia  Switch's  V-Dot  Indicators  instantly  reveal  dam- 
age-causing shocks  to  shipments.  This  is  especially 
important  for  precision  equipment  and  delicate 
instruments. 

The  V-Dot  Indicator  has  a  single  moving  part,  a 
steel  ball,  held  in  position  by  a  magnetic  force 
exactly  set  and  sealed  to  withstand  normal  han- 
dling and  shocks  up  to  a  predetermined  standard. 

Available   in   any  desired   setting   from   5  to  75   qs  -  i  •         "   "     •  r 

Any  damage-causing  shocks  will  dislodge  the  ball    ment  or      containers,  packing 
from  its  center  position   The  indicating  ball  cannot   cases  and  crates, 
be  moved  ogain  until  the  seal  is  broken,  the  case 
opened  and  the  ball  re-set  by  hand.  It  cannot  be 
:   accidentally  or  intentionally  triggered  by  tipping  or 
maneu — 


V-DOT  INDICATORS  are 
small  and  light  enough  to  be 
mounted  unnoticed  on  equip- 


ping. 

ERTI  A  SWITO 

Packaging  Protection  Division 


3 1 1  West  43rd  Street,  New  York  36 


JUdson  6-5880 


Write,  wire,  phone,  TODAY, 
for  complete  descriptive  bro- 
chure MR  1059  and  prices. 

Inc. 

U.S.  Patents  issued  and  pending 


new  missile  products 


converts  simple  insulated  enclosures  of 
virtually  any  size  into  automatically 
controlled  high/ low  temperature  cham- 
bers. Temperature  range  is  -100°F  to 
+400°  F,  and  any  selected  temperature 
is  automatically  held  to  within  plus  or 
minus  2°  F.  Temperature  conditioned 
atmosphere  is  circulated  through  test 
enclosures  via  six-inch  diameter  fiber 
glass  insulated  hoses. 

One  of  the  insulated  enclosures  with 
which  the  temperature  conditioning  unit 
is  demonstrated  is  a  chamber  fitted 
over  an  oil  film  vibration  slip  table  to 
provide  temperature  environments  dur- 
ing vibration  testing.  The  slip  table, 
recently  placed  on  the  market  by  Wyle, 
consists  of  a  large  granite  block  with 
an  extremely  flat,  highly  polished  top 
surface.  A  slip  plate,  mounting  the  test 
specimen,  is  placed  here.  The  flat  sur- 
face holds  the  vibration  accurately  in 
one  plane,  virtually  eliminating  cross- 
talk problems. 

To  show  the  use  of  the  temperature 
conditioning  unit  with  large  test  cham- 
bers, an  end  section  of  one  of  Wyle's 
radically  new  foam-insulated,  weather- 
proof walk-in  chambers  has  been  fitted 
with  special  doors  and  instrumentation, 
permitting  demonstrations  of  the  rapid 
temperature  pull-downs  possible  with 
Pureco  CO.,  liquid. 

Also  included  in  the  exhibit  is  a 
Wyle  chamber  which  features  self-con- 
tained temperature  control  and  utilizes 
CO,  liquid  by  direct  injection  into  the 
chamber. 

Recent  breakthroughs  in  equipment 
design,  together  with  today's  wide  avail- 
ability of  CO.,,  make  this  medium  one 
of  the  most  practical  and  efficient  for 
low  temperature  tests.  Through  the  use 
of  the  trailer  exhibit,  the  companies 
intend  to  make  potential  users  aware  of 
the  full  potentialities  of  C02  as 
cooling  agent. 

Circle  No.  227  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


Homing  Devices  Improved 
By  Refrigerant  Spray 

Sensitivity  of  "homing"  devices  in 
the  guidance  system  of  missiles  and 
rockets  is  being  improved  by  spraying 
"Freon"  refrigerant  into  an  electronic 
eye  no  larger  than  a  thimble,  to  main- 
tain its  temperature  at  a  frigid  114 
degrees  below  zero.  The  refrigerant  is 
manufactured  by  the  E.  I.  DuPont  de 
Nemours. 

Heart  of  the  electronic  eye  is  a 
sensitive  deposit  of  photo-conductive 
lead  sulfide,  lead  selenide,  or  lead  tel- 
luride — not  much  larger  than  the  head 


92 


Circle  No.  6  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


LOW  LEVEL  INPUT 
AMPLIFICATION 


/  •  1,000,000:1  rejection  ratio  at  60  cps 

■ 

floating  input 
•  isolated  output 


IN  A  NEW  SANBORN 
CHOPPER  AMPLIFIERS 


INDIVIDUAL  SET-UPS 

portable,  self-contained  unit  amplifier 


The  Model  350-1500  Low  Level  Amplifier  provides  extremely  versatile 
measurement  of  low  level  signals  through  use  of  two  interchangeable 
plug-in  circuits  —  one  for  thermocouple  applications,  another  for  DC 
strain  gage  work  (other  plug-ins  how  in  development).  Floating  input 
and  isolated  output  make  the  350-1500  useful  when  signal  measurements 
are  made  in  the  presence  of  large  ground  loop  voltages.  The  10-1/2"  high 
x  4-3  16"  wide  350-1500  may  be  used  individually  with  its  own  power 
supply  to  drive  a  'scope,  meter,  optical  element,  etc.  or  as  a  preamplifier 
in  6-  or  8-channel  350  series  recording  systems. 


SPECIFICATIONS 


MULTI-CHANNEL 
INSTALLATIONS 

8-unit  7"  high  modules  for 
"850"  series  direct  writers 

Compact  Model  850-1 500 A  Low 
Level  Preamplifiers  are  economi- 
cal, space-saving  units  for  large 
installations  such  as  aircraft  and" 
missile  development  and  test  fa- 
cilities where  many  recording 
channels  are  used  to  monitor 
strain  gage  and  thermocouple 
outputs.  Required  440  cps  chop- 
per drive  voltages  can  be  supplied 
for  up  to  16  channels  with  the 
Model  850-1900  MOP  A. 


350-1500 

850-1500A 

Sensitivity 

20  uv  input  for  1  volt 
output,  or  10  chart 
div.  with  Sanborn  re-, 
corder;  XI  to  X2000 
attenuator 

100  uv  input  for  1  volt 
output,  or  10  chart 
div.  with  Sanborn  re- 
corder; XI  to  X200 
attenuator 

Input 

Floating,  can  be  grounded 

Input  impedance 

100,000  ohms 

200,000  ohms 

Output 

Floating  or  grounded  (independent  of  input) 

Output  Impedance 

350  ohms 

Output  Capabilities 

±2.5  volts  across  1000  ohm  load 

Bandwidth 

DC  - 100  cps  (3db) 

Linearity 

±0.1rc  of  full  scale 

Common  Mode 
Performance 

120  db  for  60  cps  and  160  db  for  DC  with  5000 
ohms  unbalance  in  source 

Noise 

2  uv  peak-to-peak  over  a  0  to  100  cps  bandwidth 

Drift 

±2  uv  for  24  hours 

Gain  Stability 

±0.17c  for  24  hours 

(specifications  subject  to  change  without  notice) 

Complete  specifications  and  application  data  are  available  from 
Sanborn  Sales  -  Engineering  Representatives  in  principal  cities 
throughout  the  United  States,  Canada,  and  foreign  countries. 


SANBORN  COMPANY 

INDUSTRIAL  DIVISION 

175  Wyman  Street,  Waltham  54,  Mass. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1 959 


Circle  No.  4  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


93 


new  missile  products 


BAROMETER - 
MANOMETERS 


Measures 
Absolute 


Differential 
Pressures 


precision 
mercurial 

Features  Available 


Ranges:  0-31", 
0-62",  or  0-105" 
inches  of  mercury. 


Temperature  and 
Gravity  compensated. 


True  pressure  readings  with 
accuracy  guaranteed  to  .02% 
of  full  scale. 

• 

Visual  sighting  or  Photo  Electric 
Scanner  which  indicates  pressure 
changes  of  less  than  .0004  inch  of 
mercury. 

• 

Stop-bar  mechanism  for  production 
testing  at  predetermined  points. 


Choice  of  scale  graduations:  inches, 
millimeters,  millbars,  or  altitude. 


special  problem  upplua 


Used  by  the  U.  S.  Air  Force  and 
leading  manufacturers  where 
precise  instrument  cali- 
bration is  necessary. 


ft 


Type  A- 1 
mgl&    jJUk  Barometer 


6173  BRANCH  AVENUE 


Hickory  9-5454     •     Waihington  33,  D  C 


Circle  No.  9  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


ANOTHER  FIRST... 


A.C.  TIMING  MOTOR 

Thinner . . .  Quieter . . . 

More  Reliable .  . .  More  Versatile 


FINGER-THIN  .  .  . 

Only  9/16  Inches  Short  .  .  .  Only  l3A  Inches 
in  Diameter  .  .  .  very  compact  .  .  .  reduces 
the  size  of  your  equipment. 

WHISPER-QUIET  .  .  . 

Strictly  an  electrical  motor  .  .  .  practically 
noiseless  ...  no  rattling  of  gears  or  ratchets. 
HIGH  TORQUE  .  .  . 

V*  oz.  inch  at  the  rotor  with  an  instantaneous 
start  and  stop  .  .  .  requires  only  IVi  watts  .  .  . 
can  replace  larger  motors  in  recorders,  con- 
trols and  telemetering  equipment. 

HIGHEST  RELIABILITY  .  .  . 

Longer  life  ...  no  one-way  gears  or  ratchets 
to  fail  .  .  .  provides  millions  of  operations 
without  any  trouble. 
I*.  ,0,„  Send  for  Special  Illustrated 

|  S3,  Bulletin  AW H  MO -806 


A  JrVHAYDON  &>«tfi*** 

231   NORTH   ElM  STREET 
WATERBURY  20,  CONNECTICUT 

Custom  Design  &  Manufacture  Of  Electronic 
And  Electro-Mechanical  Timing  Devices 


SPECIFICATIONS 

Standard  Voltage  Ratings: 
6,  12,  24,  115,  230  Volts 

Frequency: 

60  CPS  Standard 
25,  50  CPS  Available 

Power    Input:    2.5  Watts 
Maximum  (60  CPS) 

BASIC  MOTOR 

Weight:  4  ounces 
Speed:  300  RPM 
Torque:  Va  oz-in. 
Length:  9/16  inch 

WITH  INTEGRAL  GEAR  TRAIN 

Weight:  5  ounces 
Speed:  300  RPM  to  1/6  RPH 
Torque:  30  oz.-in.  @  1  RPM 
Length:  %  inch 


WITH 
INTEGRAL 
GEAR  TRAIN 


of  a  pin.  This  is  mounted  in  the  nose 
of  the  missile  or  rocket  and  performs 
much  like  a  human  eye,  scanning  the 
area  ahead  of  the  weapon. 

In  operation,  a  small  electrical  cur- 
rent flows  through  the  lead  compound. 
Because  it  is  photo-conductive,  its  im- 
pedance or  electrical  resistance  varies 
with  the  quality  and  amount  of  light  to 
which  it  is  exposed. 

When  infrared  rays — from  the  ex- 
haust of  an  enemy  plane  ahead  of  the 
missile,  for  example — pass  through  the 
protective  window  of  the  scanning  eye 
to  the  lead  compound,  they  cause  a 
voltage  change  across  the  cell. 

This  minute  change  then  can  be 
amplified  in  the  electronic  equipment 
to  which  the  cell  is  attached,  to  con- 
trol mechanical  energy  to  operate  va- 
rious parts  of  the  weapon's  guidance 
system  so  that  it  automatically  "homes 
in"  on  the  target. 

Spectral  response  and  sensitivity  of 
the  lead  compounds  vary  with  the  tem- 
perature at  which  they're  held,  with 
both  increasing  at  lower  temperatures, 
and  that's  where  "Freon"  refrigerant 
enters  the  picture.  A  simple  capillary 
tube  jets  a  controlled  amount  of  "Fre- 
on" into  the  thimble-size  sensing  unit. 
As  the  refrigerant  gas  expands  it  has 
the  ability  to  absorb  large  amounts  of 
heat  from  the  lead  compound  and 
maintain  its  temperature  at  a  pre-deter- 
mined  level — 114  degrees  below  zero 
in  the  case  of  one  unit  using  "Freon- 
13"  monochlorotrifluoromethane.  A  va- 
riety of  "Freon"  refrigerants,  each  with 
a  different  boiling  point,  offers  guid- 
ance system  designers  a  wide  choice  of 
operating  temperatures  which  can  help 
adjust  the  spectral  response  of  the  lead 
compound  to  desired  levels. 

Although  three  types  of  energy  are 
involved  (light  energy  received  through 
the  scanning  eye,  being  converted  to 
electrical  energy  in  the  electronic  com- 
ponents, then  to  mechanical  energy  in 
the  power  guidance  system),  response 
of  the  entire  guidance  system,  when 
properly  adjusted,  is  almost  instantane- 
ous. In  fact,  its  "quick  as  a  wink" 
action  might  be  likened  to  the  human 
body's  reaction  to  a  sudden  flash  of 
light.  Here  the  eye  transmits  the  in- 
creased light  intensity  to  the  brain,  as 
electrical  signals  which  are  converted 
into  mechanical  energy  to  cause  the 
eyelid  to  blink  or  close.  The  principal 
difference  is  that  the  mechanical  "eye," 
instead  of  trying  to  shut  out  the  light, 
just  opens  wider  to  "home  in"  on  the 
target. 

Aside  from  its  cooling  advantages, 
"Freon"  refrigerant  is  particularly 
adaptable  to  use  in  such  complicated 


94 


Circle  No.  7  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


electronic  equipment  because  it  is  non- 
flammable, nonexplosive,  noncorrosive 
to  metals  and  other  materials  used  in 
construction  of  the  delicate  parts,  and 
has  outstanding  electrical  properties. 

Circle  No.  228  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

Charge  Control  Unit 
Extends  Battery  Life 

A  new,  completely  automatic  unit 
just  introduced  by  the  Exide  Corp. 
helps  to  prolong  the  high-capacity 
working  life  of  electric  industrial  truck 
batteries  by  providing  proper  change 
control. 

Insuring  a  full-charged  battery  for 
peak  truck  performance  on  every  shift, 
the  new  MP-3  Exide  Charge  Control 
Unit  also  eliminates  the  danger  of 
overcharging  the  battery. 

The  MP-3  automatically  controls 
the  battery  charging  equipment  as  it 
brings  the  battery  to  a  full  state  of 
charge,  and  then  automatically  termi- 
nates the  charge. 

Designed  to  control  both  regular 
daily  charges  and  weekly  equalizing 
charges,  the  MP-3  requires  no  atten- 
dance or  resetting,  regardless  of  the 
length  of  the  normal  charging  time. 


Interconnected  with  the  charging 
equipment,  the  MP-3  initiates  the 
charging  process  when  the  control  in- 
dicator of  the  electric  timing  switch  is 
dialed.  A  unique  spring-pin  metal  stop 
above  the  control  indicator  on  the  door 
of  the  case  makes  it  simple  to  pre-set 
the  unit  for  a  normal  three  or  four- 
hour  daily  finishing  charge.  The  stop 


also  can  be  lifted  to  move  the  control 
indicator  to  the  six  or  eight-hour  weekly 
equalizing-charge  positions. 

Vital  to  the  control  function  of  the 
unit  is  the  Exide  TVR  temperature- 
compensated  voltage  relay,  mounted  in- 
side the  case.  When  a  battery  on  charge 
reaches  2.37  volts  per  cell  at  77  degrees 
Fahrenheit,  the  relay  operates  to  reduce 
the  charging  rate  and/ or  start  the  elec- 
tric timer.  The  bi-metal  strip  on  the  re- 
lay armature  has  differing  expansion 
coefficients  to  compensate  for  tempera- 
ture changes. 

The  MP-3  is  designed  to  control 
modified  constant  potential  battery 
charging.  A  control  circuit  also  is  pro- 
vided in  the  unit  to  operate  an  external 
auxiliary  relay  when  two-rate  charging 
is  used. 

The  Exide  unit  can  be  mounted 
readily  with  two  screws  or  bolts  in  a 
vertical  position  on  the  charger  or  on  a 
wall.  Lead-in  wires  from  the  charger 
can  be  pulled  inside  the  case  and  con- 
nected to  the  terminal  strip  after  the 
unit  is  mounted.  The  vital  components 
can  be  removed  easily  and  replaced 
without  demounting  the  unit. 

Assembled  in  a  gray  hammertone 
steel  case,  the  MP-3  is  6V4  inches  wide, 
8-1/8  inches  high  and  4-1/8  inches 
deep.  The  control  indicator  extends  7/8 


A  MILLION 

Check  Valves 
are  proving 


I  circle  seal;  superiority 


Today,  with  the  experience  gained  in  manu- 
facturing over  one  million  application-engi- 
neered Circle  Seal  check  valves,  James,  Pond 
and  Clark,  Inc.  is  unique  in  its  ability  to  meet 
the  newest,  most  critical  check  valve  require- 
ments. 

Rugged,  high  quality  Circle  Seal  valves  are  a 
product  of  the  valve  industry's  highest  stand- 
ards of  quality.  At  James,  Pond  and  Clark, 


Inc.,  check  valves  are  individually  inspected 
and  tested  against  the  most  critical  specifica- 
tions. They  insure  continuous  trouble-free 
operation  under  the  toughest  operating  con- 
ditions posed  by  tomorrow-minded  engineers. 

From  their  own  experience,  specifying  engi- 
neers know  Circle  Seal  valves  eliminate  all 
reason  for  experimenting  with  less  assured 
quality. 


CIRCLE  ?  2? 

seal!  np^ 

precision  valves 


Please  write  today  for  free  engineering  data. 


c  i 


JAMES,  POND  &  CLARK,  Inc. 

2181   EAST  FOOTHILL  BOULEVARD,  PASADENA,  CALIFORNIA 


Circle  No.  10  on  Subscriber  Service  Card, 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


95 


Breaking 
Tradition 
To  Find 
A  Better 
Solution — 
Faster 


I 


Practical  and  economical  answers  to  fluid  handling 
problems  help  you  get  your  project  out  on  time 

Quite  possibly,  the  solution  to  your  fluid  handling  problem 
demands  a  completely  new  approach.  y 

A  lot  of  problems  do. 

That's  why  FRI  engineers  specialize  in  creative  .  .  . 
imaginative  thinking,  as  well  as  ordinary  analytical  methods 
of  problem  solving.    This  combination  is  utilized  for  you 
in  finding  a  workable,  practical  solution  .  .  .  economically. 

It  may  range  from  developing  a  complete  system  to 

merely  adapting  an  existing  piece  of  equipment.  Either  way, 

FRI  knows  from  experience  which  way  to  go. 

If  your  problem  is  in  any  way  concerned  with  fast  fluid 
transfer,  you'll  find  it  highly  profitable  to  discuss  it 
with  FRI  engineers.  Why  not  write  today  for  literature? 


I 


FRIENDSHIP  INTERNATIONAL  AIRPORT  •  BALTIMORE  3,  MD. 


West  Coast  Representative!  William  E.Davis,  Box  642,  Ingle  wood,  Calif. 
Denver  Representative:  Price  Engineering  Sales  Associates,  Box  421,  Littleton,  Colorado 

Circle  No.  1 1  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


new  missile  products 


of  an  inch  beyond  the  piano-hinged 
door. 

MP-3  Exide  Charge  Control  Units 
can  be  selected  for  charging  specific- 
sized  batteries  ranging  from  6  to  60 
cells.  They  are  available  at  low  cost 
from  the  manufacturer  of  Exide-Iron- 
clad  and  Exide-Powerclad  motive  pow- 
er batteries. 

Circle  No.  229  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


New  Resonant-Free  Test 
Fixture  Developed 

A  new  environmental  test  fixture 
that  is  resonant-free  during  normal  use 
and  may  be  used  to  mount  test  speci- 
mens during  vibration,  shock  and  ac- 
celeration tests  has  been  designed  by 
the  Avco  Research  and  Advanced  De- 
velopment Division. 

The  T-type  fixture  was  designed  to 
convey  only  the  desired  environment 
and  is  made  of  cast  magnesium.  It  is 
capable  of  testing  specimens  in  three 
mutually  perpendicular  axes,  simul- 
taneously. The  fixture  is  essentially  res- 
onant-free below  2.000  cycles. 

Use  of  the  new  rigid  test  fixture  al- 
lows standardization  of  fixtures  for  vi- 
bration exciters,  shock  machines  and 
centrifuges.  The  Avco  scientists  say 
that  the  fixture  also  has  exceptional  re- 
sponse characteristics  in  that  the  trans- 
missibility  factor  does  not  exceed  1.10 
up  to  2,000  cps.  This  gives  accurate 
transmission  of  input  with  no  ampli- 
fication. 

Only  minor  adjustments  are  re- 
quired for  testing  different  specimens. 


Components  may  be  tested  in  each  of 
three  mutually  perpendicular  planes  of 
motion  by  moving  the  test  specimens 
to  a  different  axis. 

Called  the  Multi-purpose  Environ- 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


mental  Test  Fixture,  it  is  available  in  a 
small  size  used  with  a  1,500  g-pound 
exciter  and  a  larger  size  for  use  with  a 
5,000  g-pound  exciter.  The  smaller  size 
has  a  dimensional  capacity  of  6  x  6  x 
AVi  inches  with  a  weight  capacity  of  up 
to  6  pounds.  The  larger  type  -has  a  di- 
mensional capacity  of  12  x  12  x  9Vi 
inches  and  weighs  up  to  25  pounds. 

Circle  No.  230  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

Tiny  Metal-to-Metal  Seals 
Solve  Hydraulic  Problems 

Temperature  and  pressure  problems 
arising  out  of  the  increasing  develop- 
ment of  miniature  hydraulic  pumps  and 
valves  have  been  met  by  the  production 


of  a  new  series  of  tiny  metal-to-metal 
seals  by  the  Harrison  Manufacturing 
Co. 

Designated  as  Harrison  K-Mini/ 
Seals,  the  miniature  seals  are  designed 
for  applications  requiring  outside  diam- 
eters smaller  than  %  inch.  Standard 
sizes  range  down  to  V4  inch. 

Extensive  testing  indicate  the  seals 
are  suitable  for  use  in  temperatures 
ranging  from  minus  300  degrees  F.  to 
plus  1200  degrees  F.  Zero  leakage  has 
been  recorded  in  these  tests  at  6000 
psig. 

Like  the  other  two  series  of  seals, 
the  K-Face/Seal  and  the  K-Boss/Seal, 
the  miniatures  are  re-usable,  the  re- 
usability factor  depending  upon  the 
care  and  application  of  seating  and  re- 
seating. 

Circle  No.  231   on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

Rocker  Arm  Has 
Missile  Qualifications 

Pittsburgh — A  special  stainless 
steel  rocker  arm  is  helping  to  make  and 
I  fire  missiles. 

Automation  in  business  and  indus- 
try is  also  being  made  more  feasible 
and  more  accurate  through  the  adapt- 
ability of  small  but  efficient  switches  of 
AM-350  stainless  steel. 

The  stainless  steel  is  used  as  an  in- 


MATRIX  CHART 
ERROR  LOCATION 
SYSTEM 

SAVES  UP  TO  90% 

CORRECTION  TIME! 


Pinpoints  All  Circuit  Flaws  lnstantly...Plots  and 
Simplifies  Test  Procedure...Provides  a  Permanent  Record! 

DIT-MCO's  revolutionary  Matrix  Chart  is  the  only  error  location  device  which  puts  all 
circuit  information  .  .  .  errors,  circuit  numbers,  type  of  flaws,  etc.  .  .  .  directly  in  front  of  the 
operator  of  this  Automatic  Electrical  Circuit  Analyzer.  It  plots  the  entire  test  sequence  and 
pinpoints  every  circuit  flaw .  .  .  instantly!  Horizontal  and  vertical  indicator  lights  cross 
reference  to  indicate  the  exact  error  location,  circuit  number  and  type  of  flaw.  As  errors 
are  detected,  they  are  recorded  on  the  proper  matrix  square  and  the  test  continues. 

Once  the  test  sequence  has  been  completed,  all  corrections  ore  made  direct  from  the 
Matrix  Chart.  This  group  correction  feature  saves  up  to  90%  of  error  correction  and/or 
interpretation  time  by  eliminating  time-consuming  searches  through  complex  manuals  and 
wiring  diagrams.  After  corrections  have  been  noted  on  the  Matrix  Chart,  it  provides  a 
complete  record  of  test  circuits,  test  specifications,  instructions,  results  and  modifications. 
This  concise,  understandable  record  improves  interdepartmental  communications  and 
provides  co-ordination  through  all  stages  of  planning,  production  and  maintenance. 
Non-technical  personnel  easily  master  operation  of  the  Analyzer  and  use  of  the  Matrix 
Chart  System.  The  final  Matrix  Chart  can  follow  the  product  for  future  overhaul  and 
maintenance  use. 


DIT-MCO,  Inc.  employs  an  expe- 
rienced staff  of  sales  engineers  in 
the  field.  Contact  your  field  sales 
engineer  or  write  for  important 
facts  about  DIT-MCO  Automatic 
Electrical  Circuit  Analyzers. 


DIT-MCO,  INC. 


PLUGBOARD 
PROGRAMMING 
SPEEDS  TESTING! 


Liz 


Jumper-wired  plugboard  programming  permits  use 
of  simple,  straightforward  adapter  cables.  Circuit 
modifications  never  present  headaches  because  all 
changes  are  easily  made  by  re-jumpering  the  read- 
ily accessible  plugboards. 


ELECTRONICS  DIVISION  •  BOX  C9-'8 
911  BROADWAY  •  KANSAS  CITY,  M0. 

Partial  List  of  DIT-MCO  Users 

Aircraft  Radio  Corp.  •  AiResearch  Manufacturing  Co.  •  American  Bosch  Arma  Corp.  •  American 
Machine  &  Foundry  Co.  •  American  Motors  •  Amphenol  Electronics  Corp.  •  Autonetics,  A  Division 
of  North  American  Aviation,  Inc.  •  Bell  Aircraft  Corp.  •  Bendix  Aviation  Corp.  •  Boeing  Airplane 
Co.  •  Cessna  Aircraft  Co.  •  Chance  Vought  Aircraft,  Inc.  •  Chrysler  Corp.  •  Convair  •  Douglas 
Aircraft  Co.,  Inc.    •    Dukane  Corp.    •    Electronic  Products  Corp.    •    Fairchild   Aircraft  Division 

•  Farnsworth  Electronics  Co.  •  Frankford  Arsenal  •  General  Electric  Co.  •  General  Mills,  Inc., 
Mechanical  Division  •  General  Precision  laboratory,  Inc.  •  Goodyear  Aircraft  Corp.  •  Grumman 
Aircraft   Engineering   Corp.    •    Hazeltine   Electronics   Division,   Hazeltine   Corp.    •    Hughes  Aircraft 

•  International  Business  Machines  Corp.  •  Jefferson  Electronic  Products  Corp.  •  Lockheed  Aircraft 
Corp.,  Missile  Systems  Division  •  Martin,  Baltimore  •  Minneapolis-Honeywell,  Aeronautical  Division  • 
Motorola,  Inc.  •  Northrup  Aircraft,  Inc.  •  Pacific  Mercury  Television  Mfg.  Corp.  •  Radio  Corp.  of 
America  •  Radioplane  Co.  •  Raytheon  Manufacturing  Co.  •  Servomechanisms,  Inc.  •  Sikorsky 
Aircraft  •  Sperry  Gyroscope  Co.  •  Summers  Gyroscope  Co.  •  Sun  Electric  Co.  •  The  Swartwout  Co., 
Autronic  Division  •  Temco  Aircraft  Corp.  •  Thompson  Products  •  Topp  Industries  Inc.  •  Trans  World 
Airlines  •  U.  S.  Naval  Air  Station  Overhaul  and  Repair  Depots  •  U.  S.  Naval  Ordnance  Laboratory, 
White  Oak  •  Vertol  Aircraft  Corp.  •  Western  Electric  Co.  •  Westinghouse  Electric  Corp. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Circle   No.    12   on   Subscriber   Service  Card. 


97 


NEW  MINIATURE 
PRESSURE 

TRANSDUCER  by  colvin 

•  Only  one  inch  square  -  one  inch  long 

•  Withstands  high  vibration 

35  G  to  5000  CPS  0-3  to  0-400  psi 
400  to  10,000  ohms 


AVAILABLE  IMMEDIATELY 


COLVIN 

LABORATORIES,  INC. 

364  Glenwood  Avenue.  East  Orange.  N.  J 


Circle  No.   14  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


J&FOR  IHTERNAL  iHSPECTIOH 

( 

•  O.IO"  AND  UP .  .  .  That's  the  point 
of  entry  requirement  ...  to  provide  your 
inspectors  the  chance  to  use  the  out- 
standing National  Fontar  Borescope  and 

,  thus  give  them  the  brightest,  distortion- 
free,  close-up  view  of  the  defect  in  "in- 
accessible" interior  surfaces  of  the  cast, 
drawn,  welded  or  molded  product  !  .  . 

"-     from  inches  deep  to  many  feet. 

Find  out  how  its  use  can  be  a  time  and 
cost  saver  while  it  up-grades  your  Qual- 
'    rty  Control.  Just  send  for  our  "Bore- 
scope  Catalog." 


'  G 


NATIONAL  ELECTRIC  INSTRUMENT  DIVISION 
M— 21  Corona  Avenue  ■  Elmhunt  73,  New  York 


new  missile  products 


tegral  part  of  the  crossbar  switch  made 
by  James  Cunningham  Son  &  Co.  This 
switch  is  a  component  of  electrical 
computers  and  automatic  programming 
equipment  that  requires  high  speed 
selection  or  scanning  of  multiple 
sources  of  information. 

About  100  million  cycles  under 
load  is  demanded  of  the  spring  and 
rocker  arm  assembly  of  stainless  steel. 


Flux  Density 


This  special  steel  is  made  by  Allegheny 
Ludlum  Steel  Corp. 

At  the  rate  of  50  cycles  per  second, 
an  individual  crossbar  switch  can  sam- 
ple, select  or  translate  data  from  as 
many  as  1200  input  points  and  relay 
the  electronic  information  to  reading 
or  monitoring  devices.  The  switches  are 
often  set  up  in  relays  to  increase  the 
number  of  input  points. 

Engineers  designing  the  crossbar 
switch  wanted  a  material  that  would 
work  under  greater  stress  loads  than 
that  previously  used. 

Circle  No.  232  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


Gctussmeter  Measures 


A  new  direct-reading  gaussmeter, 
designed  to  measure  direction  and  mag- 
nitude of  flux  density,  has  been  de- 
signed and  developed  by  F.  W.  Bell, 
Inc. 

The  new  instrument  is  useful  also 
in  plotting  flux  paths,  measuring  flux 
leakage  and  performing  other  func- 
tions in  the  design  and  testing  of  elec- 
tronic equipment.  The  unit  has  a  carry- 
ing handle  which  doubles  as  a  storage 
place  for  the  probe,  protecting  the 
probe  tip  when  not  in  use.  A  push-but- 
ton on  the  probe  itself  facilitates  use 


FOR  PR0PELLANT— 
OR  PLASTIS0L* 

f^j^  DOUBLE  PLANETARY^ 


Change  Can  Mixers  give 
better  mixing  in  less  time! 

At  solid  propellant 

plant  in  Elkton,  Md.(  this  Ross 
#130CDM  variable  speed  100 
gallon  Mixer  produces  the  same 
high  quality  mix  as  obtained  in 
Horizontal  Double  Arm  Kneaders, 
and  in  V3  the  mixing  time. 


With  no  bearings  or 
Stuffing  boxes  in  the 
product  zone,  station- 
ary can,  completely 
enclosed  mix,  and  re- 
motely controlled  rais- 
ing and  lowering  de- 
vice, the  Mixers  are 
as  safe  in  operation 
as  they  are  efficient. 
Mixers  have  low  orig- 
inal and  maintenance 
cost,  are  easy  to  clean, 
and  extremely  versa- 
tile in  operation. 

Lower 

illustration  shows 
an  85  gallon  #130- 
CDM  Double  Plane- 
tary Change  Can 
Mixer  furnished  a 
leading  concern  for 
mixing  plastisols  of  several  types  ranging  up 
to  200,000  centipoi<es.  Customer  reports  Mixer 
in  operation  24  hours/day  with  mixing  time  per 
batch  only  1 5*20  minutes;  while  the  quality  of 
mix  and  dispersion  is  so  high  that  the  final  prod- 
uct is  obtained  in  the  Mixer  alone  —  without 
further  processing  through  a  Three  Roll  Mill  as 
was  previously  necessary  with  other  Mixers. 

Jacketed  cans 
for  heating  or 
cooling  mate- 
ria I  during 
mixing,  dolly 
trucks,  gates 
on  cans  for  dis- 
charge, and 
vacuum  tight 
covers  can  b 
provided. 

^j^^^^r^3r?y 

other  heavy 
paste  material. 
On  paints, 
inks,  pharma- 
ceutical prod- 
ucts, caulking 
compounds, 
and  other  sim- 
ilar materials, 
the  Ross  Double  Planetary  Change  Can  Mixers 
mix  and  disperse  up  to  30  times  faster  than 
other  Mixers. 

Mixers  available  in  1,  2,  3,  4,  6,  8,  12,  20,  25, 
65,  85,  125  and  150  gallon  sizes.  Write  for  com- 
plete  information  on  these  or  other  types  of  Ross 
mixing,  grinding  or  dispersing  equipment  I 

CHAS.  ROSS  &  SON  CO.,  INC. 


Leading  mfgrs.  of 


ef 


dry  grinding  Mills, 


98 


Circle  No.  IS  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


Kneaders  and  Mixers  of  all  types  —  since  1869. 
148-156  (M)  CLASSON  AVE.,  BROOKLYN  5,  N.  Y. 
Circle  No.  20  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1 95S 


by  energizing  the  unit  for  quick  read- 
ings. 

Operating  on  the  Hall  Effect,  the 
Bell  Gaussmeter  (designated  Model 
100)  uses  as  its  sensing  element  a  thin 
wafer  of  high-purity  indium  arsenide 
with  a  temperature  coefficient  of  0.1%. 
The  smallness  of  this  element  C019" 
thick  and  .125"  wide)  permits  insertion 
of  the  flat  probe  tip  into  very  narrow 
air  gaps.  The  active  area  of  the  sensing 
element  is  equal  to  a  circle  of  .0625" 
diameter.  High  gradient  fields  can  thus 
be  measured  easily  in  confined  spaces. 
The  sensing  element  is  non-magnetic 
and  does  not  disturb  the  field  being 
measured. 

A  convenient  scale  selector  on  the 
front  panel  gives  gauss  readings  in 
three  scales:  0  to  300,  0  to  3,000  and 
0  to  30,000  gauss.  "Balance"  and 
"null"  adjustments  are  not  required  on 
the  front  panel.  The  instrument  will 
read  DC  flux  in  the  presence  of  a 
strong  AC  field,  rejecting  the  AC  field 
and  giving  strong,  continuous  readings 
as  long  as  the  probe  is  held  in  a  con- 
stant magnetic  field.  Measurements  are 
indicated  on  a  linear  meter  scale.  No 
amplifier  is  used. 

The  power  supply  is  a  built-in  AVz- 
volt  battery,  drawing  current  only  when 
the  push-button  is  depressed.  A  con- 
venient cord  hanger  on  the  rear  panel 
holds  the  5-foot  cord  furnished  with 
the  unit.  Dimensions  of  the  unit  are: 
10-1/8"  wide,  4-3/8"  deep  over  all, 
and  IVi "  high  over  all.  The  unit  weighs 
5  pounds.  The  finish  is  a  dark  grey 
baked-on  enamel.  Front  panel  trim  is 
in  anodized  aluminum. 

F.  W.  Bell,  Inc.,  reorganized  in 
June  of  this  year  and  known  formerly 
as  American  Electronics,  Inc.,  an- 
nounces also  that  probes  and  test  fix- 
tures for  special  applications  are  avail- 
able on  special  order. 

Circle  No.  233  on  Surbscriber  Service  Card. 


Solid-State  Repeaters 
Aids  Distorted  Signals 

The  Trepac  Corp.  of  America  has 

announced  a  new  line  of  teleprinter 
coupling  repeaters  designated  the  Dia- 
mond Trepac  560  Series. 

Designed  around  the  Trepac  solid- 
state  relay  widely  used  for  keying  tele- 
printers, the  new  repeaters  represent  a 
simplification  and  operational  improve- 
ment over  the  bulky,  expensive,  delicate 
repeaters  previously  used.  The  absence 
of  moving  parts  (except  for  one  mer- 
cury relay),  electron  tubes,  and  opera- 
tional adjustments  practically  eliminates 
maintenance  and  repair  problems. 

The  units  operate  from  either  115- 
volt  60-cycle  power  or  12-14  volts  DC, 
and  require  only  15  ma  in  "line-closed" 
condition.  The  repeater  contains  a  re- 


chargable  standby  battery  which  en- 
ables the  unit  to  operate  independently 
for  three  months  after  failure  of  the  ex- 
ternal power  source.  Location  of  the 
unit  with  respect  to  battery  or  ground 
terminations  or  any  particular  part  of 
a  telegraph  line  or  loop  is  not  critical. 

Diamond-Trepac  repeaters  are  said 
to  be  immune  to  many  signal  defects 
that  incapacitate  old-style  units.  The 
repeated  signal  emerges  clear,  clean 
and  consistent  (even  when  the  input 
signal  contains  heavy  asymmetric  dis- 
tortion) at  modulation  rates  up  to  200 

bits  per  second.  The  repeater  is  re-  change  in  signal  levels,  and  load  varia- 
markably    immune    to    interference,  tion. 


Complete  service  and  production  facilities  for 

GrRPUND  SuPpORq- 
C^roGrENliCS 


Stearns-Roger  has  for  many  years  been  devoted 
largely  to  design,  engineering  and  building 
of  various  kinds  of  process  plants.  Our  skills  in 
high  pressure  piping,  high  strength  concrete 
design,  remote  control  and  instrumentation 
inevitably  led  to  Atomic  Energy  contracts  and 
missile  ground  support  work.  Men  of  our  Special 
Projects  Department  are  cleared  for  the 
discussion  of  any  variety  of  secret  projects. 
We  invite  your  investigation  of  our  qualifications 
in  Cryogenics,  Nuclear  Reactors,  High  Pressure 
Systems  and  complete  base  installations. 
Write  for  literature  explaining  our  facilities, 
our  background,  our  personnel,  our 
ONE  RESPONSIBLE  SERVICE. 


Stearns-Roger 

THE   STEARNS-ROGER    MFG.  CO.  ■DENVER-COLORADO 

P.  O.  Bex  5370     *     Denver  17,  Colorado 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Circle   No.    1 6   on   Subscriber   Service  Card. 


99 


NEW, 


KKER5,  Packaged  Valve 
Assembly  accelerates  -  decelerates 
Thor  Missile  Erector  smoothly 
■    ^  without  ratcheting. 


Operating  Pressure 
Prool  Pressure 
Burst  Pressure 
Temperature  Operating 

Range 
Filtration  Nominal 


Mb 


Smooth  control  of  the  Thor  erecting  cylinder  is  accomplished  by  a  new 
Vickers'  packaged  valve  assembly.  This  assembly  provides  regulated  accel- 
eration-deceleration throughout  the  erecting  cycle  without  compounding 
structural  vibrations.  Despite  varying  external  loads  and  temperatures, 
firm  positive  control  is  maintained  as  the  missile's  center  of  gravity  passes 
over  the  pivot  point. 

This  "system  engineered"  valve  is  another  example  of  the  special  ability  of 
the  Vickers  Marine  and  Ordnance  Department  to  solve  difficult  ground 
support  problems.  An  integrated  package,  this  new  valve  consists  of  a 
metering-type,  modulating  flow  control  that  is  pressure  compensated  for  a 
fixed  pressure  differential.  An  integral,  motor-actuated,  4-way  directional 
control  regulates  starts  and  stops  in  mid-cycle. 

Now  in  production,  this  valve  can  be  used  to  control  a  broad  range  of  accel- 
erations, decelerations  and  overrunning  loads  merely  by  varying  combina- 
tions of  orifice  sizes  and  spool  configurations.  Horsepower  input  can  be 
adjusted  to  meet  onsite  power  availability.  Valve  output  can  be  controlled 
electrically,  mechanically  or  hydraulically.  Mounting  flexibility  permits 
valve  installation  directly  on  the  hydraulic  cylinder. 

All  units  are  factory  pre-tested,  interchangeable  and  require  no  external 
lines  except  to  pump  and  tank.  They  are  built  to  meet  the  most  demanding 
reliability  requirements. 

//  this  valve  offers  a  solution  to  your  problems,  call  Waterbury,  Connecticut,  PLaza 
6-368U  (TWX:  WBY  160)  for  more  complete  information.  Write  for  a  free  copy  of 
Bulletin  5303  "Vickers  Oil  Hydraulics  for  Missile  Systems." 


THOR  missile  on 
launch  base... 


complete  system 
designed  and  developed 
by  Douglas  Aircraft 
Company,  Inc. 

transporter-erector, 
launching  base  and 
power  trailer  designed 
and  built  by  Food 
Machinery  and  Chemical 
Corporation. 


erector 
and  mast 
control  valves, 
hydraulic  power 
unit,  test  and 
checkout  stands 
designed  and  built 
by  Vickers 
Incorporated. 


VICKERS  INCORPORATED 

DIVISION  OF  SPERRY  RAND  CORPORATION 
Marine  and  Ordnance  Department 

WATERBURY  20,  CONNECTICUT 

DISTRICT  SALES  OFFICES:  DETROIT,  MICH.  •  EL  SEGUNDO,  CALIF.  .  BERKELEY,  CALIF.  •  WASHINGTON,  D.  C.  .  WATERBURY,  CONN. 


Hydraulic  Products 

for  Marine 

and  Ground  Defense 

Applications 


100 


Circle  No.  23  on  Subscriber  Service  Card.        misSlleS  and  rockets,  September  2  I 


new  missile  products 


Each  repeater  is  bi-directional.  Pilot 
lamps  indicate  the  direction  of  trans- 
mission. Repeater  modules  are  5V4" 
high,  314"  wide,  and  14"  deep.  Five 
such  modules  may  be  mounted  in  a  19" 
rack  or  seven  in  a  24"  rack,  using  stan- 
dard accessory  trays.  Completely-wired 
bays,  accommodating  up  to  50  units 
per  rack,  are  available. 

Portability,  immunity  from  signal 
distortion  or  fluctuation,  freedom  from 
maintenance,  and  the  standby  battery 
feature  make  these  repeaters  ideal  for 
use  in  remote,  unattended  locations. 
Their  high  speed  capabilities  assure 
their  performance  in  the  faster  tele- 
typewriter and  data  transmission  cir- 
cuits of  the  future. 

All  units  are  compatible  with  each 
other,  and  with  existing  standard  equip- 
ment, and  may  be  included  in  complex 
conference  networks. 

Circle  No.  234  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


Thermometer  Is  Smaller 
Than  Pencil  Eraser 

A  resistance  thermometer,  half  the 
size  of  an  ordinary  pencil  eraser  and 
designed  for  extreme  accuracy  and 
high  temperature  operation,  is  now 
available  for  immediate  delivery  from 
Minco  Products,  Inc. 

The  model  S-22  provides  reliable 


results  in  rapid  response  to  transients 
and  changes  in  temperature.  The  tiny 
platinum  sensing  element  is  plotted  for 
maximum  environmental  capabilities, 
dielectric  and  mechanical  strength. 

A  unique  attachment  of  the  lead 
wires  provides  a  minimum  of  5  lbs.  pull 
strength.  The  stainless  steel  case  will 
withstand  a  minimum  of  5  lbs.  com- 
pressive force  from  a  rigid  load. 

Calibration  accuracies  of  plus  or 
minus  V\%,  Vi%,  and  1%  are  avail- 
able from  stock.  Curves,  points,  and/ or 
equations  are  available  with  each  unit. 

Circle  No.  235  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


New  Cycle  Timer 
Is  Totally  Enclosed 

Haydon  Division  of  General  Time 
Corporation  announces  the  availability 
of  an  improved  cycle  timer  known  as 
Series  AC-42,  which  is  a  totally  en- 
closed, motor  driven  switching  device 
for  use  in  the  control  of  vending  ma- 
chines, hand  dryers,  photocopying 
equipment,  etc. 

The  timer,  which  the  manufacturer 
describes  as  being  extremely  rugged 
and  compact,  repeats  a  set  cycle  or 


operation  from  -100°F.  to  +500°F. 
It  has  a  resistance  of  470  ohms  at  32° 
F.,  which  varies  at  the  rate  of  about  1 
ohm  per  degree  F.  The  unusually  small 
mass  and  size  (.156"  dia.  x  .281"  long) 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


How  much  does  each  .001" 
of  Stainless  Steel  Sheet 
cost? 


Example:  In  Type  302,  an  18  gauge  36"  x  120" 
sheet  has  a  base  price  of  52i  per  pound.  In  sheets 
of  this  size,  each  .001"  of  thickness  weighs  1.26 
pounds  per  sheet.  Thus,  each  .001"  of  unnecessary 
thickness  costs  you  at  least  65.5i  more  per  sheet. 


On  the  surface  this  may  seem  insignifi- 
cant, but  it  has  a  marked  effect  on  the 
total  price  you  pay  for  a  given  quantity 
of  stainless  steel  sheet.  With  cost  a 
factor,  this  can  be  important  since 
stainless  steel  is  purchased  by  weight. 

Using  the  above  example,  a  mere 
.001"  of  unnecessary  thickness  costs 
you  $20.76  more  per  ton.  If  you  figure 
the  maximum  allowable  gauge  thickness 
variation  of  plus  or  minus  (10%),  you 
can  readily  see  that  the  price  you  pay 
for  overall  sheet  thickness  could  involve 
much  needless  cost. 


Washington  Steel  has  the  equipment 
and  the  experience  to  produce  MICRO- 
ROLD  stainless  steel  to  tolerances  much 
closer  than  standard  industry  toler- 
ances. Usually  money  can  be  saved  by 
first  selecting  the  minimum  gauge  that 
will  serve  the  requirements  of  the  appli- 
cation, and  then  specifying  that  the 
thickness  be  rolled  to  the  light  side  of 
the  gauge  range.  This  specification  in- 
volves no  cost  extra  and  is  standard 
practice  at  Washington  Steel.  (If  exact 
close  tolerances  must  be  guaranteed, 
there  is  a  nominal  additional  charge.) 


Consult  your  nearest  MicroRold  Stainless  Steel 
Distributor.  He  will  gladly  show  you  how  to  save 
money  on  your  stainless  steel  purchases. 

Washington  Steel  Corporation 

9-H  Woodland  &  Griffith  Avenues 
Washington.  Pa. 

Circle  No.  17  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


101 


.  .  new  missile  products 


sequence  of  switching  operations  as 
long  as  the  motor  circuit  is  energized. 
If  desired,  the  motor  can  be  wired 
through  switch  contacts  to  limit  rota- 
tion to  one  cycle.  The  wide  choice  of 
speeds  and  availability  of  "Torque- 
Rated"  motors  make  possible  many 
timing  intervals. 

The  unit  incorporates  one  SPDT 
switch  and  has  a  housing  of  molded 
phenolic,  offering  a  rigid,  dust  tight 


construction  that  will  assure  reliable 
performance  under  adverse  ambient 
conditions. 

According  to  the  manufacturer,  all 
terminal  and  blade  configurations  are 
heavy  gage  spring  brass  without  welded 
or  staked  joints.  They  are  held  posi- 
tively in  place  by  locating  bosses  and 
slots  molded  permanently  in  position, 
eliminating  any  shifting  of  blade  posi- 
tion during  installation  and  operation. 

All  series  AC-42  Cycle  Timers  are 
equipped  with  amp  "Ark-Les"  quick 
disconnect  type   terminals   for  rapid, 


Good  news  for  SPACE  men  with  no  TIME  to  wait! 


Normandy 


KEEPS  YOUR  SCHEDULE  IN  ORBIT 
WITH  IMMEDIATE  DELIVERIES  OF 


IMPERVIOUS  SHEATH 
AND  SHIELDED  CABLES 


One  of  the  world's  largest  inventories 
of  government  source  inspected 
stock  is  always  at  your  call  with  .  . . 
HEAT,  OIL  &  FLAME  RESISTANT  CONTROL 
CABLES  .  . .  TWISTED  PAIR  SHIELDED  TTRS 
CABLES  . . .  DBSP-TBSP-FBSP-MSS-MCOS-MMOP- 
SHFS-TTRSA.  Furnished  with  Source 
Inspection  Forms 


NORMANDY  ELECTRIC  WIRE  CORP.  125  Second  Street,  Brooklyn  31,  N. 

■CABLE  ADDRESS  NORMWIRE,  NEW  YORK       TRiangle  5-9863 

Circle  No.  18  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

102 


easy  hook-up  and  ready  replacement  of 
or  repair. 

Circle  No.   236  on  Subscriber  Service  Cord. 

Automatic  Compressed  Air 
Dryers  Now  Available 

Desomatic  Products,  Inc.  are  now 

in  production  on  two  sizes  of  small,  in- 


expensive compressed  air  dryers  for 
drying  small  quantities  of  compressed 
air,  from  1  to  25  SCFM,  with  inlet 
pressures  up  to  125  psig  and  inlet 
temperatures  up  to  120°F. 

This  dryer  is  fully  automatic,  using 
a  small  amount  of  heat  for  reactivation. 
The  components  are  simple — only  two 
moving  parts,  a  timer  and  solenoid  type 
4-way  valve. 

The  desiccant  towers  are  of  the 
throw-away  type  and  easily  replaced 
by  breaking  couplings,  loosening  screw, 
pulling  out  plug-in  heaters  and  re- 
placing with  a  new  tower.  Heaters  are 
permanently  imbedded. 

The  desiccant  and  heaters  will  last 
several  years  under  normal  operation. 
There  are  built-in  dust  filters  thereby 
assuring  clean,  dry  air  at  dew  points 
down  to  — 60°F.  or  below. 

Uses  are  dry  air  supply  for  control- 
lers and  instruments,  precision  air 
gauges,  coaxial  cables  and  wave  guides, 
and  small  unit  processes  or  machine 
operations  where  dry  air  is  essential. 

Circle  No.   237  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


O.  S.  ARMY  ANTI-MISSILE  MISSILE 


The  man: 


...  a  top  missile  scientist  at  White 
Sands,  N.  M.,  missile  range  where 
preliminary  Nike  Zeus  tests  take 
place.  He  is  a  key  member  of  the 
highly  specialized  military-civilian 
team  that  is  putting  this  agile  anti- 
missile missile  through  its  develop- 
ment stages. 

When  Zeus  goes  on  active  duty,  it 
will  follow  Douglas  Nike  Ajax  and 
Hercules  missiles  into  service  with 
the  North  American  Air  Defense 
Command.  And  it  will  be  main- 
tained by  Army  personnel  assisted 
by  Douglas  field  service  men  who 
have  extensive  experience  in  the 
Nike  program. 


Depend  on 


The  mission: 

.  .  .  anti-missile  defense.  Zeus  will 
roar  out  from  emplacements  around 
cities  and  industrial  and  military 
areas  to  intercept  approaching 
enemy  ICBM's  ...  or  bombers. 

/ 

DOUGLAS 


The  missile: 

. . .  Nike  Zeus  is  being  developed  by 
Douglas  under  a  Western  Electric- 
Bell  Telephone  program.  System 
will  include  electronic  detection  gear 
to  pick  up  enemy  ICBM's  at  ex- 
treme range  and  then  guide  Zeus 
out  to  destroy  them.  Vital  statistics: 
CLASSIFIED. 


The  Nation's  Partner  in  Defense 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


103 


ENGINEERS 
JOIN  US... 

for  important  work 
on  recently  assigned 
advanced  research 
programs 

Lockheed/California  Division 
has  recently  been  assigned  vehicle 
projects  with  far-reaching  military 
and  commercial  value.  The  ad- 
vanced research  and  development 
work  being  conducted  will  have 
particular  significance  to  the 
missile-spacecraft  field. 

An  ideal  research  environment 
and  advanced  equipment  provide 
the  engineer  and  scientist  with  the 
utmost  in  freedom,  recognition  and 
advancement  opportunity. 

Generous  travel  and  moving 
allowances  to  the  San  Fernando 
Valley  will  be  provided  for 
accepted  applicants. 

For  your  convenience  in  re- 
questing an  application  form,  tear 
out  the  coupon  below  and  mail  it 
today. 

LOCKHEED 

CALIFORNIA  DIVISION 
BURBANK,  CALIFORNIA 

I  1 

|    Mr.  E.  W.  Des  Lauriers,  Manager, 

Professional  Placement  Staff 
I     Dept.  1709 

2400  North  Hollywood  Way 

Burbank,  California. 

j  NAME 

I      STREET  ADDRESS  I 

|       CITY  &  STATE  I 

|      MY  FIELD  OF  INTEREST  i 

|^    PHONE  NO.                        DEGREE  j 

Circle  No.  19  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

104 


propulsion  engineering... 


By  M/R  STAFF 

Propulsion  chemists  .  .  . 

and  engineers  can  work  faster,  get  more  work  done  easier,  thanks  to 
a  new  shorthand  developed  for  chemists  and  metallurgists  by  a  U.S. 
Department  of  Commerce  chemist.  Gregg-type  symbols  represent  all 
common  words,  arrangements  and  radicals,  and  much  specialized 
terminology.  The  developer  of  the  system,  James  Kanegis,  is  now 
Chief  of  the  Chemical  Section  of  Commerce's  Office  of  Technical 
Services.  Formerly  he  was  a  National  Bureau  of  Standards  metallur- 
gist. Kanegis  made  news  in  1957  when  his  14-year-old  daughter, 
Brenda,  co-authored  (with  her  father  and  Dr.  Roger  Gilmont)  an 
American  Chemical  Society  national  meeting  paper  on  cooking  with 
glycerine. 

Cryogenic,  oxidize,  catalyze,  enthalpy  .  .  . 

are  a  few  of  the  words  of  special  significance  to  missile  chemists  that 
Kanegis  has  included  in  his  chemical-metallurgy  shorthand.  There 
are  also  special  symbols  for  these:  organometallic,  analine,  pyro- 
phoric,  exothermic,  modulus,  stoichiometric,  and  over  1500  others. 
The  system  is  based  on  a  few  fundamental  symbols  that  cover  realms 
of  thought  in  chemistry.  Specific  words  are  modifications  of  the  sym- 
bols. Therefore,  it  is  not  necessary  to  memorize  the  whole  word  list. 
There  are  symbols  for  all  the  important  professional  societies,  and 
for  the  names  of  major  chemical  firms.  Kanegis  even  has  anticipated 
one  very  special  need  of  the  missile  industry — he  has  included  a 
curlicue  to  represent  "Pentagon." 

'Change  of  state,'  and  1600  other  phrases  .  .  . 

are  symbolically  represented  for  the  convenience  of  propulsion  chem- 
ists. Some  of  the  others:  Characteristic  property,  coefficient  of  thermal 
expansion,  corrosion  resistance,  heat  of  combustion,  nondestructive 
test,  products  of  combustion,  reaction  kinetics,  solid  fuel,  thermal 
expansion. 

A  short  course  in  chemistry.  .  . 

and  one  in  metallurgy  are  presented  in  the  Kanegis  approach  to  teach- 
ing his  chemical  shorthand.  This  part  is  probably  skipped  by  chemists, 
but  is  suggested  by  Kanegis  as  a  means  of  upgrading  clerical  per- 
sonnel to  the  point  where  they  are  much  more  valuable.  The  short 
courses,  as  they  appear  in  a  monograph  Kanegis  prepared  some 
years  ago  (and  has  continually  updated)  will  not  make  a  chemist  of 
a  secretary.  The  subject  matter  is  technical,  but  emphasis  is  on  the 
forms  and  idiosyncrasies  of  technical  expression.  The  form  used  is 
the  Gregg  shorthand,  and  Kanegis  suggests  prior  study  of  conven- 
tional Gregg  before  tackling  his  chemical  and  technical  shorthand. 
(He  welcomes  comments  addressed  to  his  home:  3907  Madison  St., 
Hyattsville,  Md.) 

New  missile  fuel  facilities  .  .  . 

are  going  on  stream  almost  every  month.  Firms  are  breaking  ground 
for  others  almost  like  clockwork.  Here's  the  fall  roundup.  Industrial 
Air  Products  Company's  LOX  plant  at  Boise,  Ida.,  is  starting  up. 
American  Potash  &  Chemical  is  increasing  capacity  of  its  Aberdeen. 
Miss.,  sodium  chlorate  plant — a  starting  point  for  various  perchlorate 
oxidizers.  Air  Reduction  Pacific  Co.  (Air  Reduction  Co.,  Inc.)  expects 
to  have  its  30-ton-per-day  LOX  and  nitrogen  plant  in  operation  at 
Richmond,  Calif.,  late  this  year.  Olin  Mathieson  still  is  in  the  missile- 
aircraft  picture  despite  Air  Force  high-energy  fuel  cancellations — 
O-M  is  opening  up  new  facilities  at  Brandenburg,  Ky.,  for  propylene 
oxides  and  glycols,  starting  points  for  many  fuel  chemicals.  American 
Potash  &  Chemical's  lithium  chloride  facility  at  Henderson,  Nev.,  is 
on  stream — much  of  the  output  can  go  into  lithium  perchlorate,  super 
oxidizer  in  solids. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  I 


new 
wings 


AGACS,  Experimental  Automatic  Ground/Air/ 
Ground  Communication  System  is  a  new  concept 
in  Air  Traffic  Control  Communications  to  meet  the 
accelerated  pace  of  increased  air  traffic.  Primary 
objectives  are  efficient  usage  of  frequency  spectrum, 
added  safety  through  increased  reliability  and  re- 
duced burden  to  pilot  and  controller,  and  adapta- 
bility to  all  classes  of  aircraft.  AGACS  provides 
compatibility  with  existing  ground  and  airborne 
communication  equipment,  selective  addressing  of 
information,  and  a  minimum  number  of  frequency 
changes  during  flight.  The  system  utilizes  two-way 
time  division  data  transfer  over  existing  ground 


and  air  communication  links  to  provide  an  auto- 
matic, mutual  exchange  of  information.  The  air- 
borne facilities  display  to  the  pilot  the  last  sig- 
nificant Air/Ground  and  Ground/Air  message 
quantities,  while  the  controller  may  recall  from 
central  memory-storage  equipment  the  last  Air/ 
Ground  and  Ground/Air  message  quantities  for 
display.  The  AGACS  program  is  still  in  the  devel- 
opmental stage.  In  August,  1959,  RCA  provided 
initial  models  of  both  airborne  and  ground  equip- 
ments for  the  Bureau  of  Research  and  Development 
of  the  Federal  Aviation  Agency  for  extensive  ex- 
perimentation and  flight  tests. 


RADIO  CORPORATION  of  AMERICA 


Tmk(s)  f 


DEFENSE  ELECTRONIC  PRODUCTS 
CAMDEN,  N.J. 


Circle  No.  47  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


105 


He  has  brainstorms 
...  to  order 


He's  one  of  a  group  of  AMF  scien- 
tists who  develop  solutions  to  the 
utterly  original  problems  of  modern 
defense  and  human  penetration  of 
space.  He  doesn't  build  better  mouse- 
traps. His  business  is  completely 
new  kinds  of  traps  for  mice  that 
have  never  been  caught. 

Examples :  A  method  of  recovering 
potable  water  from  human  waste 
fluid,  the  major  source  of  water  in  a 
sealed  space  vehicle ...  Methods  of 
analyzing  the  effects  of  a  nuclear 
blast  on  the  earth's  crust,  how  it 
changes  the  character  of  soil  and 
rock,  how  its  shock  is  propagated, 
what  sort  of  building  structure  will 
withstand  it ...  Platforms  on  which 
will  be  mounted  primary  standards 
calibration  instruments  for  missile 
guidance  systems.  These  platforms 
must  be  so  vibration-free  that  natu- 
ral earth  movements  must  be  com- 
pensated for.  Platform  vibrations 
are  limited  to  millionths  of  an  inch 
...A  method  of  predicting  tempera- 
tures in  missile  nose  cones  upon 
re-entry. 

Single  Command  Concept 

These  samples  of  creative  ingenu- 
ity reflect  the  resourcefulness  AMF 
brings  to  any  assignment. 

AMF  people  are  organized  in  a 
single  operational  unit  offering  a 
wide  range  of  engineering  and  pro- 
duction capabilities.  Its  purpose:  to 
accept  assignments  at  any  stage 
from  concept  through  development, 
production,  and  service  training... 
and  to  complete  them  faster... in 

•  Ground  Support  Equipment 

•  Weapon  Systems 

•  Undersea  Warfare 

•  Radar 

•  Automatic  Handling  &  Processing 

•  Range  Instrumentation 

•  Space  Environment  Equipment 

•  Nuclear  Research  &  Development 

GOVERNMENT  PRODUCTS  GROUP, 

AMF  Building,  261  Madison  Avenue, 
New  York  16,  N.  Y. 


AMERICAN  MACHINE  &  FOUNDRY  COMPAf 


Clrclo  No.  48  on  Subscriber  Service  Cardi 


more  about  the  missile  week 


•  Edwards  AFB,  Calif. —  A  Boeing  Minuteman  test 
vehicle  shot  skyward  from  an  underground  silo  for  the 
first  time  Sept.  15.  The  three-stage  ICBM  reached  200 
feet  above  the  ground  before  its  flight  was  checked  by 
a  nylon  cable  attached  in  a  noose  to  its  nose.  The  first 
stage  carried  only  enough  solid  propellant  to  launch  the 
missile  from  the  silo.  The  other  two  stages  were 
dummies. 

•  Washington — Soviet  Premier  Khrushchev  indicates 
it  may  be  a  long  time  before  the  Russians  try  to  land  a 
man  on  the  moon.  "We  value  human  lives,"  he  said  at 
the  National  Press  Club  last  week.  He  said  Russia 
would  consider  shooting  a  man  moonward  "when  the 
technical  possibilities  have  been  achieved.  And  that  has 
not  happened  at  this  time." 

•  Washington — NASA  Administrator  Dr.  T.  Keith 
Glennan  declared  that  Russia's  successful  moon  shot 
would  not  cause  any  major  change  in  the  U.S.  space 
effort. 

•  Huntsviile —  Dr.  Wernher  von  Braun,  director  of  de- 
velopment for  the  ABMA,  sees  Russia  staying  far  ahead 
of  the  U.S.  in  space.  "We  have  the  brains,  the  resources, 
the  capability,  but  we  are  hampered  by  continuous 
evaluations,  justifications,  re-justifications  instead  of 
progressing  in  our  development  in  space  projects." 
Added  von  Braun:  "If  Russia  stops  immediately  we 
could  catch  them  in  one,  two  or  three  years." 


•  Moscow — Television  observation  of  the  moon  and 
planets  via  satellites  and  rockets  is  next  on  the  Soviet 
space  program.  Echoing  Khrushchev's  Washington 
statement,  officials  said  that  no  manned  flights  would  be 
attempted  until  the  safe  return  of  human  passengers 
was  assured. 

•  Washington — Wilfred  J.  McNeil,  58,  resigned  last 
week  as  Defense  Department  comptroller — effective 
Nov.  1.  He  will  become  president  of  the  Grace  Steam- 
ship Line. 

•  Washington — President  Eisenhower  signed  the  $1.4 
billion  military  construction  money  bill.  The  bill — cut 
nearly  $200  million  below  what  the  President  requested 
— includes  $550  million  for  construction  of  ICBM  bases. 

•  Cape  Canaveral — An  Army  Jupiter  carrying  frogs 
and  14  pregnant  mice  and  other  NASA  experiments  in 
its  nose  began  to  falter  seconds  after  launching  Sept.  15 
and  was  destroyed.  The  IRBM  developed  engine  trouble 
the  day  before — only  a  few  hours  before  Premier 
Khrushchev  arrived  for  his  U.S.  visit — and  the  down- 
range  launching  was  understood  to  have  been  postponed 
for  at  least  two  weeks.  Then  the  launching  was  sud- 
denly put  back  on  schedule  for  the  next  day. 

•  Cape  Canaveral — The  last  missile  of  the  much- 
troubled  pioneer  Vanguard  series  failed  to  ignite  during 
a  launching  attempt  in  the  early  hours  of  Sept.  15.  The 
Vanguard  carried  a  100-pound  payload.  Its  launching 
was  postponed  indefinitely. 


Shell-Casting  Method  to 
Cut  Casting  Time,  Cost 

Laverne;  Calif. — Mercast  Corp. 
last  week  announced  perfection  of  a 
new  method  of  shell-casting  of  metal, 
which  it  said  would  allow  faster  casting 
and  lower  cost  for  many  missiles,  air- 
craft and  electronic  components. 

A  company  spokesman  said  the 
new  process,  called  "Ceramercast,"  al- 
lows the  casting  of  configurations  too 
large  and  too  complicated  for  the  ex- 
isting processes  that  make  use  of  lost- 
wax  molds  and  frozen  mercury.  It 
makes  possible  precision  castings  of 
components  that  now  must  be  produced 
by  machining. 

Semiconductor  Output 
Being  Increased  by  RCA 

Radio  Corporation  of  America  is 

building  a  120,000-square-foot  plant  at 
Mountaintop,  Pa.,  near  Wilkes-Barre, 
to  expand  its  production  of  mesa  tran- 
sistors and  silicon  semiconductors. 
Plans  call  for  manufacturing  to  start 
in  mid- 1960  with  the  employment  of 
"many  hundreds"  by  the  end  of  the 
year. 

The  company  estimates  the  semi- 
conductor industry  will  have  sales  total- 
missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


ling  $350  million  in  1959.  By  1965 
they  will  approach  $650  million  a  year. 

Melpar  Inc.,  a  subsidiary  of  West- 
inghouse  Air  Brake  Co.,  is  constructing 


FIRST  OPERATIONAL  Atlas  fired  by 
SAC  troops  at  Vandenberg  AFB  on 
Sept.  9  is  shown  at  blast-off  in  an 
official  Air  Force  photo.  It  landed  near 
Wake  Island,  4300  miles  west. 


a  $2.4  million  facility  at  its  Falls 
Church,  Va.,  headquarters  to  step  up 
its  electronic  output.  The  building  will 
be  finished  a  year  from  now  .  .  .  With 
some  floor  space  idle  at  its  Dallas  Plant, 
Temco  Aircraft  Corp.  is  now  offering 
"instant  manufacturing"  capabilities  to 
other  firms  through  a  new  Industrial 
Division  .  .  .  The  Martin  Co.  has 
created  a  new  electronics  division  at 
Denver  headed  by  G.  Howard  Teeter. 
...  A  6000-square-foot  refractory 
metals  fabrication  plant  being  erected 
by  Sylvania  Electric  Products  Inc.  at 
Towanda,  Pa.,  is  scheduled  to  be  ready 
early  next  year  .  .  . 

Atlantic  Research  Buys 
Jansky  &  Bailey  from  GC 

For  a  "substantial"  amount  of  cash 
and  stock,  Atlantic  Research  Corp., 
Alexandria,  Va.,  propellant  manufac- 
turer, has  purchased  the  Washington, 
D.C.,  electronics  and  communications 
firm  from  General  Communication  Co., 
Boston. 

ARC  also  acquired  in  the  trans- 
action 16%  of  the  outstanding  GC 
stock  with  a  5-year  option  to  acquire 
a  total  of  25%.  Dr.  Arch  Scurlock, 
ARC  president,  also  becomes  a  mem- 
ber of  the  GC  board. 

107 


Red  Moon  Hit  Shows  Guidance  Prowess 


by  Paul  Means 

Washington — The  Soviet  Union 
launched  a  moon  rocket  on  Sept.  12 — 
three  days  before  Premier  Khrushchev's 
visit  to  the  U.S.  (as  predicted  by  M/R 
Aug.  17,  page  9). 

The  rocket's  achievement  gave  fur- 
ther testimony  to  the  accuracy  of  So- 
viet space  vehicle  guidance,  the  ability 
of  Soviet  space  boosters  to  lift  heavy 
payloads,  and  the  capability  of  Soviet 
rocket  engines  to  achieve  specific  de- 
sired velocities. 

Early  computations  indicate  that 
Lunik  II  had  an  injection  arc  error  of 
only  1.5  seconds  and  a  deviation  from 
planned  cutoff  velocity  of  less  than  plus 
or  minus  25  feet  per  second. 

By  comparison,  a  Vanguard  can 
have  an  injection  arc  error  of  1.5  de- 
grees and  still  go  into  orbit.  An  Atlas 
ICBM  can  have  an  injection  arc  error 
of  10  seconds  and  a  velocity  cutoff 
error  of  50  feet  per  second  and  still  be 
effective. 

As  Dr.  Herbert  F.  York,  DOD 
R&E  chief  remarked  last  week,  it  is 
an  easier  guidance  problem  to  hit  the 
moon  than  it  is  for  an  ICBM  launched 
from  New  York  to  hit  Moscow.  But, 


accepting  the  Soviet  statement  that  they 
aimed  for  the  center  of  the  moon,  and 
comparing  the  probable  error  (approx- 
imately 500  miles)  to  an  ICBM  trajec- 
tory of  6000  miles,  the  ICBM  would 
have  to  miss  the  center  of  its  target  by 
less  than  Wi  miles  to  do  as  well. 

There  are  other  factors — such  as 
re-entry  (the  moon  has  little  atmos- 
phere) and  the  report  that  the  Soviet 
rocket  was  said  to  have  had  fourth- 
stage  guidance — which  do  not  make  the 
two  situations  comparable. 

•  Strong  evidence — In  contrast  to 
Lunik  I,  there  was  no  doubt  this  time 
that  Lunik  II  was  launched  and  that  it 
traveled  very  close  to  the  moon.  Major 
tracking  installations  in  the  free  world 
— including  the  mammoth  radio  tele- 
scope at  Jodrell  Bank,  England,  and 
the  85-ft.  parabolic  dish  at  Goldstone. 
Calif. — locked  on  to  the  rocket's  trans- 
mitter and  received  strong,  usable  sig- 
nals. 

A  U.S.  scientist  theorized  that  the 
Soviets  could  have  designed  a  clock 
mechanism  for  the  rocket's  transmitters 
which  would  have  turned  off  the  signals 
at  the  time  the  Russians  said  the  pay- 
load  would  hit  the  moon.  An  over- 
whelming number  of  rocket  experts  dis- 


INC 


INTRODUCES  THE 


E  W 


TEMPERATURE 
ALTITUDE 

HUMIDITY  CHAMBER 

•  Temperature  Range 

-120°F  to+500"F 

•  Altitude  Range 

Sea  level  to  200,000  feet 

•  Humidity  Range 

20%  to  95%  between +35°F 
andt200°F,  limited  by  a  low 
dewpoint  oft35'F. 

Optional  Accessories  and 
Instrumentation  Available 


Viewing  Window 
Interior  Light 
Manual  Wiper 
Electric  Feed-Thru 
Terminals 

Program  Controllers 


•  Access  Port 

•  Casters 

•  Indicating 
Controllers 

•  Recording 
Controllers 


fftlHttl®§> 


Standard  Work  Space  Sizes 
Available 

•  15"  W  x  21"  H  x  12"  D 

•  24"  W  x  30"  H  x  20"  D 

•  35"  W  x  36"  H  x  38"  D 


108 


18  6EECHWOOD  AVENUE        PORI  WASHINGTON.    L  I..   N  Y 


Circle  No.  68  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


agreed,  pointing  out  that  it  would  have 
almost  been  impossible  to  fake  the  Dop- 
pler  shift  or  acceleration  change  in  the 
signals  that  was  noted  by  Jodrell  Bank 
when  the  rocket  came  within  the 
moon's  gravitational  field. 

Final  proof  of  the  Soviet  success 
will  come  when  the  signals  recorded 
by  Jodrell  Bank  are  fed  into  a  com- 
puter. 

Also  in  dispute  was  a  statement  by 
Vice  President  Richard  M.  Nixon  that 
the  Russians  had  failed  three  times  in 
the  two  weeks  preceding  Sept.  12  to 
launch  a  moon  rocket.  Though  U.S.  in- 
telligence and  radar  stations  may  have 
picked  up  three  rocket  failures,  astro- 
nomical conditions  were  not  favorable 
for  a  moon  shot  during  much  of  this 
period. 

•  New  fuel  used? — Judging  from 
the  Soviet  description  of  its  trajectory 
and  payload.  Lunik  II  apparently  was 
a  sister  vehicle  to  the  earlier  Russian 
moon  rocket.  One  Soviet  scientist 
hinted,  however,  that  the  new  rocket 
used  a  new  fuel  combination.  The  ve- 
hicle was  probably  launched  at  the 
Russian  base  northeast  of  the  Aral  Sea. 
(See  M/R,  Sept.  7,  p.  21.) 

The  final  stage  and  payload  con- 
tained 780  pounds  of  scientific  instru- 
ments, small  rockets  and  a  guidance 
system,  and  pennants  bearing  the  Rus- 
sian coat  of  arms. 

The  instruments  included  radiation 
experiments  designed  to  reveal  more  in- 
formation about  the  earth's  charged 
particle  belts,  the  earth's  magnetic  field, 
cosmic  rays,  micrometeorites,  and  about 
interplanetary  gas. 

The  capsule  was  said  to  have  car- 
ried a  special  radio  circuit  called  a 
"moon  altimeter"  which,  when  switched 
on  just  before  impact,  was  to  supply 
information  about  changes  in  the 
rocket's  altitude  relative  to  the  surface 
of  the  moon.  Judging  from  the  weak 
signals  Jodrell  Bank  received  before 
impact,  it  is  doubtful  that  this  instru- 
ment yielded  information. 

Like  Lunik  I,  Lunik  II  released  a 
sodium  cloud  at  about  88,000  miles. 
The  director  of  the  Abastuman  Ob- 
servatory of  the  Georgian  Academy  of 
Sciences  reported  his  team  took  12 
photographs  of  the  cloud,  one  of  which 
was  released  to  the  Western  press. 

Prof.  Yugi  Kalinin,  Russian  spe- 
cialist on  terrestrial  magnetism,  said 
that  the  rocket  would  also  help  verify 
that  the  liquid  core  of  the  earth  is  the 
source  of  its  magnetism.  The  moon  is 
known  to  have  no  liquid  core,  and  if 
no  signs  of  magnetism  were  recorded 
when  the  rocket  approached  the  moon, 
the  hyphothesis  would  have  a  stronger 
basis. 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


*|jr  TERRIER  D 


r 


TALOS 


VANGUARD 


*W  TARTAR 


Loewy-Hydropress  has  been  engaged  in  building  handling,  stowage  and  launching  systems  for  these  rockets  and 


Testing  and  firing  installation  for  Viking  and  Vanguard  rockets. 


Vanguard  rocket  being  readied  for  launching  on  March  17,  1958.  Ship  motion  simulator  for  test-firing  U.S.  Navy's  guided  missile 

''Polaris"  under  seagoing  conditions. 

Loewy  ground  handling  and  launching  systems  in 
successful  operation  and  in  progress 


Giant  and  unusual  facilities  for  handling,  testing  and  launch- 
ing missiles  and  rockets  have  been  built  and  put  in  operation 
by  Loewy-Hydropress  for  the  U.S.  Navy's  Fleet  Ballistic 
Program  and  for  the  joint  IGY  Program  of  the  Navy  and  the 
National  Academy  of  Science.  These  installations  have  proven 
their  brilliant  effectiveness  under  the  most  trying  circumstances. 

Loewy-Hydropress  has  also  been  chosen  to  design  systems 
for  the  protection,  handling  and  launching  of  surface-to-air 
supersonic  missiles  and  missile  components  for  the  Navy's 
first  nuclear-powered  cruiser,  Long  Beach. 


Another  Loewy  system  is  in  development  for  supersonic 
missiles  which  will  be  installed  on  Navy  aircraft  carriers. 

Loewy  engineers  build  all  kinds  of  handling,  stowage  and 
launching  facilities  for  guided  rockets  and  missiles  of  various 
sizes  and  operating  ranges. 

They  also  specialize  in  the  design  and  construction  of  radio 
telescopes  and  related  space  communication  systems. 

Avail  yourself  of  the  experience  and  ingenuity  of  the  Loewy 
organization,  which  coordinates  all  other  B-L-H  divisions 
that  are  actively  engaged  in  the  specialized  fields.  Just  write 
us  at  Dept.  S-9. 


Loewy-Hydropress  Division 

BALDWIN  •  I-iIlS/l-A.  •  ILiTON 

111  FIFTH  AVENUE,  NEW  YORK  3,  N.Y.    Rolling  mills  •  Hydraulic  machinery  •  Industrial  engineering  N5*yjA*j!?' 


Circle  No.  49  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


for 

china  lake 


Kollmorgen  Missile  Tracking 
Binoculars  are  an  integral  part 
of  an  acquisition  and  photog- 
raphy system  which  records 
tactical  air-to-air  missile  per- 
formance at  China  Lake  Naval 
Ordnance  Testing  Station.  These 
binoculars,  adapted  from  a  basic 
Kollmorgen  design,  are  high 
magnification,  wide-field  instru- 
ments with  unusual  light-gath- 
ering power.  An  operator  is  able 
to  spot  a  missile-launching  air- 
craft and  track  the  missile  from 
the  time  it  is  fired  until  it  finds 
its  target — all  at  extreme  ranges. 
Among  other  Kollmorgen  con- 
tributions to  the  missiles  field 
are  the  bunker  periscopes  at 
Cape  Canaveral. 

By  combining  optics,  mechan- 
ics and  frequently  electronics, 
Kollmorgen  designs  many  dif- 
ferent types  of  instruments  and 
systems  for  industrial  and  de- 
fense viewing  and  inspection 
applications.  A  new  illustrated 
brochure  describes  our  design 
and  manufacturing  facilities  and 
primary  fields  of  interest.  For 
your  copy,   write  Dept.  109. 


KOLLMORGEN 

optical  corporation 

NORTHAMPTON  MASSACHUSETTS 


west  coast  industry .  .  .  

By  FRANK  G.  McGUIRE 

Considerable  irritation  is  being  expressed  by  newsmen  over  their 
handling  during  the  recent  operational  Atlas  shot  at  Vandenberg  AFB. 
Following  a  statement  at  the  AFA  meeting  in  Florida  that  the  launch- 
ing was  scheduled  for  September  9,  USAF  here  declined  to  confirm 
or  deny  that  the  date  was  accurate,  and  would  not  permit  reporters 
to  cover  the  shot.  Finally,  one  and  a  half  hours  before  launch  time, 
the  press  was  notified  in  Los  Angeles  that  it  could  cover  the  event. 
Driving  time  from  LA  to  VAFB  is  three  and  a  half  hours.  Celebra- 
tions planned  by  Convair  and  the  Air  Force  were  reluctantly  can- 
celled, following  orders  from  Assistant  Defense  Secrectary  Murray 
Snyder  that  the  shot  be  closed  to  the  press.  No  reason  was  given 
for  the  orders. 

Electronics  Capital  Corporation  .  .  . 

has  made  five  appointments  to  its  executive  staff.  The  three-month-old 
company  furnishes  capital  and  management  to  electronics  and  allied 
firms  capable  of  associating  in  special  groups  to  bid  on  government 
contracts.  Clarence  A.  Wetherill,  senior  technical  officer,  was  formerly 
chief  engineer  at  Stromberg-Carlson;  Elliot  Lewis,  assistant  to  the 
president,  organized  and  directed  the  PR  department  at  Ramo  Wool- 
dridge;  Harold  M.  Gruener,  senior  management  services  officer,  pre- 
viously was  executive  VP  and  general  manager  of  Intertectics  Corp.; 
Daniel  I.  Fellers,  controller  and  financial  planning  officer,  joined  ECC 
from  his  post  as  assistant  professor  at  San  Diego  State  College;  and 
Wilford  D.  Willis,  assistant  general  counsel,  was  formerly  contract 
administrator  for  the  Convair  880  program. 

Meletron  Corporation  has  split  .  .  . 

into  two  separate  corporations  owned  by  the  same  stockholders,  and 
retaining  George  A.  Starbird  as  president  of  both.  The  Meletron  Corp. 
becomes  a  sales  and  engineering  firm,  transferring  all  production  ac- 
tivity to  the  newly-formed  and  wholly-owned  subsidiary,  Pressure 
Switch  Corp.  Richard  L.  Shelton,  comptroller  for  three  years,  be- 
comes vice  president  and  manager  of  PSC.  Sales  for  the  year  ending 
July  31  were  $1,750,000. 

Lockheed's  hourly-paid  employes  .  . . 

have  received  a  cost-of-living  bonus  amounting  to  2^  -  3«>  per  hour, 
depending  on  job  held.  Maintenance  electricians  get  the  2<f  raise,  and 
all  other  hourly-paid  employes  receive  the  M  raise. 

No  subcontracting  worries  in  Russia  . . . 

according  to  George  P.  Brubaker,  president  of  Brubaker  Electronics 
and  VP  of  Telecomputing  Corp.  "Major  plants  in  Russia  are  com- 
pletely self-contained,"  he  said,  "and  handle  all  the  minor  work  that 
we  would  subcontract  out.  When  something  rolls  off  the  line  over 
there,  it's  ready  to  go  to  work."  He  predicted  that  the  USSR  will 
soon  lead  the  United  States  in  steel  production,  and  possibly  in  oil 
production.  "The  United  States  is  on  an  economic  island,"  he  stated, 
"and  will  soon  face  the  question:  'How  long  can  we  trade  with  our- 
selves?' There  might  be  benefits  in  trading  with  the  USSR." 

Houston  Fearless  Corp.  reorganization  .  . . 

recently  approved  by  the  California  Corporation  Commission,  has 
brought  a  powerful  management  group  to  the  company.  Noah  Diet- 
rich, former  Howard  Hughes  financial  associate,  Emmett  Steele,  ex- 
Litton  Industries  military  sales  head,  and  Richard  Woike,  Eastern 
financier,  are  expected  to  take  the  company  into  much  bigger  things. 
The  firm  says  it  is  now  "up  to  our  ankles  in  military  electronics,  and 
will  soon  be  up  to  our  necks."  Barry  Shillito,  former  Hughes  Aircraft 
Sales  Director,  joined  the  30-year-old  company  this  month,  and  he 
will  reportedly  be  followed  by  additional  management  talent.  HF  is 
paving  the  way  for  a  number  of  acquisitions  soon,  in  the  areas  of 
advanced  military  and  industrial  electronics,  with  emphasis  on  com- 
munications and  guidance. 


110 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


SILICONE  NEWS  from  Dow  Corning 


Semper  Flexibilis 


Iif\STl  C  sea*s  missile  sections; 
EBBB  withstands  -ISO  to  500F 


Till  the  moment  when  it  separates  during  trajectory,  the  Army  Redstone's 
warhead  sits  on  a  flexible  seal  of  Silastic®,  the  Dow  Corning  silicone 
rubber.  In  fact,  all  sections  of  the  missile  are  joined  in  this  manner, 
to  maintain  pressure.  Chrysler  Missile  Division  engineers  also  utilize 
Silastic  for  many  other  applications,  including  ducting,  wire  bundle 
clamps  and  access  door  seals. 

Silastic  does  these  jobs  so  well  because  it  offers  reliability  at  all  times  .  .  . 
remains  flexible  even  after  long  storage,  at  high  skin  temperatures,  under 
compressive  loads,  in  presence  of  ozone,  cold,  moisture.  It  is  unaffected 
by  weathering:  9  years  exposure  at  a  South  Florida  test  station  has  failed 
to  damage  sample  Silastic  parts. 

When  your  "bird  is  in  the  hole"  and  exposed  to  an  environment  of 
weathering,  ozone,  storage  effects  and  a  wide  temperature  range,  you  want 
reliability  of  rubber  parts.  Your  rubber  company  supplier  can  engineer 
a  part  made  of  Silastic  to  suit  your  particular  requirements.  For  more 
information,  write  Dept.  7621. 


Sealing  the  nose  cone  on  the  Army  Red- 
stone is  an  extrusion  of  Silastic.  Silastic 
maintains  a  positive  seal  despite  long 
periods  of  storage  under  load  and  adverse 
operating  temperatures. 


A  similar  application  for  Silastic,  this 
time  on  the  Army-developed  Jupiter  IRBM, 
another  Chrysler-produced  missile,  is  the 
seal  on  the  angle-of-attack  transducer  com- 
partment. Silastic  was  specified  because 
it  resists  high  temperatures  encountered 
in  re-entry. 


Chrysler  Missile  Standard  Bundle  clamps 
on  both  Redstone  and  Jupiter  missiles  are 
fabricated  of  Silastic.  Electrical  properties 
of  this  material  are  excellent. 


If  you  consider  all  the 
properties  of  a  silicone  rubber,  you'll 
specify  Silastic. 


Dow  O 


or*n ing  corporation 

MIDLAND.  MICHIGAN 

ATLANTA       BOSTON       CHICAGO       CLEVELAND       DALLAS       LOS  ANGELES       NEW  YORK       WASHINGTON,  D.  C. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959      circle  No-  50  on  subscriber  service  card. 


Ill 


Power  in  "packages"— fcr  every  power  need 

ITT's  unique  concepts  in  power  conversion  bring  new  efficiency  and  economies 


PUSH  a  button — throw  a  switch!  Out 
of  ITT  "packages"  of  power  come  the 
exact  voltages  for  countless  electronic 
applications. 

Power  in  static  "packages"  provides 
vital  military  equipment  with  the  ut- 
most in  dependable  power  supply  — 
gives  industry  uninterrupted  DC  service 
and  saves  the  cost  of  DC  generators 
and  their  upkeep. 

ITT's  new  idea  in  power  supply 

Among  the  many  important  areas  where 
ITT  "package"  power  systems  are 
meeting  the  highest  standards  of  per- 
formance are  space  and  aviation. 

ITT  "packaged"  power  controls 
landing  gear,  operates  navigation,  com- 
munication, counter-measures,  missile- 
launching  and  the  many  other  systems 
that  give  our  jets  combat  capacity. 


All  DC  power  for  the  supersonic 
B-58  comes  from  an  ITT  integrated 
power  system — a  first  in  the  industry. 

ITT-designed  power  systems  serve 
the  B-52  and  other  famous  aircraft,  as 
well  as  ground-based  and  seaborne 
electronic  systems. 

"Building  blocks"  for  any  DC  output 

From  these  major  contributions  to  mili- 
tary power  supply,  ITT  System  com- 
panies have  developed  complete  capa- 
bilities for  engineering  modular-type, 
"building  block"  power  systems  for  the 
most  sophisticated  needs  of  industry. 

ITT  "packaged"  power  concepts 
embrace  every  field  of  manufacturing. 
Hundreds  of  equipment  designs  are 
ready  at  ITT  to  meet  the  broad  and 
expanding  range  of  today's  DC  appli- 
cations — from  the  simplest  DC  motor  to 


the  most  complex  techniques  for  auto- 
mation and  data  processing  systems. 

If  you  require  DC  output  for  any 
purpose,  investigate  these  unmatched 
capabilities.  For  complete  information, 
write  to  ITT  Industrial  Products  Divi- 
sion, 15191  Bledsoe  Street,  San  Fer- 
nando, California. 


.  .  .  the  largest  American-owned  world-wide 
electronic  and  telecommunication  enterprise, 
with  101  research  and  manufacturing  units,  14 
operating  companies  and  130,000  employees. 


INTERNATIONAL  TELEPHONE  AND  TELEGRAPH  CORPORATION  67  Broad  Street,  New  York  4,  N.Y. 

ITT  COMPONENTS    DIVISION    -    ITT    FEDERAL    DIVISION    ■    ITT    INDUSTRIAL  PRODUCTS    DIVISION    •   ITT    LABORATORIES    •    INTELEX    SYSTEMS  INCORPORATED 
A I R  M  AT  I C    SYSTEMS    CORPORATION    •    KELLOGG    SWITCHBOARD    AND    SUPPLY    COMPANY    •    ROYAL    ELECTRIC    CORPORATION    •    AMERICAN    CABLE   ft  RADIO 
CORPORATION    •    FEDERAL   ELECTRIC  CORPORATION   •   ITT  COMMUNICATION    SYSTEMS,    INC.    •   INTERNATIONAL  ELECTRIC  CORPORATION   -  INTERNATIONAL 
STANDARD  ELECTRIC  CORPORATION  •  LABORATORIES  AND  MANUFACTURING  PLANTS   IN   20   FREE-WORLD  COUNTRIES 


112 


Circle  No.  51  on  Subscriber  Service  Cord.       missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


contracts 


NAVY 

$30,000,000 — Raytheon  Manufacturing  Co.,  for  advanced  submarine 
sonar  equipment. 

$9,400,000 — Texas  Instruments,  Inc.,  for  airborne  radar  systems. 

$360,000 — ACF  Industries,  Inc.,  Avion  Division,  for  production  of 
radar  beacons  for  use  in  testing  Corvus  air-to-surface  missiles. 

$245,000 — Electro-Mechanical  Research,  Inc.,  Ascop  Division,  Prince- 
ton, N.J.,  for  four  mobile  self-propelled  FM/PM  telemetry  trucks. 

$200,000 — Telemeter  Magnetics,  Inc.,  Los  Angeles,  for  a  core  memory. 

$107,000 — Syracuse  University,  for  research  In  high-energy  physics. 

$44.490 — Purdue  Research  Foundation,  for  studies  pertaining  to  arc 
plasma. 

$42,411 — Dunlap  &  Associates,  for  research  in  connection  with 
Tartar  weapon  system. 

ARMY 

$4,900,000 — Aerojet-General  Corp.,  Azusa,  Calif.,  for  surveillance 
drone  systems. 

$3,900,000 — Kaiser  Steel  Corp.,  for  tower  for  Saturn  project. 

$2,697,117 — North  American  Aviation,  Inc.,  Rocketdyne  Division, 
Canoga  Park,  Calif.,  for  research  and  development. 

$2,000,000 — Raytheon  Manufacturing  Co.,  Waltham,  Mass.,  for 
engineering  services  on  the  Hawk  missile. 

$1,893,432 — Blount  Brothers  Construction  Co.,  Montgomery,  Ala., 
for  construction  of  Bomarc  facilities  at  Langley  AFB,  Va. 

$1,676,814 — Douglas  Aircraft  Co.,  Inc.,  Santa  Monica,  Calif.,  for 
maintenance  and  operation  services  for  the  Nike-Hercules 
anti-aircraft  missile. 

$1,641,714 — Bell  Aircraft  Corp.,  Buffalo,  N.Y.,  for  a  visual  surveil- 
lance system. 

$1,634,762 — Purvis  Construction  Co.,  Yardley,  Wash.,  for  construc- 
tion of  a  radar  site  at  Sundance,  Wyo. 

$102,238 — Tung-Sol  Electric,  Inc.,  Newark,  N.J.,  for  electron  tubes. 
(Two  contracts.) 

$97,908 — Radio  Corp.  of  America,  for  study  and  development  of  a 
calculating  light  modulator. 

$68,064 — Radio  Corp.  of  America,  Electron  Tube  Division,  for  elec- 
tron tubes. 

$31,501 — Western  Electric  Co.,  N.Y.,  for  Nike  spare  parts  and  com- 
ponents. 

AIR  FORCE 

$73,400,000 — Avco  Corp.,  N.Y.,  for  research  and  development  on 
Titan  nose  cone. 

$36,700,000 — Avco  Corp.,  N.Y.,  for  Minuteman  nose  cone. 

$29,209.851— General  Electric,  Missile  and  Space  Division,  Philadel- 
phia, for  production  of  Thor  IRBM  nose  cones. 

$9,000,000 — Burroughs  Corp.,  for  thirty-six  SAGE  air  defense  units. 

$5,200,000 — Sperry  Gyroscope  Co.,  for  radar  sets. 

$5,000,000 — Martin  Co.,  Orlando,  Fla.,  for  work  on  White  Lance 
air-to-surface  guided  missile. 

$4,500,000 — Radiation,  Inc.,  Melbourne,  Fla.,  for  development  of 
airborne  telemetry  system  for  Minuteman. 

$1,059,300 — Dynamics  Corporation  of  America,  for  twenty  portable 
radar  antennae  groups. 

$500,000 — Electronic  Specialty  Co.,  Los  Angeles,  for  electronic  fusing 
timers  for  the  Genie  air-to-air  missile.  (Subcontract  from 
Douglas  Aircraft  Co.,  Inc.) 

$300,000 — Marquardt  Aircraft  Co.,  Ogden,  Utah,  for  services  In 
connection  with  the  testing  engines  used  on  the  Bomarc  missile. 

$182,000 — Boiler  &  Chivens,  Inc.,  Joseph  Nunn  &  Associates,  S. 
Pasadena,  for  satellite  tracking  camera. 

$150,000 — National  Research  Corp.,  Cambridge,  Mass.,  for  high- 
energy  solid  propellent  missile  fuels. 

$95,550 — Raytheon  Co.,  Waltham,  Mass.,  for  electron  tubes. 

$61,000 — Convair  Division  of  General  Dynamics  Corp.,  for  develop- 
ment of  X-ray  standards  for  determining  the  strength  of  steel 
castings. 

$42,761 — Yale  University,  for  research  on  kinetics  of  Uninolecular 
and  Halogen  atom  reactions. 

$40,000 — Amperex  Electron  Co.,  Division  of  North  American  Phil- 
lips Co.,  Inc.,  for  electron  tubes. 

$30,700 — University  of  Minnesota,  for  continuation  of  research  in 
gaseous  electronics. 

$27,202 — University  of  Wisconsin,  fer  research  on  Addition  and  Dis- 
placement Reactions  with  Unsaturated  Hydrocarbons. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

$14,500.000 — General  Dynamics  Corp.,  for  its  part  in  nuclear  elec- 
tric power  plant  at  Peach  Bottom,  Pa. 

$2,000,000— Advanced  Technology  Labs,  for  nuclear  power  reactor 
research  and  development. 


Excellent  tracking 

•  Miniature  size 
'  Phase  stability  with  temperature 
•  High  vibration  rating 
•  High  contact  rating 
*  Long  life  •  Reliability 
♦  Versatility 

Also  available  in  . . . 

•  2  Hole  flange 

•  4  Hole  flange 
r     ♦  Side  mounting 


BRISTOL 


FINE  PRECISION  INSTRUMENTS 
FOR  SEVENTY  YEARS 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


Circle  No.  62  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


113 


Explore  new  areas 
a  t  IBM  in 


MAT-HEM 


At  IBM,  creative  mathematicians  are  discovering  important,  new  applications  of  mathematics  in  the 
electronic  computer  field.  Long  before  actual  construction  of  IBM's  unique  Magnetic  Character 
Sensing  Machine,  for  example,  mathematicians  were  at  work  on  a  mathematical  model,  testing  both  the 
over-all  design  and  the  logic  circuitry  needed  for  character  recognition.  In  another  project,  mathematicians 
employed  large-scale  computers  to  simulate,  in  a  matter  of  weeks,  eight  years  of  engineering  work  which 
have  yet  to  begin.  Currently  under  study  are  vehicular  penetration  problems  involving  thousands  of 
variables.  Projects  of  this  sort  demand  keen,  discerning  minds.  If  you  have  a  flair  for  creative  mathematics, 
you're  the  man  we  want  to  talk  to. 

You  will  enjoy  unusual  professional  freedom  and  the  support  of  a  wealth  of  systems  know-how. 
Comprehensive  education  programs  are  available,  plus  the  assistance  of  specialists  of  many  disciplines. 
Working  independently  or  as  a  member  of  a  small  team,  your  contributions  are  quickly  recognized  and 
rewarded.  This  is  a  unique  opportunity  for  a  career  with  a  company  that  has  an  outstanding  growth  record. 


CAREERS  AVAILABLE  IN  THESE  AREAS... 


Analog  &  digital  computers 
Applied  mathematics 
Circuit  design 
Communications  theory 
Computer  system  design 
&  analysis 

Control  system  research 


Experimental  techniques 
Field  theory 

Human  factors  engineering 
Logic 

Mathematical  &  numerical 
analysis 

Operations  research 


Probability  theory 
Reliability 

Scientific  programming 
Solid  state 
Statistics 
Switching  theory 
Theoretical  physics 


Qualifications:  B.S.,  M.S.,  or  Ph.D.  in 
Mathematics,  Physics,  Statistics,  Engi- 
neering Science,  or  Electrical  Engineer- 
ing—and proven  ability  to  assume 
important  technical  responsibilities  in 
your  sphere  of  interest. 


1 14 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


ASSIGNMENTS  NOW  OPEN  INCLUDE... 

MATHEMATICIAN:  to  handle  mathematical  analysis  of  advanced 
scientific  computer  programming  for  solution  of 
systems  problems,  differential  equations,  prob- 
ability-type problems,  photogrammetry  problems. 

STATISTICIAN:  to  solve  analysis-of-variance  and  multiple-regres- 
sion type  problems;  to  design  experiments  for 
various  engineering  applications  and  select  form 
of  statistical  analysis  of  greatest  value;  to  give 
statistical  support  to  engineering  departments  in 
such  areas  as  reliability  analysis  and  human  fac- 
tors engineering  by  developing  statistical  pro- 
grams for  the  IBM  704.  Statistical  experience  in 
engineering  problems  and  thorough  knowledge  of 
statistical  distribution  functions  necessary. 

RESEARCH  MATHEMATICIAN:  to  investigate  statistical  problems  in  control  sys- 
tem research  on  digital  computer;  to  study  control 
problems  of  analog  to  digital  conversion,  with 
particular  reference  to  matrix  problems;  to  apply 
experience  with  networks,  statistics,  or  communi- 
cations theory  to  problems  in  computer  design; 
to  solve  problems  involving  switching  theory, 
probability  and  information  theory,  and  coding. 


ATICS 


APPLIED  MATHEMATICIAN:  to  undertake  assignments  involving  knowledge  of 
feedback  control  theory,  data  systems  theory, 
servomechanisms,  information  theory,  statistical 
models,  heatflow,  circuitry,  magnetics,  probability. 

MATHEMATICIAN-PROGRAMMER:  to  specify  and  program  elements  of  a  sophisti- 
cated automatic  programming  system.  Must  have 
considerable  experience  in  automatic  program- 
ming research. 

OPERATIONAL  PROGRAMMER:  to  develop  computer  program  techniques  for  real- 
time military  applications,  using  game  theory  and 
systems  simulation. 

OPERATIONS  RESEARCH  to  evaluate  closed  loop  systems  consisting  of 
MATHEMATICIAN:  computers,  radar  displays,  and  inertial  equip- 
ment; to  simulate  advanced  weapons  systems  in 
order  to  evaluate  alternate  design  concepts;  to 
analyze  and  design  electromechanical  systems, 
studying  targets,  tactics,  and  operational  effec- 
tiveness. Experience  in  applying  advanced  mathe- 
matical techniques  to  weapons  systems  analysis 
and  evaluation.  Knowledge  of  probability  and  lin- 
ear programming  techniques. 

For  details,  write,  outlining 
background  and  interests,  to: 

Ivl.r  R.  E.  Rodgers,  Dept.  604-13 
IBM  Corporation 
590  Madison  Avenue 
New  York  22,  N.  Y. 

INTERNATIONAL  BUSINESS  MACHINES  CORPORATION 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


IBM 


 moscow  briefs  

by  Dr.  Albert  Parry 

The  model  of  Pioneer  IV,  seen  by 
Professor  Georgi  I.  Pokrovsky  at  the 
American  exhibit  in  Sokolniki,  im- 
pressed this  outstanding  Soviet  rocket 
expert  as  "made  quite  well."  Writing  in 
Sovetskaya  Aviatsia  of  his  impressions, 
Dr.  Pokrovsky  states  that  since  Ameri- 
cans "succeeded  in  maintaining  radio 
communications  with  this  construction 
at  a  distance  of  more  than  600,000 
kilometers,"  this  U.S.  satellite  of  the 
sun  "doubtless  represents  an  achieve- 
ment of  American  instrument-making." 
But  he  criticizes  the  small  size  of 
Pioneer  IV,  "so  small  that  it  could 
serve  as  a  desk  ornament."  He  writes: 
"These  dimensions  apparently  are  not 
accidental.  They  are  due  to  the  weak 
force  of  American  rockets  which  still 
are  not  able  to  hurl  heavy  enough 
machinery  into  outer  space."  He  com- 
pares the  lag  in  American  rocket  size 
and  strength  with  the  tremendous  pay- 
loads  of  the  Soviet  Sputniks  and  Lunik. 

Pokrovsky  also  comments  on  the 
model  and  photos  of  our  X-15  as 
studied  by  him  at  Sokolniki.  He  com- 
plains that  the  U.S.  exhibit  told  him  of 
the  X-15  "essentially  less  than  is  al- 
ready known  from  the  world's  tech- 
nical press."  He  notes  that  the  X-15 
"has  not  as  yet  even  once  flown  on  its 
own  rocket  motor." 

Professor  Georgi  I.  Pokrovsky  is 
not  only  a  doctor  of  the  technical  sci- 
ences, but  also  a  major  general  in  the 
engineering-technical  branch  of  the 
Soviet  armed  forces  and,  since  1947, 
on  the  faculty  of  the  famous  Zhu- 
kovsky  Military  Air  Academy  in  Mos- 
cow. In  technical  literature  he  is  known 
particularly  for  his  book  on  Guided 
Effect  of  Explosion,  written  as  early  as 
1942.  Since  1957  he  has  written  and 
published  extensively  on  Soviet  ICBM's. 
Professor  Georgi  I.  Pokrovsky  is  not 
to  be  confused  with  Professor  Alexis 
V.  Pokrovsky,  who  is  among  the  chief 
trainers  and  observers  of  dogs  used  in 
Soviet  rocket  shoots. 

No  Red  missile  base  on  Ruegen, 

says  Krasnaya  Zvezda  as  it  reveals  that 
East  German  Communist  authorities 
recently  took  a  group  of  West  German 
newspapermen  on  a  tour  of  that  stra- 
tegic Baltic  Sea  island,  to  prove  to  them 
that,  despite  reports  in  the  Western 
press,  not  a  single  Soviet  rocket  instal- 
lation existed  anywhere  on  Ruegen. 
The  tour  took  "nearly  a  day,"  the  daily 
organ  of  the  Soviet  ministry  of  de- 
fense writes,  but  "instead  of  any  rocket 
bases"  there  were  on  the  island  resting 
facilities  for  summerfolk  and  nothing 
else. 

115 


<PLOYMENT 


Electronics  Engineers: 

How  To 
Get  Ahead 

in  Radar 


Engineers  working  in  Radar  today  are  finding  it 
sometimes  takes  more  than  an  individual's  talent 
and  creativity  to  keep  pace  with  the  field. 

The  element  that  can  make  all  the  difference  in 
a  man's  professional  growth  — is  his  company. 

Management  at  Light  Military*  is  aware  of  this 
...and  recognizes  that  LMED's  long-term  growth 
depends  upon  setting  the  proper  environment  for 
creativity. . .  providing  advanced  projects  on  which 
to  exercise  it . . .  encouraging  and  making  room  for 
a  man's  professional  development. 

If  you  join  Light  Military  this  month,  chances  are 
you'll  find  opportunities  to  contribute  to  such  sys- 
tems as : 

An  automated  AEW  and  control  system  which 
—  for  the  first  time— will  practically  eliminate 
Man  from  the  control  loop. 

An  advanced  airborne  Bomb  Nav.  &  Forward 
Surveillance  radar  system  which  will  utilize 
high  resolution  techniques  and  be  equipped 
with  frequency  diversity  capability. 

Or  a  number  of  classified  programs  including 
Missile  Guidance,  Surveillance  and  Fire  Con- 
trol Radars  with  advanced  capabilities. 

If  you'd  like  to  learn  more  about  how  your  talents 
can  get  you  ahead  in  radar  faster  at  LMED,  write  in 
confidence  to  Mr.  William  Gilmore,  Dept.  73-WL. 


jOTK?  W  sap  Q 

">:"  LIGHT  MILITARY  ELECTRON  ICS  DEPARTMENT 

GENERAL  H|)  ELECTRIC 

FRENCH  ROAD,  UTICA.  NEW  YORK 


The  memory  of  the  Russian  who 

was  among  the  first  to  work  out  equa- 
tions of  motion  of  bodies  with  variable 
mass,  and  thus  originated  some  of  the 
fundamentals  of  the  rocket  propulsion 
theory,  is  now  being  honored  in  the 
Soviet  Union.  The  100th  anniversary 
of  the  birth  of  Ivan  Meshchersky  was 
marked  in  August  in  the  Soviet  press 
and  from  the  Red  lecture  pulpit.  "It  Is 
to  His  Labors  that  Sputnik  Owes  Its 
Existence,"  proclaimed  a  headline  in 
Komsomolskaya  Pravda  on  the  occa- 
sion of  Meshchersky's  centenary.  A 
professor  at  the  St.  Petersburg  (now 
Leningrad)  Polytechnic  Institute,  Mesh- 
chersky worked  out  and  published  his 
equations  in  the  period  1897-1904.  By 
1959  his  Collection  of  Problems  in 
Theoretical  Mechanics  has  gone  through 
more  than  20  editions. 

A  new  monument  to  another  Rus- 
sian rocket  pioneer  was  recently  un- 
veiled at  the  North  Caucasian  spa 
town  of  Kislovodsk.  This  is  a  memorial 
to  Friedrich  A.  Tsander,  a  Lett  from 
Russia's  Baltic  shore,  who  in  1908 
began  his  rocket  studies  and  experi- 
ments at  the  early  age  of  21,  six  years 
before  he  was  finally  graduated  as  an 
engineer  from  the  Riga  Polytechnic 
Institute.  He  was  an  ardent  disciple  of 
Tsiolkovsky.  After  the  Soviet  revolu- 
tion, Lenin  himself  talked  to  Tsander, 
encouraging  him  in  his  rocket  work 
and  space-ship  dreams.  Tsander  was  a 
founder  of  one  of  the  first  Russian 
rocket  societies,  GIRD  (Russian  in- 
itials for  the  Group  to  Study  Rocket 
Propulsion).  Its  members  under  his 
guidance  built  one  of  the  first  Soviet 
liquid-fueled  rockets.  Tsander  died  in 
Kislovodsk  in  1933  at  46  before  he 
could  see  this  rocket's  launching  (it 
was  fired  successfully  on  November  25 
of  that  year).  The  monument  unveiled 
in  Kislovodsk  last  month  is  tipped  by 
an  exact  reproduction  of  Tsander's 
rocket. 

Tsander  is  also  remembered  for  his 
proposals  to  use  aluminum  and  mag- 
nesium as  rocket  fuel. 

Latest  Soviet  rocket  joke  circulated 
by  irreverent  Russians  in  Moscow — - 
Question:  "Why  was  Nicholas  Bul- 
ganin  like  a  rocket?"  Answer:  'Because 
he  launched  Khrushchev  into  orbit  but 
burned  up  himself." 


Digging  for  Titan 

Details  of  Work  on 
A  Hardened  Complex 

Vandenberg  AFB,  Calif. — Mine 
"mucking"  and  burrowing  techniques 
are  being  used  by  construction  en- 
gineers to  dig  a  hardened  Titan  ICBM 
complex  here. 

They  were  employed  to  push 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


EMPLOYMENT 


Is  Substantially  Ttugnienting  the 

^Professional  Staff  of  Its 

RADAR  SYSTEMS 
and  TECHNIQUES  DEPARTMENT 


MITRE,  organized  under  the  sponsorship  of  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of 
Technology  with  a  staff  nucleus  composed  of  the  men  who  developed  the  SAGE 
System,  is  now  expanding  its  Radar  Systems  and  Techniques  Department.  The  prin- 
cipal function  of  this  department  will  be  the  development  of  advanced  detection 
systems  and  techniques  applicable  to  the  nation's  future  air  defense. 

The  work  being  performed  by  this  department  will  afford  the  serious  engineer 
or  scientist  an  opportunity  to  apply  his  skills  in  areas  that  range  from  conceptual 
realization  to  proof  of  feasibility. 

Individuals  with  an  interest  in  radar  systems  and  techniques  are  invited  to 
discuss  how  their  training  and  experience  can  be  utilized  in  the  following  areas: 


•  CIRCUIT  DESIGN      •  SIGNAL  DETECTION  THEORY 
•  ANTENNAS      •  RADAR  DISPLAYS 
•  MICROWAVE  COMPONENTS     •  RADIO  TRANSMITTERS  and  RECEIVERS 
•  SYSTEMS  STUDIES 


To  arrange  an  immediate  confidential  interview, 
please  send  resume  to  Dana  N.  Burdette,  Personnel  Director 

THE    MITRE  CORPORATION 

244  Wood  Street  — Lexington  73,  Massachusetts 


A  brochure  more  fully  describing  7\iT7V.E  and  its  activities  is  available  on  request. 
missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1 959  No-  52  on  a**-"™  c«"«-  117 


EMPLOYMENT 


careers 
in  control 
of  space 


For  74  years,  Minneapolis  Honeywell  has 
pioneered  and  led  the  development  and 
production  of  advanced  automatic  con- 
trols. Today,  with  work  in  this  area  more 
demanding  and  more  rewarding,  new  op- 
portunities exist  for  engineers. 
PRODUCTION:  Develop  and  establish  as- 
sembly processes  for  a  wide  range  of 
products.  Requires  background  in  com- 
plex devices  such  as  gyros,  acceler- 
ometers,  flight  systems,  and  a  thorough 
knowledge  of  production  processes. 
EVALUATION:  Test  engineer  interested  in 
career  in  development,  qualification, 
reliability  testing.  Must  be  graduate 
engineer  with  electronic  background. 
ADVANCED  GYRO  DESIGN:  Engineers  with 
two  and  up  to  twenty  years'  experience 
in  such  areas  as  precision  gyro  mech- 
anics, servo  techniques,  digital  data 
handling,   electronics  packaging,  ad- 
vanced instrumentation  and  magnetic 
components  design. 
FLIGHT  CONTROL  SYSTEMS:  Analytical,  sys- 
tems, component  engineers  to  design 
and  develop  advanced  flight  reference 
and  guidance  systems.  Prefer  airborne 
systems  or  servo  experience. 
FIELD  SERVICE:  Monitor  airborne  system 
performance  in  U.S.  and  overseas.  Con- 
duct training,   liaison  with  military. 
BSEE  preferred,  or  graduate  engineer 
with  high  electronic  aptitude. 
GROUND  SUPPORT:  Senior  engineers  with 
logical  design  experience  and  engineers 
with  experience  in  ground  support  or 
related  areas.  Outstanding  growth  op- 
portunity in  new  division. 
//  you're  interested  in  a  challenging  career  in 
advanced  automatic  controls,  icrite  Mr.  Bruce 
D.  Wood,  Technical  Director,  Dept.  805C. 


Honeywell  Pjj 

AERONAUTICAL     DIVISION    V " 


1433  Stinson  Blvd.,  N.E.,  Minneapolis  13,  Minn. 

To  explore  professional  opportunities  in 
other  Honeywell  operations  coast  to  coast, 
send  your  application  in  confidence  to 
H.  D.  Eckstrom,  Dept.  805C,  Honeywell, 
Minneapolis  8,  Minnesota. 

118 


through  personnel  access  tunnels  car- 
rying piping,  cabling,  missile  support 
connections  and  water  between  the 
missile  silos,  propellant  terminal,  equip- 
ment terminal,  powerhouse  and  com- 
mand control  center.  These  units  are 
all  interconnected  by  tunnels  ranging 
from  10  to  12  feet  in  diameter. 

Usual  clam-shell  or  drag-line  meth- 
ods could  not  be  used  in  the  excava- 
tion of  the  43-foot  diameter  missile 
silos  to  a  depth  of  160  feet.  Contrac- 
tors instead  employed  a  mucking  ma- 
chine with  a  half  cubic  yard  toothed 
scoop,  which  bored  the  holes  in  the 
ground.  Concentric  ring  pattern  of 
dynamiting  (with  the  center  ignited 
first  to  prevent  excess  edge  rock  break- 
off)  was  employed  against  shale. 

The  mucking  machine  dumped  ex- 
cavated material  into  a  hopper  which 
was  hoisted  to  the  surface  by  a  25-ton 
crane  for  disposal.  With  this  system, 
Daniel,  Mann,  Johnson  and  Menden- 
hall  and  Associates,  architectural  and 
engineering  group  in  charge  of  the 
project,  reports  excavation  on  a  'round- 
the-clock  basis  proceeded  at  the  rate 
of  6  feet  every  24  hours. 

Silo  shoring  included  6  WF  25 
beams,  6x6x10/10  electrical-welded 
wire  mesh  and  gunite.  DMJM  says 
"the  gunite  proved  to  be  more  eco- 
nomical than  steel  sheeting  and  elim- 
inated the  necessity  of  grouting  be- 
tween the  sheeting  and  the  rock  wall 
to  fill  the  voids." 

When  tunnel  openings  were  made 
later  in  the  silo  walls,  instead  of  using 
only  a  jackhammer,  the  contractor 
drilled  holes  in  the  gunite  at  12-inch 
centers  and  exploded  one  stick  of  dyna- 
mite every  30  inches.  The  silo  walls  are 
eight  inches  thick  and  5000  psi  in 
strength. 

Silo  walls  were  slip-formed  in  much 
the  same  manner  as  a  grain  silo,  but 
with  two  big  differences:  1)  only  one 
form  was  ,used  for  the  inner  wall  face 
and,  2)  a  cylindrical,  three-level  slip 
form  was  suspended  from  steel  rods 
attached  to  20  cables  equally  spaced 
around  the  hile. 

Ready-mixed  concrete  was  poured 
at  a  rate  of  up  to  one-foot  per  hour 
at  points  where  wall  inserts  did  not 
slow  down  the  operation.  During  pour- 
ing cycles  pneumatic  jacks  pulled  the 
slip  form  up  the  steel  rods. 

Surprisingly  enough,  the  silo  exca- 
vation required  only  up  to  seven  men 
during  preparation  for  blasting,  and 
only  two  or  three  during  the  mucking 
cycle.  Three  men  were  on  the  crane 
and  one  on  a  dump  truck. 

Northwood  Co.,  sub  to  general  con- 
tractor Matich-Sundt,  performed  the 
excavation  operation. 


AEROSPACE 
ENGINEERS  — SCIENTISTS 
How  About  Your  Own  Future? 

The  Trend  is  UP 
for  Beechcraft 

Here's  a  company  where  the  past  and 
the  present  PROVE  the  future  is  inter- 
esting and  worthwhile. 

ir  Leadership  in  Engineering  Design 
Leadership  in  Business  Airplanes 
it  Leadership  in  Ground  Support  Equipment 

★  Diversified  Production  Contracts 

*  Winner  of  Mach  3  Alert  Pod  Design 
■fa  Diversity  of  Creative  Opportunities 

■k  Winner  of  Mach  2  Missile-Target  Award 
•h  Builder  of  Major  Assemblies  for  Fighters 
if  Stability  of  Engineering  Employment 
if  Expansion  Programs  Now  in  Process 

BEECH  AIRCRAFT  has  responsible  positions 
open  now  for  specialists  in  LONG  RANGE 
programs  on  advanced  super-sonic  aircraft  and 
missile-target  projects  in  the  following  aero- 
space fields: 

Human  Factors 
Analogue  Computer 
Reliability  (Electrical) 
Stress 

Aero-Thermodynamicist  (Heat  Transfer) 
Structures  (Basic  Loads) 
Senior  Weight 
Dynamics   ( Flutter ) 
Systems  (Missiles) 

Electronic 
Electro-Mechanical 
Airframe  Design 

For  more  information  about  a  company  WITH 
A  LONG  RANGE  FUTURE  where  your  talents 
will  build  your  own  future — call  collect  or  write 
today  to  D.  E.  BURLEIGH,  Chief  Administra- 
tive Engineer,  or  C.  R.  JONES,  Employment 
Manager,  Beech  Aircraft  Corporation,  Wichita, 
Kansas.  All  expenses  paid  for  interview  trip. 


= ;  dkcraft 


Wichita,  Kansas 


Boulder,  Colorado 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


when  and  where 


SEPTEMBER 

Standards  Engineering  Society,  8th  An- 
nual Meeting,  Investment  in  Survival, 

Somerset  Hotel,  Boston,  Sept.  21-22. 
Instrument  Society  of  America,  14th  An- 
nual Conference  and  Exhibit,  Inter- 
national Amphitheatre,  Chicago,  Sept. 
21-22. 

Airwork  Corporation,  Operations  and 
Maintenance  Symposium,  Millville, 
N.J.,  Sept.  23-24. 


PHONE       FOR       JOB  QUOTES 

3  JtL  SCOPE 

10      ^if^^^t^^  advertising,  sales 

^  promotion,  publicity, 

production,  consultation; 
5^  j&     to  your  requirements. 

<<-"■■  MOFFETT 

2832  REDONDO  BLVD.  •  LOS  ANGELES  16.  CALIF. 


MISSILE  INDUSTRY — Set  of  20  outstanding 
Launch  and  Pre-launch  Slides — $5.00  We 
have  the  largest  commercial  source  of  Mis- 
sile Photography.  The  Cam-Ber  Co.;  1109 
Byrd  Plaza;  Cocoa,  Florida. 


AN    FITTINGS    &  HARDWARE 

Stainless,  Aluminum,  Brass,  Steel.  All  Bizes 
— immediate  delivery  from  world's  largest 
shelf  stock.  Buy  direct  from  manufacturer. 
Lower  prices — Quicker  service.  Send  for  free 
wall  charts  showing  complete  line  of  AN  & 
MS  fittings  and  hardware.  We  also  machine 
parts  to  your  own  special  print. 
COLLINS  ENGINEERING  CORPORATION 
9050  Washington  Blvd.,  Culver  City,  California 


Engineering  can  be  a  really  satis- 
fying career — and  within  engineer- 
ing one  branch  stands  out.  That's 
Guided  Missiles.  If  the  missile  field 
is  the  one  you  want — hear  this.  We 
need  engineers  with  exceptional 
ability  who  can  handle  responsibility. 

At  Bendix  you  work  with  men 
who  are  outstanding  in  every  phase 
of  engineering.  You  use  facilities 
second  to  none.  You  do  work  that's 
challenging  and  important — work 
that  offers  exceptional  opportunities 
to  build  your  professional  standing. 


You  will  enjoy  Midwestern  living 
at  Bendix,  too.  Fine,  four-season 
climate  and  excellent  recreational 
facilities  are  close  at  hand.  In  addi- 
tion, Bendix  offers  you  a  liberal 
personal  benefit  program. 

If  this  interests  you  and  you  want 
additional  information,  mail  the 
coupon  below  for  your  copy  of 
"Opportunities  Abound  at  Bendix 
Missiles".  You  can  read  it  through 
in  half  an  hour — and  it  may  prove 
to  be  the  best  half  hour  you've  ever 
spent  in  your  life. 


Bendix 


PRODUCTS 
DIVISION 


Missiles 


Bendix  Products  Division — Missiles 

412B  So.  Beiger  St.,  Mishawaka,  Ind. 

Gentlemen:  I  would  like  more  information  concerning  opportunities  in  guided  missiles. 
Please  send  me  the  booklet  "Opportunities  Abound  at  Bendix  Missiles". 


NAME  . 


ADDRESS  - 
CITY  


CLASSIFIED 


SALES  ENGINEER 

Rapidly  growing  Ohio  corpora- 
tion has  opening  for  mid-manage- 
ment level  sales  engineering 
representative  for  New  England 
territory.  Must  have  three  years 
experience  in  sales  and  technical 
service  relative  to  close  tolerance 
machining  of  missile  and  aircraft 
parts  and  hardware.  Knowledge 
of  machine  tools  and  tool  room 
practices  preferred.  Outstanding 
career  opportunity.  Please  reply 
giving  brief  resume  of  personal 
history  and  experience  and  salary 
record. 

BOX  NO.  128 

MISSILES  AND  ROCKETS 
1001  VERMONT  AVE.,  N.W. 
WASHINGTON  5,  D.  C. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


119 


EMPLOYMENT 

engineers  •  scientist* 


IDEAS  CLEARLY  IMAGINED 
BECOME  REALITIES 
AT  REPUBLIC  AVIATION 


During  the  early  years  of  this  century  the  airplane  was  only 
the  dream  of  a  few  dedicated  men.  Yet  in  the  short  span  of 
5  decades  this  dream  has  evolved  into  such  advanced  aircraft 
as  Republic's  F-105  —  the  free  world's  most  powerful 
fighter-bomber  —  which  is  capable  of  flight  in  the  Mach  2  regime. 

The  same  holds  true  for  missiles  and  space  vehicles.  Thirty  brief 
years  ago  they  existed  in  only  a  few  imaginations.  Today  at 
Republic  the  imaginations  of  many  men  are  working  to  create 
the  vehicles  that  will  allow  man  to  explore  the  last  frontier  — 
space.  Included  in  this  far-ranging  research  and  development 
effort  are  plasma  propulsion  systems,  electronic  and  hydraulic 
subsystems  that  will  operate  efficiently  in  extreme  environments, 
and  the  calculation  of  super-accurate  space  flight  trajectories. 

Working  across  the  total  technology  of  flight,  Republic  engineers 
and  scientists  see  their  ideas  become  realities  because  the  novel, 
tile  unique  and  the  revolutionary  in  technical  thinking  are 
appreciated  and  encouraged  by  management.  New 
investigations  and  new  contracts  mean  you  can  put 
your  ideas  in  motion  at  Republic  Aviation. 


0 


Immediate  Openings  in  Advanced  Areas  for  Engineers 
and  Scientists  at  all  Levels  of  Experience: 

ELECTRONICS:  Inertial  Guidance  &  Navigation  •  Digital  Computer 
Development  •  Systems  Engineering  •  Information  Theory  • 
Telemetry-SSB  Technique  •  Doppler  Radar  •  Countermeasures  • 
Radome  &  Antenna  Design  •  Microwave  Circuitry  &  Components 
•  Receiver  &  Transmitter  Design  •  Airborne  Navigational 
Systems  •  Jamming  &  Anti-Jamming  •  Muuatunz ition- 
Transistorization  •  Ranging  Systems  •  Propagation  Studies  • 
Ground  Support  Equipment  •  Infrared  &  Ultra- Violet  Techniques 

THERMO,  AERODYNAMICS:  Theoretical  Gasdynamics  •  Hyper- 
V  elocity  Studies  •  Astronautics  Precision  I  rajectorus  •  Air  Load 
and  Aeroelasticity  •  Airplane/Missile  Performance  •  Stability  and 
Controls  •  Flutter  &  Vibration  •  Vehicle  Dynamics  and 
System  Designs  •  High  Altitude  Atmosphere  Physics  •  Re-entry 
Heat  Transfer  •  Hydromagnetics  •  Ground  Support  Equipment 

PLASMA  PROPULSION :  Plasma  Physics  •  Gaseous  Electronics  • 
Hypersonics  and  Shock  Phenomena  •  Hydromagnetics  •  Physical 
Chemistry  •  Combustion  and  Detonation  •  Instrumentation  • 
High  Power  Pulse  Electronics 

NUCLEAR  PROPULSION  &  RADIATION  PHENOMENA:  Nuclear 
Weapons  Effects  •  Radiation  Environment  in  Space  •  Nuclear 
Power  &  Propulsion  Applications  •  Nuclear  Radiation  Laboratories 

Send  resume  in  confidence  to: 
Mr.  George  R.  Hickman 

Engineering  Employment  Manager,  Dept.  4J-4 
Farmingdale,  Long  Island,  New  York 


120 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


AC  Electronics  Div.t 

General  Motors  Corp   39 

Agency — D.  P.  Brother  &  Co. 

Aerojet-General  Corp., 

Sub.,  General  Tire  &  Rubber 
Co   14 

Agency — D'Arcy  Adv.  Co. 

AiResearch  Mfg.  Co., 

Div.,  The  Garrett  Corp   74 

Agency — J.  Walter  Thompson  Co. 

Air  Products,  Inc.  ...61,  62,  63,  64 

Agency — The  Aitlcin-Kynett  Co. 

Allied  Chemical  Corp., 

Nitrogen  Div   7 

Agency — G.  M.  Basford  Co. 

Allison  Div.,  General  Motors 

Corp   80 

Agency — Kudner  Agency,  Inc. 

American  Machine  &  Foundry  Co., 
Government  Products  Group  106 

Agency — Cunningham  &  Walsh,  Inc. 

Army  Research  Office    78 

Agency — M.  Belmont  Ver  Standig,  Inc. 

Avco  Corp   123 

Agency — Benton  &  Bowles,  Inc. 

Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton,  Loewy- 
Hydropress  Div   109 

Agency — Gray  &  Rogers 

Berndt-Bach,  Inc   124 

Agency — Van  der  Boom,  Hunt,  Mc- 
Naughton  Inc. 

Bogue  Electric  Mfg.  Co   89 

Agency — W.  N.  Hudson  Adv. 

Bowser,  Inc.,  Defense  Div   48 

Agency — Willis  S.  Martin  Co.,  Inc. 

Bristol  Co.,  The    113 

Agency — James  Thomas  Chirurg  Co. 

Cameron  Iron  Works,  Inc   83 

Agency — Boone  &  Cummings 

Caterpillar  Tractor  Co   90 

Agency — N.  W.  Aver  &  Son,  Inc. 
Clearing  Machine  Corp., 

Div.,  U.S.  Industries    10 

Agency — Grimm  &  Craigle,  Inc. 

Colvin  Laboratories,  Inc.    98 

Agency—  Black,  Little  &  Co.,  Inc. 
Consolidated  Electrodynamics 

Corp   43 

Agency — Hixson  &  Jorgensen,  Inc. 

Convair,  Div.,  General  Dynamics 
Corp   72 

Agency — Barnes  Chase  Co. 

Cooper  Development  Corp., 

Sub.,  Marquardt  Aircraft  Co.  41 

Agency — Allen,  Dorsey  &  Hatfield,  Inc. 

Crane  Co   44 

Agency — The  Buchen  Co. 

Dit-Mco,  Inc   97 

Agency — Jones  &  Hanger,  Inc. 

Dollinger  Corp   6 

Agency — Hutchins  Adv.  Co.,  Inc. 

Douglas  Aircraft  Co.,  Inc   103 

Agency — J.  Walter  Thompson  Co. 

Dow  Corning  Corp   Ill 

Agency — Church  &  Guisewite  Adv.,  Inc. 

Englehard  Industries,  Inc   98 

Agency — Stuart  Sande  Adv. 

Filtron  Co.,  Inc   52 

Agency — Herbert    Lindauer  Associates 

Flight  Refueling,  Inc   96 

Agency — Emery  Adv.  Corp. 


Advertiser's  Index 

Forbes  &  Wagner,  Inc   8i 

Agency — Melvin  F.  Hall  Adv.  Agency, 
Inc. 

Government  Products  Group, 
American  Machine  &  Foundry 
Co   106 

Agency — Cunningham  &  Walsh,  Inc. 

Haas  Instruments    94 

Agency — Burton  Adv. 

Haws  Drinking  Faucet  Co   84 

Agency — Pacific  Adv.  Staff 

A.  W.  Haydon  Co.,  The    94 

Agency — Cory  Snow,  Inc. 

C.  G.  Hokanson  Co.,  Inc   79 

Agency — The  Essig  Co. 
Inertia  Switch  Div., 

Safe  Lighting  Corp   92 

Agency — Harold  Marshall  Adv.  Co.,  Inc. 
International  Business 

Machines   114  &  115 

Agency — Benton  &  Bowles 

International  Telephone  & 

Telegraph  Corp   112 

Agency — J.  M.  Mathes,  Inc. 

Itemco,    Inc   108 

Agency — Adrian  E.  Clark,  Jr.,  Inc. 

James,  Pond  &  Clark,  Inc   95 

Agency — Weir  Adv. 

Jet  Propulsion  Laboratory, 

Calif.  Institute  of  Technology  17 

Agency — Barton  A.  Stebbins 

Kay  Electric  Co   68 

Agency — Josephson,  Cuffari  &  Co. 

Kearfott  Co.,  Inc   16 

Agency — Gaynor  &  Ducas 

Kern  Instruments,  Inc   92 

Agency — Richmond  Adv.  Service,  Inc. 

Kollmorgen  Optical  Corp   110 

Agency — Wilson,  Haight,  Welch  & 
Grover,  Inc. 

Lear,  Inc.,  Grand  Rapids  Div.  .  34 

Agency — General  Adv.  Agency 

Lockheed  Aircraft  Corp., 

Missile  System  Div.  69  &  104 

Agency — Hal  Stebbins,  Inc. 

Loewy-Hydropress  Div., 

Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton    109 

Agency — Gray  &  Rogers 

Lyncoach  &  Truck  Co.,  Inc   51 

Agency — The  Fred  Riger  Adv.  Agency 

Magnesium  Products  of 

Milwaukee,  Inc   66 

Agency — Cormaclc,  Imse  Adv.,  Inc. 

Martin  Co.,  The   70  &  71 

Agency — VanSant,  Dugdale  &  Co. 

Minneapolis-Honeywell, 

Aeronautical  Div   4 

Agency — Kerlcer,  Peterson,  Hixon,  Hayes, 
Inc. 

Minnesota  Mining  &  Mfg.  Co., 
Magnetic  Products  Div   59 

Agency — MacManus,  John  &  Adams, 
Inc. 

Minnesota  Mining  &  Mfg.  Co., 
Mincom  Div   1 1 

Agency — Reach,  McClinton  &  Co.,  Inc. 

Motorola,  Military  Electronics 

Div  31,  32,  33 

Agency — Compton  Adv.,  Inc. 


Newbrook  Machine  Corp   65 

Agency — Melvin  F.  Hall  Adv.  Agency 

Non-Linear  Systems,  Inc   57 

Agency — Barnes  Chase  Co. 

Normandy  Electric  Wire  Corp.  102 

Agency — Resniclt  &  Katz,  Inc. 

North  American  Aviation,  Inc. 
Rocketdyne  Div   75 

Agency — Batten,  Barton,  Durstine  & 
Osborn,  Inc. 

Orscheln  Lever  Sales  Co   12 

Agency — Jackson,    Haerr,    Peterson  & 
Hall,  Inc. 

Pan  American  World  Airways, 
Inc   76 

Agency— Willard  E.  Botts  Adv.,  Inc. 

Radio  Corp.  of  America   105 

Agency — Al  Paul  Lefton  Co.,  Inc. 

Republic  Aviation  Corp   20 

Agency — de  Garmo,  Inc. 

Charles  Ross    98 

Agency — Asher,  Godfrey  &  Franklin, 
Inc. 

Saginaw  Steering  Gear  Div., 

General  Motors  Corp   18 

Agency — D.  P.  Brother  &  Co. 

Sanborn  Co   93 

Agency — Culver  Adv.,  Inc. 

Servomechanisms,  Inc   2 

Agency — Hixson  &  Jorgensen,  Inc. 

Stearns  Roger  Mfg.  Co   99 

Agency — Mosher,  Reimer  &  Williamson 
Adv.  Agency,  Inc. 

Stellardyne  Laboratories,  Inc.  .  77 

Agency — Armstrong,  Fenton  &  Vinson, 
Inc. 

Stratoflex,  Inc.    88 

Agency — Magnussen 

United  Aircraft  Corp., 

Hamilton  Standard  Div   19 

Agency — Lennen  &  Newell,  Inc. 

United  States  Steel  Corp.  .    8  &  9 

Agency — Batten,   Barron,   Durstine  & 
Osborn,  Inc. 

Vickers,  Inc.,  Marine  &  Ordnance 
Dept   100 

Agency — B.  E.  Burrell 

Washington  Steel  Corp   101 

Agency — Cabbot  &  Coffman,  Inc.,  Adv. 

Western  Gear  Corp   86 

Agency — Adams  &  Keyes,  Inc. 

Young  Americans    3 

Agency — Beckert  &  Bradley,  Inc. 

EMPLOYMENT  SECTION 

Beech  Aircraft  Corp   118 

Bendix  Aviation  Corp., 

Bendix  Products  Div   119 

Agency — MacManus,  John   &  Adams, 
Inc. 

General  Electric  Co   116 

Agency — Deutsch  &  Shea,  Inc. 

Minneapolis-Honeywell, 

Aeronautical  Div   118 

Agency — Kerker,  Peterson,  Hixson, 
Hayes,  Inc. 
Mitre  Corp.,  The    117 

Agency — Deutsch  &  Shea,  Inc. 

Radio  Corp.  of  America  ...  82,  87 

Agency — Al  Paul  Lefton  Co. 

Republic  Aviation  Corp   120 

Agency — Deutsch  &  Shea,  Inc. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


121 


editorial 


Management-Major  Support  Problem 


There  are  job  openings  these  days — or  soon  will 
be — for  several  hundred  young  men  in  an  abso- 
lutely new  career  field.  The  educational  qualifica- 
tions are  exacting  but  not  unusual.  The  experience 
has  only  been  available  in  the  past  year  or  so.  The 
techniques  have  to  be  learned  mainly  on  the  job. 

The  position?  Missile  Base  Management 
Engineer. 

The  number  one  problem  in  the  missile  field 
today  is  that  of  managing  the  support  systems.  The 
scope  of  these  systems  runs  from  ten-penny  nails  to 
steel  tubes  10  feet  in  diameter.  It  includes  packaging 
and  shipping,  transportation,  handling  and  auto- 
matic checkout,  refrigerants,  hydraulic  and  electric 
systems,  storage  and  transfer  of  highly  explosive 
fuels,  valves,  tubes,  transistors — nuts  and  bolts.  The 
missile  support  field  utilizes  and  must  have  the 
talents  of  the  architect  engineer,  the  electronics 
engineer,  chemical  engineer,  electro-mechanical  engi- 
neer, mechanical  engineer  and  construction  engineer. 

The  duties  of  the  Missile  Management  Engineer? 
To  bring  all  of  these  component  parts  and  skills 
together. 

There  is  very  little  understanding  today  on  the 
part  of  the  public,  Congress,  the  military  and  space 
agency — even  industry  itself — of  the  cost  and  com- 
plexity of  the  missile  base  management  problem. 

Consider  the  ICBM,  either  Titan  or  Atlas.  Here 
is  a  missile  built  at  a  cost  of  approximately  $2 
million.  A  squadron  of  nine  is  moved  to  a  base 
which  cost  $45  million  to  construct  and  another 
$45  million  to  equip.  There  the  giant  missile  sits, 
pre-targeted,  ready  for  its  fuel,  ready  for  its  hydro- 
gen warhead,  linked  by  dozens  of  slender  arteries 
to  dozens  of  support  systems  which  once — only 
once — may  bring  it  to  life.  The  time  could  be  next 
month  or  next  year,  two  years  or  five — or  never. 
But  if  the  call  comes  and  at  whatever  time,  every 
one  of  the  thousands  of  parts  in  this  vastly  intricate 
system  must  work  instantly  and  must  work  perfectly. 

Only  now  and  only  barely  are  we  beginning  to 
realize  that  the  missile  base  and  the  missile  support 
equipment  are  simply  extensions  of  the  missile 
itself.  A  rifle  bullet  is  made  and  fired  from  a  gun, 
a  shell  from  artillery,  a  rocket  from  an  airplane. 


A  manufacturer  makes  them  according  to  specifica- 
tions and  there  his  responsibility  ends. 

With  the  big  ballistic  missile,  the  equivalent 
firing  or  launching  mechanism  must  be  designed 
concurrently  with  the  missile.  A  company  building  a 
missile  engine  must  know  if  that  engine  is  going 
to  be  installed  while  the  missile  is  vertical  or 
horizontal — because  while  building  the  engine  it 
also  has  to  design  and  build  a  sling  which  can 
install  it.  And,  just  incidentally,  how  do  you  install 
a  multi-megaton  thrust  engine  in  a  missile  approach- 
ing the  size  of  the  Washington  Monument? 

By  the  very  nature  of  the  situation,  much  of  the 
ballistic  missile  support  equipment  has  to  be  tested 
in  the  field.  Much  of  it  has  been  virtually  built  or 
rebuilt  there.  For  example,  we  learn  that  in  the 
first  30  days  of  construction  of  the  Atlas  base  at 
Cheyenne,  70  change  orders  were  passed  down  to 
the  Corps  of  Engineers  building  the  base.  These 
orders  simply  reflected  either  changes  in  the  missile 
itself  or  changes  in  a  major  piece  of  support 
equipment. 

In  another  instance  a  company  installing  the 
communications  system  at  a  missile  base  so  under- 
estimated the  difficulties  of  the  job  that  they  sent 
"desk"  engineers  to  manage  it.  After  some  weeks  of 
trying — including  attempts  to  lay  coaxial  cables 
across  dirt  roads  used  by  bulldozers — the  company 
threw  in  its  "red  necks."  Used  to  field  conditions 
and  to  improvising,  they  got  the  job  done. 

No  one  in  particular  is  at  fault — just  the  circum- 
stance that  no  one  foresaw  the  magnitude  and  the 
complexity  of  the  job  which  still  has  to  be  done. 
The  military  and  industry  are  now  learning  the 
missile  base  facts  of  life,  now  beginning  to  under- 
stand that  at  an  ICBM  base  the  air  conditioning, 
the  power  supply,  the  access  tubes  to  checkout 
equipment — all  of  these  and  thousands  of  other 
parts  and  subsystems  are  just  as  important  as  the 
bird  itself. 

This  missile  base  management  job  is  an  exercise 
in  intricacy,  a  test  of  ingenuity,  skill  and  vision,  a 
bag  of  worms.  And  its  solution  is  the  most  important 
problem  facing  industry  and  the  military  today  if 
the  ICBM  is  to  take  its  place  in  the  deterrent  arsenal 
of  the  nation. 

CLARKE  NEWLON 


122 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  21,  1959 


SUBSCRIBER  SERVICE 
Missiles  and  rockets 


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NEW  PRODUCT  BRIEFS 


ANSISTOR  COMPUTERS.  Two  new 
-transistor  computers,  one  to  serve 
lall  businesses  and  the  other  to  cope 
Ih  the  tremendous  paperwork  load  of 
Justrial  giants,  were  announced  re- 
ntly  by  the  Radio  Corporation  of 
nerica.  The  RCA  502  and  RCA  504 
3  said  to  broaden  the  scope  of  the 
*A  50!  electronic  data  processing  sys- 
n.  Until  now,  the  501  system  had 
lized  only  the  RCA-503,  the  medlum- 
ile  computer.  With  this  pair  of  addi- 
<nal  'brains,'  RCA  believes  the  effi- 
incy  of  the  RCA  501  system  has  been 
tended  to  meet  virtually  any  data 
ocessing  situation.  According  to  RCA 
okesmen,  the  all-transistor  RCA-501 
tern  using  the  503  computer  was  de- 
'oped  originally  to  bring  full-scale 
ta  processing  to  the  medium-sized 
n. 

cle  No.  225  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 
DERATING  SETS.  The  ent  ire  new  line 

Diesel-Engine-driven  Electric  Generat- 
)  Sets,  recently  announced  by  D.  W. 
lan  &  Sons  Inc.,  is  described  and  illus- 
ited  in  an  attractive  2-color  folder  re- 
ntly  issued  by  the  Minneapolis  firm, 
sse  heavy-duty  Diesel  Sets  provide  a 
pendable  continuous  source  of  elec- 
cify  for  all  types  of  rugged  opera- 
ns  .  .  .  oil  fields,  heavy  construction 
es,  mining  camps,  railroads  and  light 
nstruction  jobs,  too.  And  in  emer- 
ncy  power  applications  where  low-vola- 
s  Diesel  fuel  is  preferred  over  gasoline, 
ise  new  Onan  Diesel  electric  plants 
ivide  quick-starting  auxiliary  power 
'  hospitals,  institutions,  radio  &  TV  sta- 
ns,  hatcheries,  motels,  microwave  in- 
llations  and  military  requirements, 
ecifications  and  illustrations  of  these 
mpact,  powerful  Diesel  sets,  in  sizes 
iging  from  3,000  to  6,000  watts  (air- 
oled)  and  from  10,000  to  230,000 
tts  (water-cooled)  are  included  in  the 
>age  folder.  Diesel-driven  marine  elec- 
:  generating  plants  are  also  described 

are  a  complete  selection  of  acces- 
ses and  controls. 

cle  No.  226  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 
ECISION  COUNTERS.  A  line  of  sim- 
fied  design  precision  counters  which 
said  to  completely  eliminate  transfer 
sks  or  shades  and  have  no  interrupted 
aring  to  complicate  operation  is 
ng  offered  by  Chicago  Dynamic  In- 
stries,  Inc.,  Precision  Products  Divi- 
n.  Series  AD- 1  counts  hours,  degrees, 
s,  minutes,  etc.  and  returns  to  zero, 
>n  repeats.  Because  these  units  do  not 
mt  in  multiples  of  10,  they  are  ideal 


for  applications  where  the  counter  must 
repeat  from  zero  with  continued  rota- 
tion after  a  count  other  than  99,999,- 
9999,  etc.  such  as  359  degrees,  6300 
mils,  23  hours,  59  minutes,  etc.  Type 
1400  degree  counters  read  through 
359.9°  to  zero  and  repeat  with  continued 
rotation.  Type  1401  mil  counters  read 
through  6399  mils  to  zero  and  repeat 
with  continued  rotation.  Both  types  are 
bi-directional  and  add  with  clockwise  ro- 
tation of  the  input  shaft.  Both  types 
have  an  operating  temperature  range 
— 60°F.  to  +I65°F  and  meet  MIL-E- 
16400-B  and  applicable  parts  of  MIL- 
STD-167. 

Circle  No.  227  on  Subscriber  Service  Cord. 

COMBUSTION  TERMINATION.  By 
rapidly  lowering  the  pressure  in  solid 
propellant  gas  generators  such  as 
those  used  in  rockets,  a  valve  by  the 
Aero  Supply  Co.  valve  terminates  com- 
bustion in  the  gas  generator.  The  valve, 
No.  33-2258-000,  is  hydraulically  oper- 
ated and  is  designed  so  that  it  may 
easily  be  modified  as  to  line  sizes  and 
configuration. 

Circle  No.  228  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

TRANSFORMER  SERIES.  An  all-new  2 
KVA  series  has  been  introduced  to  com- 
plete the  range  between  the  I  KVA  and 
3  KVA  Powerstat  variable  transformer 
types  by  the  Superior  Electric  Co.  Called 
the  126-226  Series,  these  compact,  func- 
tionally designed  variable  transformers 
are  available  in  open,  enclosed,  fused, 
cord-plug  and  enclosed  terminal  models; 
single,  fwo-and  three-gang  types;  manu- 
ally-operated and  in  5,  15,  30  and  60 
second  motor-driven  assemblies.  They 
feature  zero  waveform  distortion,  excel- 
lent regulation  and  high  efficiency.  The 
commutator  surface  is  rhodium-plated 
for  smooth  operation  and  long  life.  Ter- 
minals accommodate  push-on  connectors, 
lug,  wrap-around  or  soldered  connec- 
tions. Output  voltage  can  be  limited  to 
line  voltage  or  to  17  percent  above  line 
voltage.  Single  units  in  the  126  Series 
are  for  use  on  120  volt,  l-phase  lines 
and  ganged  units  for  240  volt,  l-or  3- 
phase  duty.  Ratings  are  12.5  amperes 
on  constant-current  loads  and  18.0  am- 
peres on  constant-Impedance  loads. 
Single  units  in  the  226  Series  are  for 
240  volt,  l-phase  lines  and  ganged  units 
for  480  volt,  l-or  3-phase  service.  Rat- 
ings are  6.0  amperes  on  constant-current 
loads  and  9.0  amperes  on  constant-im- 
pedance loads. 

Circle  No.  229  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


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MISSILE  LITERATURE 


FILTER  MATERIALS.  A  two-page,  two- 
color,  8/2  by  1 1  in.  bulletin  describing 
seven  basic  filter  element  materials  and 
various  series  of  filter  assemblies  and  re- 
placement elements  is  now  available 
from  the  Bendix  Filter  Division,  Bendix 
Aviation  Corp.  The  bulletin  illustrates 
each  of  the  filter  element  materials  with 
two  photographs,  including  photomag- 
nifications.  The  materials  discussed  pro- 
vide particle  siie  control  from  1/2  to 
250  microns  in  temperature  ranges  from 
minus  350F  to  plus  I500F.  Nine  different 
filter  assembly  and  replacement  element 
combinations  are  also  illustrated  with 
photographs. 

Circle  No.  200  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

EPOXY  RESIN.  Processes  for  insulating 
transformers  to  meet  the  grades  of  MIL- 
T-27A  with  scotchcast  brand  epoxy  resin 
are  outlined  in  a  new  eight-page  boot- 
let  issued  by  the  Minnesota  Mining  and 
Manufacturing  Co.  Sections  of  the  book- 
let deal  with  background  on  MIL-T-27A, 
transformer  design,  resin  handling  and 
proven  processes  for  applying  epoxy 
resins.  The  methods  outlines  include:  dip 
coating,  molding  potting  metal  encased 
units  and  encapsulating  open  type  trans- 
formers. The  booklet  is  intended  as  a 
guide  to  the  construction  of  trans- 
formers to  military  specifications,  their 
design  and  special  techniques  which 
have  been  successful  in  meeting  such 
specifications. 

Circle  No.  201  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 
RADIATION  SOURCES.  A  12-page  bro- 
chure has  been  put  out  by  Nuclear 
Systems  Division  of  The  Budd  Co.  detail- 
ing its  capabilities  to  provide  radiation 
sources  for  irradiation  research,  radi- 
ography and  teletherapy.  The  publication 
illustrates  and  describes  Nuclear  Systems 
radioisotope  encapsulation  facilities — its 
hot  cell  has  a  50,000  curie  capacity — 
its  training  courses  for  new  customers, 
and  its  lines  of  radiography,  teletherapy 
and  irradiation  sources. 

Circle  No.  202  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 

GAS  TURBINES.  A  12  page  booklet 
issued  by  General  Electric  describes  the 
new  J85,  a  compact,  lightweight  turbo- 
jet designed  to  power  subsonic  and 
supersonic  missiles,  drones,  and  small-to- 
medium  size  piloted  aircraft.  Included 
is  information  on  engine  design,  per- 
formance, test  progress  and  current  ap- 
plications on  Northrop's  T-38  "Talon" 
trainer  and  N-I56F  "Freedom  Fighter," 
the  McDonnell  GAM-72  decoy  missile 
and  Northrop  Q-4B  Supersonic  target 
drone. 

Circle  No.  203  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 
DATA  PRODUCTS.  A  quick-reference 
catalog  on  Benson-Lehner  data  products 
defines  the  term  "record  reader"  and 
discusses  the  various  types  of  record 
readers  produced  by  the  Corporation. 
The  catalog  discusses  special  purpose 
record  readers  which  are  used  to  con- 
vert information  recorded  in  pictorial 
or  graphic  form  into  either  digital  or 
proportional  analog  resistance  form.  The 
catalog  also  describes  various  types  of 
automatic  plotting  machines  used  for 
graphing  business,  military,  and  scienti- 
fic data  from  a  variety  of  inputs  includ- 
ing punch-cards,  punch-paper  tape,  mag- 
netic tape,  manual  keyboard  and  the 
outputs  of  automatic  data  handling 
systems. 

Circle  No.  204  on  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


INPUT  SCANNER.  A  new  bulletin  d 
tailing  specifications  and  features  of 
multiple  point  input  scanner  is  now  ava 
able  from  the  KIN  TEL  Division  of  Col 
Electronics.  The  bulletin  describes  t 
KIN  TEL  model  453M  scanner,  an  a 
tremely  flexible  and  versatile  input  d 
vice  designed  for  any  application  whe 
a  number  of  signals  must  be  scanne 
Up  to  400  individual  points  can  I 
scanned  by  the  model  453M  and  wi 
a  453S  slave  unit  attached,  1000  poii 
may  be  scanned.  Channel  numbers  1 
displayed  on  a  3-digit  readout  in  nu 
erals  l'/s"  high.  Switching  is  aeco. 
plished  by  electromechanical  stepp.| 
that  advance  each  time  the  inpl 
reaches  null  balance.  Complete  infi 
mation  on  operation,  application  a] 
available  accessories  for  the  model  45-J 
are  included  in  the  bulletin.  Specific 
tions  covering  the  scanner's  controls,  c|l 
play  and  timing  are  listed  in  detail 
Circle  No.  205  on  Subscriber  Service  Co, 

PACKINGS.  A  revised  catalog  issul 
by  the  Greene,  Tweed  &  Co.,  presei 
in  detail  what  Palmetto  self-lubricati) 
packings  are  and  describes  their  adv.j 
tages  and  applications  on  pump  rejl 
and  shafts  and  valve  stems.  The  tl 
opens  with  a  description  of  the  four  cl 
ferent  stranded  forms  of  Palmetto  sit 
lubricating  packings  and  their  eonstrl 
tion  methods.  The  booklet's  data  imj 
mation  includes  calculator  tables  n 
weights  and  lengths,  and  order  instri 
tions.  Each  one  of  the  29  Palmetto  9 
lubricating  packing  types  is  illustraill 
and  described.  Details  include  recct 
mended  service,  uses,  temperature  lirnj* 
sizes,  standard  packagings  and  prir'ii 
One  page  is  devoted  to  a  comprehc 
sive  applications  chart  which  pinpoip 
the  correct  type  of  packing  for  eifl 
type  of  service.  Molded  Packings  li 
Sheet  Packings  are  also  illustrated. 
Circle  No.  206  on  Subscriber  Service  Cell 

THERMOCOUPLES.  A  newly  revis| 
fully  illustrated  Catalog,  EN-S2.  ofljl 
complete  information  about  Leedsjl 
Northrup's  full  line  of  thermocouples  <|C 
thermocouple  components  and  access' 
ies,  and  available  on  request.  The  p« 
lication  lists  and  describes  standard  I 
semblies  in  protecting  tubes  and  w  l 
for  general  applications;  specialip 
thermocouples  and  assemblies  for  lakh 
atory  and  industrial  applications,  andll 
extensive  line  of  bare  and  insulald 
thermocouple  wires,  replacement  I 
ments,  ceramic  insulators,  metal  .ji 
ceramic  protecting  tubes,  wells,  terml 
heads  and  extension  leadwires.  Red* 
mendations  are  given  on  the  choice  .!d 
use  of  thermocouples  and  assembiii 
and  on  the  limitations  of  protecting  M 
and  well  materials. 

Circle  No.  207  on  Subscriber  Service  Ci;l. 

PRINT,  PLOT  SCALER.  A  new  desc* 
five  bulletin  covering  the  firms  Mod 
ADRS2-5  Print-and-Plot  Scaler  is  |V 
nounced  by  the  Victoreen  Instrurrll 
Company.  The  bulletin,  Form  302? 
outlines  the  features  of  the  instrurr.<( 
which  is  described  as  being  desigi« 
for  accurate  digital  and  analog  reacill 
of  spectrographs  equipment.  In  aij* 
tion  to  giving  suggested  applicant 
the  illustrated  bulletin  details  specif* 
tion  and  performance  data. 
Circle  No.  208  on  Subscriber  Service  C* 


Avco  "primes"  America's  newest  peacemaker  —  Newest  weapon  in  America's  atomic 

u 

defense  is  the  Navy's  submarine-launched  missile,  Polaris.  The  critical  job  of  making  sure  the  «j 

  o 

Polaris  detonates  on  time  and  on  target  was  handled  by  Avco's  Crosley  Division.  Arming  and  = 

3 

z 

fuzing  for  the  Polaris— like  the  recent  development  of  the  Air  Force's  Titan  nose  cone— is  typical  3 


of  Avco's  role  in  U.  S.  missilery. 


AVCO  MAKES  THINGS  BETTER  FOR  AMERICA  /  AVCO  CORPORATION  /  750  THIRD  AVENUE,  NEW  YORK  17,  N.  Y. 


There  are  seven  Datasync  Systems  in  each  Convair  FMIC  Airplane,  which 
provide  multi-channel  magnetic  recording  of  Filmagnetic  data  in  exact 
synchronism  with  "scientific  shorthand"  photographed  from  oscilloscopes, 
onto  "Photo-Tape."  * 


The  "Quick-Look"  Datasync  System  capabilities  of  combined  photo- 
recording and  multi-track  magnetic  recording,  are  unexcelled.  Datasync 
eliminates  the  time-consuming  editing  usually  needed  to  synchronize  the 
magnetic  and  photographic  types  of  information. 


Write  for  free,  full-color  illustrated  Datasy 
"Catalog  of  Ideas".  .  . 


CONVAIR  AIRBORNE  FREQUENCY 
MONITORING  AND  INTERFERENCE 
CONTROL  AIRPLANE  USES... 

_A 


EIECr«ONIC-OPrlC/II   »ECOIOING  EOUIPMENr 

DATASYNC  is  a  new  breakthrough  in  data  recording  capability ...  combining 
multi-channel  Magnetic -Tape  with  Optical  "Panoramic  Video"  Picture  Data, 
on  a  single  "Datasync"  Film  for  immediate  and  reliable  self-synchronized 
"Quick-Look"  capability,  only  minutes  after  recording! 
The  Convair  Division  of  General  Dynamics  is  producing  this  Airborne  Frequency 
Monitoring  and  Interference  Control  Airplane  which  carries  51  antennas  and 
uses  Datasync  Equipment  to  record  Panoramic  Video  optically,  plus  a 
"Steno-track"  of  the  intercom  conversations  between  technicians  in  the 
aircraft,  and  between  the  aircraft  and  the  ground  station  controls,  together 
with  independent  recording  of  time-base  signals,  etc. 
The  basic  design  of  this  Aircraft  is  planned  for  down-range  checking  at  all 
missile  test  and  launching  ranges.  It  may  also  be  used  for  checking  the 
functional  and  electronic  environment  of  DEW  Line  installations  and  other 
defense  system  ground  installations  equipped  with  such  components  as  SAGE 
"Texas  Towers"  and  "P"  Sites. 

Datasync  performance  and  reliability  are  guaranteed  by  Berndt-Bach's 
experience  in  manufacturing  Electronic-Optical  Recording  Equipment  since  1931. 

"  Trade  Marks  of  Berndt-  Bach,  In 


^  A     DIVISION  OF 

BERNDT- BACH,  INC. 

6904  Romaine  St.,  Los  Angeles  38,  Calif.  •  HO.  2-0931 

ELECTRONIC -OPTICAL  RECORDING  EQUIPMENT  SINCE  1931 


Circle  No.  53  en  Subscriber  Service  Card. 


MAGAZINE    OF    WORLD  ASTRONAUTICS 


Breakthrough  in  Heat  Treat   10 

New  Gyros  Needed  for  Tomorrow  15 
ARPA  Wants  $550  Million  in  '61  ...  21 


AN  AMERICAN  AVIATION  PUBLICATION 


PNEUMATIC  RECOVERY 
SYSTEMS 


lother  product  of  Air  Cruisers  research 


PILOT 

CAPSULE 


Solve  New  Missile  and  Capsule  Recovery  Problems 


Air  Cruisers  has  nearly  a  decade  of 
experience  in  the  development,  testing  and 
production  of  pneumatic  recovery  systems. 
Beginning  with  aerial  cargo  recovery,  the 
company  expanded  its  activities  to  include 
deceleration  systems  for  various  missile  and 
target  drone  applications. 

Other  Air  Cruisers  system  designs  include 
recovery  of  missile  nose  cones  and  com- 
ponent parts,  and  pilot  capsule  recovery 
which  enables  the  crew  to  land  safely  in  the 
sealed  capsule. 

Air  Cruisers'  recovery  systems  consist  of 
inflatable  deceleration  and/or  flotation  bags 
specially  designed  to  meet  all  requirements: 


•  Provide  maximum  protection  from  landing 

damage 

•  Insure  uniform  deceleration 

•  Limit  maximum  "G"  loadings 

•  Insure  complete  protection  at  normal  drift 

and  oscillation  attitudes 

•  Provide  dependable  and  adequate  buoy- 

ancy for  water  recovery 
With  these  rugged  impact  bags,  you  may 
have  your  choice  of  inflation  methods,  in- 
cluding the  proved  jet  pump  method  to  save 
added  weight  and  space.  Air  Cruisers  starts 
with  your  problem  statement  and  can  furnish 
the  complete  system.  Write  for  full  informa- 
tion concerning  pneumatic  recovery  systems. 


CORPORATION 


AIR  CRUISERS  DIVISI0I1 


BELMAR,  NEW  JERSEY 


LIFE   JACKETS    •    LIFE   RAFTS    •    HELICOPTER    FLOATS    •    ESCAPE   SLIDES    •    GAS   BREATHER    BAGS    •    DECELERATION  BAGS 

missiles  and  rockets,  September  28,  1959  3 


R/M  PYROTEX®  REINFORCED  PLASTICS 

. . . DEVELOPED  TO  ENDURE 
THE  FIERY  REALM  OF  THE  ROCKET 

Light,  strong,  heat  resistant  .  .  . 
for  low-cost,  precision  fabricated  rocket  parts — 
both  structural  and  aerodynamic 


Good  insulating  properties  make  R/M  Pyrotex  an  excellent  materi- 
al for  rocket  throats,  aft  insulators,  and  grain  seat  rings.  Pyrotex 
can  be  molded  or  laminated  into  a  wide  variety  of  shapes. 


Looking  for  a  material  that  will  with- 
stand the  elevated  temperatures  gen- 
erated by  missiles  and  rockets— in- 
ternally from  burning  propellants,  ex- 
ternally from  aerodynamic  heating? 
Must  this  material  have  good  insula- 
tion and  thermal  properties,  chemical 
and  water  resistance,  and  take  a 
smooth  finish?  If  so,  one  of  R/M's 
family  of  Pyrotex  reinforced  plastics 
may  be  the  solution  to  your  problem. 


The  many  outstanding  thermal  and 
structural  features  of  R/M  Pyrotex 
have  led  to  its  use  on  almost  every 
U.S.  missile.  It  has  been  fabricated 
into  parts  such  as  nose  cones,  fins, 
igniter  tubes,  rocket  throats  and  sliver 
traps.  Its  exceptionally  good  dimen- 
sional stability  makes  possible  mass 
production  to  precision  standards. 
And  it  is  low  in  cost.  Write  for  addi- 
tional information. 


RAYBESTOS-MANHATTAN,  INC. 

REINFORCED  FUSTICS  DEPARTMENT,  Manheim.  Pa. 

FACTORIES:  Manheim,  Pa.;  Bridgeport,  Conn.;  Paramount,  Calif.;  No.  Charleston,  S  C.; 
Passaic,  N.J.;  Neenah,  Wis.;  Crawfordsville,  Ind.;  Peterborough,  Ontario.  Canada 


RAYBESTOS-MANHATTAN,  INC.,  Asbestos  Textiles  •  Laundry  Pads  and  Covers  .  Engineered  Plastics  •  Mechanical 
Packings  .  Sintered  Metal  Products  •  Industrial  Rubber  .  Rubber  Covered  Equipment  .  Brake  Linings 
Brake  Blocks    .    Abrasive  and  Diamond  Wheels    •    Clutch  Facings    •    Industrial  Adhesives    •    Bowling  Balls 


Executive  Editor 
Managing  Editor 


.  .Clarke  Newlon 
Donald  E.  Perry 


NEWS  STAFF 

News  Editor   Reed  Bundy 

Defense  and  Legislative   James  Baas 

Betty  Oswald 

West  Coast   Richard  van  Osten 

Editorial  Assistants   David  Newman 

Gwen  Cammack 
Heather  MacKinnon 

ASTRIONICS 

Guidance  and  Control   Charles  D.  LaPond 

Support  Equipment   Hal  Gettinob 

ASTRONAUTICS  ENGINEERING 

Chemistry  &  Propulsion   Jay  Holmes 

John  F.  Judge 

Astrodynamics   Paul  Means 

MISSILE  SUPPORT 

Installations  and  Equipment 

East  Coast   William  E.  Howard 

West  Coast   Frank  McGuntt 

BUREAUS 

Los  Angeles   William  J.  Couchlin 

Paris   Jean-Marie  Riche 

Geneva   Anthony  Vandyk 

CONTRIBUTORS 

British  Astronautics   G.  V.  E.  Thompson 

Propulsion   Michael  Lorenzo 

Industry   James  J.  Haggerty,  Jr. 

Soviet  Affairs   Dr.  Albert  Parry 

Space  Medicine   Dr.  Hubertus  Strughold 

Astrophysics   Dr.  I.  M.  Levttt 

Research   Hey  ward  Canney,  Jr. 


ADVISORY  BOARD 

Dr.  Wernher  von  Braun 


Robert  P.  Havtlland 
Dr.  Arthur  Kantrowitz 
Dr.  Eugen  Saengeb 
Alexander  Sattn 


Dr.  Peter  Castruccio 
Conrad  H.  Hoeppner 
R.  F.  Gompertz 

PRODUCTION   AND  ART 

Art  Director   William  Martin 

Assistant  Art  Director   Bacil  Guiley 

Production  Manager   J.  F.  Walen 

Ass't  Production  Manager   Elsie  Gray 

BUSINESS  STAFF 

Publisher   E.  D.  Muhlfeld 

Advertising  Sales  Manager  W.  E.  Brown 

Eastern  Advtg.  Manager   P.  B.  Kinney 

Circulation  Promotion  Mgr  Eugene  White 

Advertising  Promotion  Mgr  J.  E.  Mulhoy 

Advtg.  Service  Manager  ..Mrs.  Gladys  Bussell 

ADVERTISING  OFFICES 

New  York  . .  (20  East  46th  St.)  P.  N.  Anderson 

A.  B.  SCHEFFLEB 

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Chicago    (139  N.  Clark  St.)  G.  E.  Yonan 

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C.  R.  Martz,  Jr. 

Miami    (208  Almerla  Avenue)  R.  D.  Haceb 

Toronto  (12  Richmond  St.  E.)  Allin  Associates 

London   (28  Bruton  St.)  Norall  &  Hart 

Ports   11  Rue  Condorcet 

Geneva   10  Rue  Grenus 

Missiles  and  Rockets  Volume  5  Number  40 

Published  each  Monday  by  American  Aviation 
Publications,  Inc.,  1001  Vermont  Ave.,  N.W., 
Washington  5,  D.C.  Wayne  W.  Parrlsh,  Presi- 
dent; Leonard  A.  Eiserer,  Executive  Vice  Presi- 
dent &  General  Manager;  Fred  Hunter,  Vice 
President  &  Editorial  Director;  A.  H.  Stackpole. 
Eric  Bramley,  Robert  R.  Parrlsh,  Vice  President!. 

Printed  at  the  Telegraph  Press.  Harrlsburg.  Pa. 
Second  class  postage  paid  at  Washington,  D.C, 
and  at  additional  mailing  offices.  Copyright 
1959.  American  Aviation  Publications,  Inc. 


Subscription  rates:  U.S.,  Canada  and  Postal 
Union  Nations — 1  year,  $5.00;  2  years,  $8.00; 
3  years,  $10.00.  Foreign— 1  year,  $10.00;  2 
years,  $18.00;  3  years,  $26.00.  Single  copy 
rate — $.50.  Subscriptions  are  solicited  only 
from  persons  with  Identifiable  commercial 
or  professional  Interests  In  missiles  and 
rockets.  Subscription  orders  and  changes  of 
address  should  be  referred  to  Circulation 
Fulfillment  Mgr.,  M/r,  1001  Vermont  Ave., 
Washington  5,  D.C.  Please  allow  4  weeks 
for  change  to  become  effective  and  enclose 
recent  address  label  If  possible. 


V*UDIISMir7 

■isiua 


r<nr 


4 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  28,  1959 


COVER:  the  Gamma  liquid  pro- 
pellant  multi-chambered  rocket 
was  developed  by  Bristol  Sidde- 
ley  Rocket  Division  to  power 
Britain's  Black  Knight  re-entry  re- 
search vehicle. 


ARCHITECTS  drawing  of  new 
Atomics  International  facility  be- 
ing built  at  Canoga  Park  is  rep- 
resentative of  the  flow  of  missile/- 
space  industry  into  San  Fernando 
Valley.  See  p.  12. 


PROTOTYPE  of  electrically-sus- 
pended gyroscope  developed  by 
Minneapolis-Honeywell.  The  guid- 
ance work  of  the  future  is  going 
to  demand  big  advances  in  gyros. 
A  survey  begins  on  p.  15. 


PRE-LAUNCH  check  of  Vanguard 
vehicle  is  supervised  by  Dr.  John 
P.  Hagen  (at  right),  who  directed 
the  now-completed  project  for 
Navy  and  NASA.  A  review  of  the 
program  starts  on  p.  35. 


missiles  and  rockets 

MAGAZINE  OF  WORLD  ASTRONAUTICS 


► 


30,500  copies  of  this  issue  printed 


SEPTEMBER  28  HEADLINES 


► 


► 


► 


► 
► 


► 


Breakthrough  in  Heat  Treat  Promises  Huge  Strength  Gains 

Barrett  process  gives  ultimate  metal  tensile  strength  10%  to 
60%  higher  with  improved  ductility;  company  expects  one-million 
psi  in  18  months    io 

Missile/Space  Industry  Pushes  Into  San  Fernando  Valley 

Electronics,  R&D  lead  the  move  with  construction  of  industrial 
parks  and  campus-like  research  centers.  Second  in  a  series  on  the 
Los  Angeles  area    12 

ARPA  Wants  $550  Million  for  Fiscal  Year  1961 

Its  chief  troubles  have  been  money  and  intramilitary  squabbling 
over  projects.  Last  of  a  series  on  Pentagon  planning    21 

Air  Force  Gets  Bulk  of  Space  Projects — Details  of  ARPA's 
Project  Assignments    9 

Germans  Set  Up  Regular  Rocket  Mail  Delivery   30 

Vanguard  Contributed  Greatly  to  Space  Technology  .  .  35 

ASTRIONICS 

Today's  Gyros  Won't  Meet  Tomorrow's  Needs 

Recent  advances  keep  missile  gyros  up  to  present  demands,  but 
significant  progress  is  needs  for  operational  missiles  and  spacecraft  15 

Hughes  Research  Reveals  Advances  in  Infrared  Detection 

Shielding  technique  doubles  IR  search  and  tracking  range;  cooling 
methods  treble  detectivity  of  IR  cells    19 

MISSILE  SUPPORT 

U.S.  Reg.  Pdg. 

Videotape  Successfully  Used  To  Record  Radar  Signals 

Army's  Signal  Missile  Support  Agency  finds  great  advantage  in 
immediate  playback  capability  for  trajectory  evaluation    24 

ASTRONAUTICS  ENGINEERING 

U.S.  Reg.  Pdg. 

System  May  Bring  Circular  Orbits 

General  Electric's  GESOC  method  of  control  is  designed  to  correct 
elliptical  orbits  at  apogee  using  infrared  horizon  sensors   31 

No  Future  for  Solids  in  Space  Ships    33 

NEW  MISSILE  PRODUCTS 

GE's  Leak  Detector  Is  Easily  Serviced    39 

THE  MISSILE  WEEK 

U.S.  Reg.  Pdg. 

Washington  Countdown    7 

Industry  Countdown    8 

More  About  the  Missile  Week    9 


DEPARTMENTS 

British  Astronautics    28 

Space  Medicine    34 

Reviews    37 

Missile  Business    38 

People   44 


Propulsion  Engineering  ....  45 

Contracts   47 

Letters    48 

When  and  Where    49 

Editorial  ,   50 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  28,  1959 


When  the  First  Man   Flies  into 


>ace  . . .  his  Electronic  Eg^kJment 


will  be  Protected  b 


NSON! 


MODEL  K710-14 


CONTROLLED    ENVIRONMENTS  -  PASSPORT  TO  SPACE 

Soon,  the  X-15  rocket  powered  research  ve- 
hicle, built  by  North  American  Aviation,  Inc.,  will 
carry  the  first  man  into  space.  During  this  historic 
flight,  many  of  the  instruments  installed  in  the  X-15 
will  be  protected  against  vibration  and  shock  by 
Robinson  mounting  systems. 

Robinson  Model  K710-14,  all-metal  mount,  will 
protect  26  pressure  transmitters  connected  with  the 
rocket  engine  chamber,  hydraulic  fluid  system,  and 
the  liquid  oxygen,  helium  and  ammonia  supplies. 
Other  Robinson  mountings  have  been  specified  for 
the  radio  equipment  and  several  other  applications. 

RADIAL  MOUNTING  SYSTEMS  — 

THE  ULTIMATE  IN  CENTER  -  OF  -  GRAVITY  SUSPENSION 

Model  K710-14  combines  Robinson's  MET-L- 
FLEX  stainless  steel  resilient  elements  with  an  ex- 
clusive radial  cushion,  center-of-gravity  design. 
The  multi-directional  isolation  which  results  assur- 
es complete  protection  in  the  high  intensity  envi- 
ronments created  by  initial  propulsion  blast  and 
re-entry. 

During  extensive  development  testing  on  the 
X-15  program,  it  was  determined  that  vital  instru- 
ments must  be  protected  against  vibration  and 
shock  to  insure  the  calibration  and  accuracy  re- 
quired. Installation  of  Robinson  mounting  systems 
on  the  X-15  meets  this  requirement. 

INDUSTRYWIDE  ACCEPTANCE 

Twenty-three  years  of  experience,  plus  unsur- 
passed creativity,  make  Robinson  the  choice  of 
leading  airframe  manufacturers  and  weapon  sys- 
tems managers.  These  companies  know  that  their 
equipment  performs  better  and  lasts  longer  when 
protected  by  mounting  systems  which  have  been 
engineered  for  reliability— by  Robinson. 


ROBINSON  ^oin6ca£ 


Formerly  ROBINSON  AVIATION  INC. 


West  Coast  Engineering  Office:  Santa  Monica,  Calif, 


6 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  28,  1959 


Washington  Countdown 


IN  THE  PENTAGON 

A  potentially  hot  study  .  .  . 

of  the  nation's  missile  range  operations  is 
being  made  by  a  special  Defense  Department 
committee.  Particular  attention  is  being  paid 
to  possible  overlapping  of  facilities.  The  com- 
mittee— headed  by  Detroit  Businessman  W.  L. 
Cissler — is  scheduled  to  come  up  with  a  report 
by  mid-November. 

•  •  • 

An  Air  Force-Navy  wrangle  .  .  . 

over  the  Pacific  Missile  Range  is  one  of  the 
thornier  problems  the  committee  is  certain  to 
investigate.  The  Air  Force  wants  to  continue 
R&D  satellite  launchings  from  Vandenberg 
AFB  next  year  after  PMR  goes  into  opera- 
tion at  Point  Arguello.  The  Navy  says  this 
would  mean  halting  operations  at  nearby 
Arguello  every  time  a  polar  orbit  launching 
takes  place  at  Vandenberg. 

•  •  • 

Some  new  codes  names  .  .  . 

for  ARPA  projects  to  pin  in  your  hat: 

.  .  .  Shepherd,  the  Army-Navy  satellite  de- 
tection fence  that  stretches  across  the  southern 
part  of  the  United  States. 

.  .  .  Steer,  a  polar-orbiting  instantaneous 
repeater  communications  satellite. 

.  .  .  Decree,  a  24-hour  instantaneous  re- 
peater satellite. 

•  •  • 

Killing  the  F-108  fighter  .  .  . 

by  the  Air  Force  left  the  United  States  with 
no  long-range  defense  against  enemy  bombers 
packing  air-to-surface  missiles.  The  Mach  3 
North  American  interceptor  was  a  victim  of 
the  budget  squeeze.  Hughes  Aircraft  will  con- 
tinue work  on  the  GAR-9  at  a  reduced  level. 

•  •  • 

The  Army's  Pershing  .  .  . 

will  soar  about  150  miles  above  the  earth 
during  its  surface-to-surface  flights.  The  solid 
Martin  missile — -replacement  for  Redstone — 
will  have  a  700-mile  range. 

•  •  • 

The  Navy's  Polaris  .  .  . 

is  undergoing  a  new  test  series  at  Cape 
Canaveral.  The  latest  test  vehicles  have  a 
900-mile  range — only  300  miles  short  of  the 
range  operational  models  are  scheduled  to 
have  by  the  end  of  next  year. 

•  •  • 

The  Air  Force's  609A  .  .  . 

a  modified  version  of  the  Chance  Vought 
Scout  being  developed  for  NASA,  will  be 


used  for  testing  Air  Force  equipment.  Unlike 
the  Scout,  609A  will  not  be  used  for  launch- 
ing orbiting  space  vehicles. 

ON  CAPITOL  HILL 

Heavy  favorable  reaction  .  .  . 

is  reported  by  the  House  Space  Committee  in 
connection  with  its  recent  report  on  chemical- 
biological-radiological  warfare.  The  report  dis- 
closes some  of  the  Army's  latest  work  in  the 
field.  It  also  points  out  how  new  chemical 
gases  and  biological  agents  could  be  delivered 
in  air-breathing  and  ballistic  missiles. 

•  •  • 

Heavy  heartfelt  slugging  .  .  . 

is  expected  to  result  next  year  from  Sen. 
John  Sherman  Cooper's  bill  proposing  crea- 
tion of  a  Defense  Department  director  of 
procurement.  Backers  of  greater  unification 
of  the  services  may  use  the  bill  as  a  rallying 
point.  The  military  services  will  fight  it  down 
the  line. 

AT  NASA 
Space  officials  are  worrying  .  .  . 

about  reports  of  off-the-cuff  remarks  by  Air 
Force  officials  that  they  plan  to  try  for  speed 
and  altitude  records  with  the  X-15  when  they 
get  it.  The  NASA  officials  feel  the  rocket 
plane  won't  be  ready  for  such  attempts. 

•  •  • 

Scotty  Crossfield  may  quit  .  .  . 

North  American  at  least  temporarily  to  join 
NASA  so  that  he  can  be  a  member  of  the 
X-15  pilot  pool.  Other  members  of  the  pool 
are  Air  Force  pilots  Maj.  Robert  M.  White 
and  Capt.  Robert  A.  Rushworth,  and  Navy 
pilot  Lt.  Comdr.  Forrest  S.  Peterson. 

AROUND  TOWN 
The  Soviet  man-in-space  program  . 

may  be  suffering  more  difficulties  than  some 
have  thought.  A  top  Russian  astronautics  ex- 
pert said  recently  when  asked  why  Russia 
hasn't  put  a  man  in  space:  "Our  rockets  are 
not  reliable  enough  yet." 

•  •  • 

Some  of  the  reports  .  .  . 

being  passed  as  "the  latest"  in  the  nation's 
capital: 

.  .  .  The  Russians  have  a  second  Lunik 
booster  ready  for  launching  and  may  let  it 
fly  by  the  end  of  the  year. 

.  .  .  The  Canadians  are  seeking  a  greater 
role  in  joint  defense  planning. 

.  .  .  Politics  appears  to  be  slowing  down 
the  installations  of  U.S.  IRBM's  in  Italy. 


7 


Industry  Countdown 


MANUFACTURING 

Look  for  keen  competition  .  .  . 

among  the  great  variety  of  vehicles  as  the 
Army  starts  to  choose  those  that  will  carry 
tactical  missiles.  The  object  is  to  find  a  vehicle 
system  that  is  unrestricted  by  terrain,  has 
efficient  fuel  consumption,  and  can  provide 
rapid — but  gentle — transit  under  a  complete 
range  of  combat  conditions. 

•  •  • 

New  glass-plastic  mix  .  .  . 

developed  by  Armour  Research  Foundation 

should  have  good  missile  application.  It  utilizes 
glass  flakes  in  a  resin-bonded  laminate  and 
has  a  fluxural  strength  of  some  40,000  psi 
and  a  flexural  modulus  of  6-million  psi.  Tensile 
strength  matches  monofilament-wound  struc- 
tures but  apparently  with  much  greater 
rigidity. 

•  •  • 

Still  another  plastic  .  .  . 

is  the  TRC-X  glass  fiber  phenolic  laminate 
manufactured  by  Riverside  Plastics  Corp., 
Hicksville,  N.Y.  The  manufacturer  claims  it 
retains  strength,  dimensions  and  dielectric 
properties  at  temperatures  in  excess  of  1000°F 
for  minutes,  which  should  give  it  real  value 
in  printed  circuits  and  structures. 

•  •  • 

Alloy  steels  in  500,000  psi  .  .  . 

range  have  been  developed  by  Ford  Motor 
Company's  Engineering'  division.  In  a  process 
Ford  calls  "ausforming."  austenitic  steel  is 
heated  to  700°-to-1000°F,  worked  mechan- 
ically, quenched  and  tempered  to  a  martinsitic 
steel  at  500°F.  Ford  sees  an  obvious  use  in 
missile  booster  cases. 

•  •  • 

Materials  center  .  .  . 

AF  is  proposing  for  Wright  field  may  run  into 
a  snag  with  DOD  Research  and  Engineering. 
The  Pentagon  wants  all  services  to  work  on 
materials  research. 

•  •  • 

AF  has  started  a  new  campaign  .  .  . 

to  assure  larger  participation  of  small  business 
in  defense  production.  Manufacturers  will  be 
required  to  file  monthly  reports  of  small  and 
large  business  participation  by  weapon  system 

PROPULSION 
Plastic  third  stage  .  .  . 

may  be  chosen  for  Minuteman.  Successful 
firing  of  a  Vanguard  with  glass-filament  rein- 
forced plastic  third  stage  developed  by 
Hercules  Powder  Co.  gives  a  lift  to  Hercules' 


chances  of  winning  the  third-stage  Minuteman 
contest  with  Aerojet.  Hercules  plans  the  same 
kind  of  plastic  case,  loaded  with  double-base 
propellant,  for  Minuteman.  AF  has  cancelled 
a  contract  with  Aerojet  for  development  of 
the  back-up  first  stage.  Thiokol  work  has 
progressed  to  a  point  where  the  need  for  a 
back-up  stage  no  longer  exists,  AF  says. 

ASTRIONICS 

Thermoelectric  device  .  .  . 

with  50  times  the  capacity  of  any  such  device 
ever  previously  built  has  been  developed  for 
Navy  by  Westinghouse  Electric  Corp.  It  is, 
all  at  once,  an  air  conditioner,  space  heater 
and  refrigerator-freezer — designed  for  either 
submarine  or  space  flight  use. 


Hottest  range  .  .  . 

competition  now  in  bidding  stage  is  for  a 
$30-million  electronic  environmental  test 
facility  at  Army's  Fort  Huachuaca,  Ariz. 
More  than  60  companies  in  about  14  teams 
have  submitted  proposals.  Cost  bids  are  due 
Nov.  3.  Contract  will  be  awarded  after  Jan.  1. 

WE  HEAR  THAT— 

Lockheed  MSD  is  transferring  .  .  . 

all  major  functions  of  its  three  advanced 
satellite  programs  into  its  newly  activated 
$8-million  Satellite  Production  building.  Some 
2500  persons  are  involved  in  the  transfer  to 
the  346,000-square  foot  building  .  .  .  Smith 
Electronics,  Inc.  of  Cleveland  has  been 
awarded  a  theoretical  study  contract  for  a 
missile  and  satellite  interferometer  tracking 
system  at  Eglin  AFB  .  .  .  Artloom  Industries, 
Inc.  has  acquired  Eastern  Precision  Resistor 
Corp.,  an  electronics  manufacturing  company 
with  three  plants  in  Brooklyn  .  .  .  U.S. 
Transistor  Corp.  has  moved  into  a  new  plant 
in  the  Syosset  Industrial  Park,  Long  Island 
.  .  .  Marquardt  will  construct  a  $1.25-miIlion 
engineering  and  administration  building  for 
its  Power  Systems  Group  in  West  Van  Nuys. 
The  company  also  has  established  a  Nuclear 
Systems  Division  .  .  .  Sylvania  Electric  Prod- 
ucts Inc.  will  purchase  50%  of  capital  stock 
of  Fabbrica  Italiana  Valvole  Radio  Elettriche 
S.  P.  A.,  Italy's  leading  manufacturer  of  trans- 
mitting and  receiving  tubes  .  .  .  Tapco  Group 
of  Thompson  Ramo  Wooldridge  Inc.  will  have 
a  $2-million  plant  in  Anaheim,  Calif.  .  .  . 
Packard  Bell  broke  ground  Sept.  15  for  a  new 
facility  in  Newbury  Park  in  Ventura  County, 
Calif. 


more  about  missile  week 


•  Groton,  Conn. — The  nation's  second  Polaris-fiiing 
nuclear  submarine — the  Patrick  Henry — was  launched 
at  Electric  Boat  Co.  here  on  Sept.  22.  In  the  38th  flight 
test  of  Polaris  at  Cape  Canaveral  the  day  before,  the 
solid-fuel  missile  traveled  about  900  miles. 

•  Cape  Canaveral — Another  operational  Thor  was  fired 
Sept.  22  in  an  accuracy  test.  No  attempt  was  made  to 
recover  the  nose  cone. 

•  Washington — DOD  said  the  Callery  Chemical  plant 
at  Muskogee,  Okla.,  will  be  kept  in  "standby"  status  at 
least  until  next  June  30.  The  S35.5-million  Navy  boron 
plant  will  not  go  into  production. 

•  Torrance,  Calif. — Linde  Co.,  Division  of  Union  Car- 
bide Corp.,  broke  ground  Sept.  15  for  a  multimillion- 
dollar  liquid  hydrogen  plant  that  will  provide  up  to 
3.3-million  pounds  of  liquid  hydrogen  annually  to 
NASA.  Completion  of  the  facility  on  a  five-acre  tract 
is  set  for  May. 

•  Stamford,  Conn. — Norden  division  of  United  Aircraft 

Corp.  has  acquired  an  80-acre  tract  in  Norwalk,  Conn., 
and  soon  will  begin  construction  of  a  multimillion-dollar 
engineering-research  and  manufacturing  facility. 


•  Los  Angeles — University  of  California  has  been 
awarded  an  Air  Force  Office  of  Scientific  Research 
Contract  for  basic  research  in  adaptive  control  systems 
theory. 

•  London — Rolls-Royce  has  started  test  firings  with  the 
Rocketdyne-type  engine  to  be  used  in  Blue  Streak.  Tests 
are  taking  place  at  the  Ministry  of  Supply's  facility  at 
Spadeadam  in  Northern  England.  First  launching  is 
scheduled  for  the  Woomera  range  in  1960. 

•  Azusa,  Calif. — Army  has  awarded  Aerojet-GeneraT 

Corp.  a  contract  for  a  feasibility  study  of  a  small  rocket 
lift  device  to  power  combat  troops  on  special  missions. 
A  seven  months'  study  is  expected  to  culminate  in  a 
recommended  practical  rocket  system  design. 

•  Everett,  Mass. — Avco  Research  Laboratory  will  use 
newly  designed  laboratory  models  of  a  gas  accelerator 
and  a  shock  tube  to  investigate  magneto-fluid-dynamic 
forces  and  other  phenomena  with  respect  to  problems  of 
propulsion  in  cislunar  space  for  the  Air  Force  Office  of 
Scientific  Research.  The  project  will  be  directed  by  Dr. 
Arthur  Kantrowitz  and  will  cost  about  $585,000  for 
the  first  year. 


Air  Force  Gets  Bulk  of  ARPA  Space  Projects 


Washington — The  Air  Force  has  all  but  won  its  long 
fight  to  become  the  one  and  only  U.S.  space  force.  Mean- 
time, the  Army  received  another  strong  shove  toward  the 
door. 

This  is  the  unavoidable  conclusion  resulting  from  the 
first,  much  sought  distribution  of  ARPA  space  projects. 
(See  page  21,  this  issue).  However,  there  are  several  pos- 
sible clinkers  in  what  some  defense  officials  thought  was 
a  smooth  solution  to  their  space  problems. 

The  Defense  Department  announced  Sept.  23  that  the 
Air  Force  will  eventually  be  given  responsibility  for  all 
space  transportation  and  military  space  boosters  including 
the  Army's  1.5-million-pound-thrust  Saturn. 

At  the  same  time,  the  Department  announced  that  four 
ARPA  space  propects  had  reached  a  stage  of  R&D  where 
they  could  be  turned  over  during  the  next  year  to  the  mili- 
tary services  for  final  development.  The  four: 

•  Midas,  the  ballistic  missile  early  warning  satellite.  It 
goes  to  the  Air  Force. 

•  Samos,  the  reconnaissance  satellite  formerly  known 
as  Sentry.  It  also  goes  to  the  Air  Force. 

•  Transit,  the  navigation  satellite  unsuccessfully 
launched  for  the  first  time  earlier  this  month.  It  goes  to 
the  Navy. 

•  Notus,  code  name  for  a  family  of  communications 
satellites  including  Courier,  Decree  and  Steer.  They  go  to 
the  Army. 

The  ARPA  budget  for  FY  1960  includes  $170  million 
for  all  four  projects. 

Defense  Department  R&E  Director  Herbert  York  said 
assignment  of  the  projects  to  the  services  for  final  develop- 
ment and  operational  use  was  made  by  the  Joint  Chiefs  of 


Staff,  the  Secretary  of  Defense  and  other  top  Pentagon 
officials. 

The  move  ended  months  of  squabbling  over  which 
service  would  get  which  project.  In  each  case,  projects 
were  assigned  to  the  service  which  had  been  developing 
them  under  ARPA's  overall  direction. 

ARPA  Director  Roy  Johnson  and  York  stressed  that 
the  transfers  were  the  first  in  a  series  that  would  result 
in  eventual  transfer  to  the  services  of  all  ARPA  space 
projects,  as  they  reached  the  proper  stage. 

However,  they  stressed  that  ARPA  would  continue 
to  receive  new  advanced  projects  taking  the  place  of  old 
ones.  Informed  sources  made  clear  that  these  would  be 
both  in  space  and  other  fields. 

Underlying  the  announcements  were  several  significant 
trends: 

•  The  clear  indication  that  although  Redstone  Arsenal 
space  experts  would  continue  to  develop  Saturn,  the  proj- 
ect probably  would  not  be  run  by  the  Army  (M/R, 
Aug.  31). 

•  The  clear  possibility  of  future  interservice  conflicts 
over  the  providing  of  Air  Force  boosters  for  Army  and 
Navy  space  projects. 

•  The  indication  that  the  interservice  fight  over  the 
rest  of  ARPA's  present  and  future  space  projects  is  far 
from  over.  For  example,  assignment  of  Project  Shepherd, 
the  ARPA  satellite  detection  fence  developed  by  the  Army 
and  Navy,  is  overdue.  However,  no  assignment  was  made. 

Another  significant  turn  was  the  shifting  of  all  com- 
munications satellites  to  the  Army,  which  for  some  time 
has  sought  control  of  all  military  communications  systems. 
This  assignment  appears  to  give  the  Army  a  hefty  push  to- 
ward that  goal. 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  28,  1959 


9 


An  M/R  Exclusive: 


Breakthrough  in  Heat  Treating 
Promises  Huge  Gains  in  Strength 

Bassett  process  increases  ultimafe  tensile 
strengths  70%  to  60%  with  dividends  in  ductility- 
company  confident  of  million  psi  in  18  months 


by  Frank  G.  McGuire 

Gardena,  Calif. — A  breakthrough 
in  the  process  of  heat  treating  has 
boosted  ultimate  tensile  strengths  of 
metals  by  10  to  60%,  with  propor- 
tionate increases  i  n  yield  strength, 
coupled  with  gains  in  ductility,  fatigue 
strength  and  impact  strength. 

The  process,  developed  with  $1  mil- 
lion of  private  funds  in  a  2'/i-year  pro- 
gram by  Research  Development  Corp. 
of  America,  is  termed  Thermomagna- 
dynamics. 

Approximately  50  observers  from 
the  aircraft/ missile  industry  were  on 
hand  at  a  demonstration  of  the  new 
process,  and  saw  results  of  tests  con- 
ducted on  the  spot.  Visibly  impressed, 
some  termed  the  results  "fantastic." 
RDCA  is  presently  seeking  ways  to 
prove  its  process  on  production  items, 
rather  than  solely  on  R&D  coupon  test 
results. 

The  process,  discovered  by  William 
I.  Bassett  III,  rearranges  the  metallic 
grain  into  an  isotropic  granular  struc- 
ture during  heat  treat  and  after  fabri- 


cation. Photographs  showing  a  200X 
magnification  indicate  great  consistency 
and  uniformity  in  the  resulting  grain. 
Notch  sensitivity  is  minimized  in  the 
process. 

•  Potential  realized — Bassett  points 
out  that  his  process  does  not  give  ad- 
ditional strength  to  metals,  but  dis- 
covers the  greater  potential  strength  of 
metals  and  alloys.  RDCA,  of  which 
Bassett  is  president,  is  now  averaging 
30,000  to  40,000  psi  increases  in  ten- 
sile properties  of  metals,  with  equal  to, 
or  better  than,  elongation  and  reduc- 
tion-of-area  factors.  RDCA  hopes  to 
achieve  Vi  million  psi  by  1960. 

Another  characteristic  is  that  tested 
metal  of  any  Rockwell  hardness  up  to 
Rc  62  can  be  bent  within  its  own  radius 
at  least  100  degrees  without  fracture. 
Commercial,  as  well  as  lab  results,  have 
been  achieved  on  Martensite  alloy 
steels,  Martensite  stainless  steels,  Alpha- 
beta  titanium  alloys,  precipitation-hard- 
ening steels,  and  stainless  steel  alloys; 
other  samples  will  be  checked  out  in 
commercial  jobs. 

Jack    Taub,    executive    V.P.  of 


RDCA,  is  confident  that  the  Bassett 
process  will  produce  metal  with  ulti- 
mate tensile  strengths  of  one  million 
psi  within  eighteen  months.  He  feels 
that  this  will  be  done  by  a  combination 
of  the  heat  treat  process  and  the  use 
of  new  alloys  now  being  developed  by 
the  firm  for  utmost  utilization  of  the 
process.  He  expects  sales  to  be  $1  mil- 
lion in  the  first  year,  and  approach  $10 
million  in  the  second  year. 

The  company  is  not  presently  seek- 
ing government  funds,  but  is  awaiting 
finalization  of  patent  proceedings  so 
the  process  can  be  licensed  for  use  by 
industry.  RDCA  is  planning  to  con- 
struct a  new,  larger  production  facility 
in  Torrance,  which  will  include  a  larger 
furnace  than  their  present  equipment, 
capable  of  handling  specimens  10  x  10 
x  17  inches.  A  privately-owned  cor- 
poration, RDCA  presently  occupies  a 
3000-square-foot  plant  and  employs 
fifteen  people. 

Gerald  W.  Middy,  vice  president  of 
sales  for  the  company,  points  out  that, 
although  present  results  are  R&D,  they 
are  based  on  thousands  of  tests  and 
have  proven  extremely  consistent.  He 
said  RDCA  is  interested  in  production 
steels,  especially  high-temperature 
steels,  for  applications. 

It  is  estimated  that  four  or  five 
hours  total  process  time  has  been  aver- 
age in  R&D  work,  and  that  about 
the  same  time  would  be  needed  in 
production.  Eventually,  furnace  time  is 
expected  to  be  less  than  one-half  hour, 
with  cost,  using  present  equipment, 
about  $200  per  half -hour.  A  special 
furnace  is  now  in  use  at  RDCA,  al- 
though the  company  points  out  that 
the  process  is  not  one  of  heat-treat 
alone. 

•  Serendipity — The  company's  first 
indication  that  it  had  achieved  a  sig- 
nificant improvement  occurred  during 
a  routine  introduction  of  changes  in 


Results  Obtained  Through  Use  of  Bosseff  Thermomagnadynamics 
Process  on  Metals* 


Alloy 

Ultimate  Tensile  Strength 
(PSI) 

Elongation 

Reduction  of 

4130 

280,000  to  300,000 

11% 

30-40% 

4340 

335,000 

11% 

28% 

4150  (.53%  carbon) 

375,000 

»% 

25% 

4152  (.49%  carbon) 

361,000 

9% 

27% 

Vascojet  1000 

325,000 

13.3% 

37.5% 

422M  (I2M0V) 
Stainless  Steel 

305,000 

8% 

20.6% 

431 

Stainless  Steel 

270,000 

10% 

32% 

Thermold  J 
(Unimac  #2) 

354,000 

7% 

22% 

A284 

174,000 

25% 

55% 

Venango  Special 

418,000 

8% 

21% 

•Results  verified  by  independent  testing  lab,  Metals  Control  Laboratory,  2735  E.  Slauson  Blvd., 
Los  Angeles,  Calif. 


10 


missiles  and  rockets,  September  28,  1959 


ENGINEERS  examine  gleaming  rocket  test  chambers  fabricated  by  using  unique  strip 
winding  and  spot  welding  techniques  developed  by  Ryan  for  use  in  Polaris  program. 


Ryan  Gets  Contract  for 
Polaris  Rocket  Chambers 


some  normal  processing  methods,  after 
which  it  was  discovered  that  a  smaller, 
more  homogenous  grain  structure  had 
been  achieved.  Almost  700  tests  were 
thereafter  conducted,  and  the  results 
correlated.  The  best  methods  were  then 
chosen  from  this  data,  commensurate 
with  tensile  results,  yield  strength, 
elongation,  reduction  of  area,  and  a 
90°  minimum  bend  test. 

Bassett  proceeded  on  the  grounds 
that  iron  and  other  element  metals  are 
much  stronger  in  the  form  of  perfect 
crystals,  and  that  this  strength  arises 
from  the  way  in  which  atoms  are  uni- 
formly distributed  throughout  the  crys- 
tal, leaving  no  weak  links.  When  crys- 
tallographic  studies  reveal  that  their 
iso-polar  process  influences  the  forma- 
tion of  an  ultrafine  and  uniform  grain, 
a  tential  stress  applied  in  testing  then- 
parts  with  an  equal  elastic  response 
occurring,  the  load  is  apparently  evenly 
distributed.  Additionally,  they  are  free 
of  heterogenous-sized  grains,  which 
serve  as  stress  concentrations. 

A  good  deal  of  the  work  thus  far 
conducted  by  RDCA  has  been  re- 
stricted by  limited  facilities,  but  large 
enough  pieces  have  been  processed  to 
show  that  results  do  not  vary  with  the 
size  of  the  workpiece.  The  company's 
furnace  has  a  guaranteed  control  of 
±5°,  an  excellent  dew-point  control 
system  (molecular  sieve,  gas  cooled  to 
-100°F.),  and  all  parts  are  heated  in 
an  atmosphere  which  prevents  the  sur- 
face from  oxidizing  or  reducing. 

•  Help  with  titanium — Fatigue  life 
in  type  431  stainless  steel  is  around 
14.6%,  says  RDCA,  while  the  Bassett 
process  consistently  achieves  a  50.8% 
fatigue  life.  Size  effect  is  eliminated, 
enabling  large  sections  to  harden.  Be- 
cause of  the  excellent  dispersion  of 
carbides  in  the  process,  oxidation  is 
slowed  and  there  is  more  general  re- 
sistance to  all  types  of  corrosion.  The 
notch  sensitivity  of  many  alloys,  titan- 
ium and  stainless  steel  in  particular, 
is  greatly  improved. 

Also  noteworthy  is  the  Bassett  pro- 
cess' effect  on  the  glamor  metal,  titan- 
ium. Heat  treatment  of  this  metal  is 
difficult,  and  reproducibility  is  often 
unattained.  It  is  frequently  impossible 
to  meet  strength  requirements,  or  if 
these  requirements  are  met,  ductility 
suffers.  The  RDCA  process  provides 
240,000  psi  with  an  elongation  of 
11.5%,  and  guarantees  reproducibility. 
RDCA  says  machinability  doubles. 

More  common  metals  show  similar 
results:  280,000  psi  steels  such  as  4340 
are  now  317,000  psi  with  the  same 
good  usable  properties:  Chrome  die 
steels  are  now  over  325,000  psi  with 
about  13.3%  elongation  and  37.4% 
reduction  of  area,  compared  with 
former  levels  of  280,000  psi,  7% 
elongation  and  25%  reduction  in  area. 


San  Diego — Ryan  Aeronautical 
Company  has  been  awarded  a  contract 
to  fabricate  full-size  chambers  for  the 
solid-rocket  propellant  of  the  Navy's 
submarine-launched  Polaris  missile. 

The  order  from  the  Navy  Bureau 
of  Ordnance,  announced  by  company 
president  T.  Claude  Ryan,  disclosed 
that  the  firm  has  been  developing  a 
unique  welded  "strip-winding"  tech- 
nique while  performing  research  on  an 
earlier  phase  of  this  project,  in  which 
many  sub-scale  model  chambers  were 
built  in  recent  months. 

Paper-thin  steel  alloys  of  great 
strength  were  used,  a  company  spokes- 
man reported,  and  tests  simulated  the 
enormous  internal  pressures  encoun- 
tered in  the  Polaris  rocket  motor.  The 
cylinders  reportedly  showed  they  could 
withst